AD's English Literature : September 2011

William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra: Dramatic Significance of the Political Background




The political background of  English dramatist William Shakespeare's tragedy , Antony and Cleopatra is manifest from the very beginning of the play and its quite natural being  a historical drama. As we all know the story is based on the intertwined lives of Roman general Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt from 51 to 30 bc. For his account of the characters and times, Shakespeare used Sir Thomas North's 1579 translation of Greek biographer Plutarch's Parallel Lives. The very first act of the play shows the internal political situation at Rome consequent upon Antony’s dotage on Queen Cleopatra of Egypt at Alexandria. The play opens in Alexandria, Egypt, where Antony rules the Roman Empire with Octavius Caesar (later the emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Although Antony and Cleopatra are already lovers, Antony has returned to Rome from Egypt and married Octavius’s sister, Octavia, in order to assuage Octavius’s misgivings about his leadership capabilities. However, Antony is drawn inexorably toward Egypt and Cleopatra, and he soon abandons his wife to return there. Octavius Caesar is enraged and declares war on Antony. In the very first scene of Act. I. we are made aware of the basic tragic situation against the huge backdrop of Roman politics. Demetrius and Philo; two Romans we found in this scene to discuss Antony’s peculiar dotage on Cleopatra much to the detriment of Roman political interests of the triple pillar of the world. Then Antony and Cleopatra enter and Antony refuses to see the messenger from Rome. The political interest is openly denigrated for love’s infatuation, which ultimately will ruin the soldier and statesman that Antony was. This act also shows very clearly the contrast and conflict between the two greats of the Roman Triumvirate – Antony, generous and affectionate and Octavius Caesar, his rival, cold and severe.

While the internal politics of Rome haunts Antony and, therefore, the play, from beginning to end, Antony in the toils of Cleopatra brings two world empires, of Rome and Egypt, into a head-on conflict at many levels of the play so that the political backdrop is extended from the internal to the external world – in fact, it envelops ultimately the whole civilized world known to the play. Shakespeare very brilliantly utilized this basic political situation to rear up the tragic structure of his great play where round the fantastic and the hero of the play “is caught between the duel and mutually destructive sources of his pride, power in Rome and pleasure in Egypt”.

            In order to appreciate fully the impact of politics in the play, it is necessary to refer to Shakespeare’s source which was Plutarch’s, Life of Antony. As per Plutarch, the political-historical situation covered by the play extended over a period of about ten years, from 40 B.C. to 30 B. C. Mark Antony, born 82 B. C. began his soldier-ship about 58 B. C. and accompanied Julius Caesar in various campaigns. He married Fulvia, the widow of notorious Clodius, in 45 B. C. and became a Consul along with Julius Caesar in 44 B. C. on great Caesar’s death, Antony came to terms with the former’s adopted son, Octavius Caesar, despite his other ambitions. The second triumvirate comprising Antony, Octavius and Lepidus was formed in 43 B. C. and it successfully suppressed the rebellion of Brutus and Cassius in the East. While setting things in the East, Antony first met Cleopatra at Tarsus in 41 B. C. and spent the winter with her at Alexandria.

            During Antony’s absence, his Roman interests were looked after by his wife, Fulvia, who very soon clashed with Antony’s brother, Lucius. (About 41 B.C) Subsequently both of them rebelled unsuccessfully against Octavius as a result of which Fulvia with her children had to leave Italy only to die at Sicyon after meeting Antony at Athens on the way feeling perhaps mortally sick of her great husband’s unforgivable faithfulness. (40 B. C. approx).

            It is at this point that Shakespeare’s play opens. In this year the famous treaty of Brundisium was made encompassing a whole political arrangement based on mutual compassing a whole political arrangement based on mutual compromise between the Triumvirates. This treaty was immediately followed by marriage of Antony and Octavia, sister of Octavius Caesar. The treaties provided for Lepidus’ retention of African possessions, Antony’s supremacy in the East and his undertaking of Parthian wars and the rule of the West by Octavius who was to stop the piracy of Pompeius.

            Antonym after making an unsuccessful attempt to subdue Parthia in 36 B. C., spent a year with Cleopatra and then overran Armenia, an ally of Parthia. Contended thus, he returned to Alexandria only to outrage Roman sentiments by his impolitic assignment of Eastern countries to Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. This partically undid the earlier efforts (in 38 B. C.) of the Roman statesman. Maecenas, to bridge the widening gulf between Antony and Octavius Caesar and hastened the final show-down between the two greats of the Triumvirate ending in the establishment of Imperial Rule in Rome. The last stage of this armed confrontation occupies the latter half of Shakespeare’s play. The play in fact includes the naval action off Actium (31 B. C.), the subsequent fighting at Alexandria and the death of Antony and Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt, in 30 B. C.

            Thus we see the play begins with heavy political overtone and ends as a sequel to a long political battle of Roman history, which finally led to the establishment of the great Roman Empire. The internal political situation is characterized by Fulvia’s clashes first with Lucius, Antony’s brother and then jointly with Lucius, against Octavius Caesar, leading to her death in Sicyon, bereft of political power and her husband’s love. The Roman political scene is present throughout in Egypt is continually present in Rome through the artistry of Shakespeare. The most pathetic figure in this political contest is that of Octavia, who witnesses the fight between her brother and her husband, and bemoans “as if the world should cleave, and that slain men/ Should solder up the rift”. The political background also helps to heighten the difference between the Roman and Egyptian styles of living. While the dazzling Egyptian world presents a unified conception of love and zest for life, the shallow Roman world of the play despite its splendour and glory, shows up blatant contradictions in its decadent state. Amidst these ideas, Antony seems to occupy a middle ground creating there a magnificent lover’s world which is more than a match for the Roman empire that serves as its appropriate background with all its politics of vaulting ambition and nefarious interests. Shakespeare never forgets this immense political background and that is why in this play he neither adds nor alters, any incident of major political importance and omits very few. 

A Brief Introduction to Percy Bysshe Shelley's 'To a Skylark'


Introduction: English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley becomes known as one of the greatest lyric poets of English literature. Among his best-known poems are 'To a Skylark' and 'To the West Wind.' Like acting or the playing of music, it is an art of interpretation, more difficult than mare saying so. Percy Bysshe Shelley, the supreme lyric in the romantic period, always longs for something ethereal, something that is far beyond the earthly, spare of sorrow. His ‘To a Skylark’ as Wordsworth puts in “the expression of the highest to which the poets genius has attained”. It is one of the most marvelous of English lyric ever written. It is the expression of a genius who sings In profuse strains of unpremeditated art.

In fact, some recent scholars have attributed the modern ideas of personality to the Romantic poets, whose focus on personal, emotional, and subjective experience may have given rise to our notions of individuality. The discussion that follows makes clear the fact that poetic license permits the maker of verses to do a number of things. Among them are:

(1)   Contractions for the sake of swing, or meter.

O'er which clouds are bright'ning

(2)   Quaint or obsolete expressions.

Methinks

(3)   Poetic forms of words.

Pale purple even

(4)   One part of speech for another.

The deep blue thou livingest

(5)   Inversion

Bird thou never wert

Figures of speech.

As a figure of speech is a departure from the literal statement for the sake of affectiveness, students ought to be familiar with the most used figures:

Simile, metaphor, personification, and alliteration.

This poem offers material for a good ten-minute discussion of these.

Simile                                            Metaphor

Like a cloud of fire.                   Golden lightnings.
Like an unbodied joy.                Silver sphere.
Like a star.                                 Intense lamp.
Keen as are the arrows.              Rain of melody.
Like a poet hidden.                     Light of thought.
Like a high-born maiden.           Glow-worm golden.
Music sweet as love.                   Flood of rapture.
Like a glow-worm golden.         Fountains.
Like a rose.                                Crystal stream.

Alliteration

Singing still dost soar, and soaring ever singest.

Sunken sun.

Glow-worm golden in a
Sweetest songs are those /that tell of saddest thought.

Apostrophe

Hail to thee, blithe spirit.

Teach us, bird or sprite.

Thou scorner of the ground.

Personification

Heavy-winged thieves.


Joy , Eternal Joy! The skylark is eternally joyous and its song is the expression of ideal joy. The poem conceives the skylark as an eternal beauty – possessing the vision denied to earth bound men. The poet keeps inspiration from his vision to reveal ideal truth to mankind so that the people of the world could listens spellbound to his divine song. This is cry that wells out of the trouble  heart of the poet and gives such a sweetness to the lyric.

                The poem illustrated poet's soaring idealism, intensity of thought and feeling and vividness of thought . It is matchless in colour, splendour, imagery and sweetness of melody.

In Shelley's hands that old trick of the poets, the simile, takes on a new and surprising form. He does not enforce the creations of his imagination by the analogy of natural appearances ; his instinct is just the opposite to describe and illumine nature by a reference to the creatures of thought. Other poets, Keats for instance, or Tennyson, or the older poets like Dante and Homer, might compare ghosts flying from an enchanter like leaves flying before the wind. They might describe a poet wrapped up in his dreams as being like a bird singing invisible in the brightness of the sky. But Shelley can write of the west wind as " Before whose unseen presence the leaves, dead, Are driven like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing." and he can describe a skylark in the heavens as “Like a poet hidden In the light of thought." Of all English poets he is the most completely lyrical. Nothing that he wrote but is wrought out of the anguish or joy of his own heart. " Most wretched souls,' he writes” Are cradled into poetry by wrong They learn in suffering what they teach in song." Perhaps his work is too impalpable and moves in an air too rarefied. It sometimes lacks strength. It fails to take grip enough of life. Had he lived he might have given it these things; there are signs in his last poems that he would have given it. But he could hardly have bettered the sheer and triumphant lyricism of The Skylark, of some of his choruses, and of the Ode to Dejection, and of the Lines written on the Eugencen hills. His work has one message and one only, the lastingness of beauty and its supreme truth. It is stated in Endymion in lines that are worn bare with quotation. It is stated again, at the height of his work in his greatest ode, " Beauty is truth, truth beauty: that is all

We know on earth and all we need to know.'


Structure of the poem

 There are twenty-one stanzas.  Lets break up into the following sections with running notes:


I-VI: Description of the lark rising in song; in the sky unseen; song keenly clear and piercing; overflows heaven.

VH-XH: What thou art most like: rainbow clouds; poet's songs; maiden's love song; glow-worm's light; rose's fragrance; vernal showers.

XHI-XIV: Teach us thy thoughts: better than song of love or wine; or wedding chorus; or triumphal chant.

XV-XVII: What has inspired thy song? Love without satiety; what dost thou know?

XVIII-XIX: Compared with our attitude toward life; our songs. Could we appreciate the joy of the lark, if we knew no sorrow?

XX-XXI: The lark's lyrical power better than music or poetry to the poet. Writer wishes for the lark's power, to write poems that should stir the whole world, as the lark stirs the listener.

Suggestive questions.

*      What form of subjective poetry is To a Skylark?
*      What about the bird makes Shelley call it a spirit? Does it think out its song beforehand? What is a characteristic of its flight? How does the poet describe that?
*      For what word is deep used? How does the poet describe sunset?
*      What is poetic in the line, Pale purple even?
*      Why the moon is called silver sphere?
*      What are the arrows? To what does lamp refer?
*      What would be the prose order of the line in the white dawn clear? Why does the poet use this arrangement?
*      Note the various ways by which the writer makes us feel the piercing quality of the song.
*      Describe in your own words the pictures of sunset, twilight, the moon just before dawn, the moon peeping out from behind a cloud.
*      Which line in the seventh stanza is a natural question after the second line of the first stanza, Bird thou never wert?
*      What is most like the lark? What is a rainbow? Its cause? What picture does "From rainbow clouds there flow not/Drops so bright to see” make in your mind?
*      Why has poetry been able to stir men's minds and souls? To make them sympathize with things they had not heeded before?
*      What effect does the singing of hymns have on people?
*      How does the poet describe the love song? In what does it recall the Middle Ages? Or stories of knights and ladies?
*      What is the aerial hue of the glow-worm?
*      What name is applied to the winds for stealing the fragrance of the rose?
*      Why is twinkling grass? Why rain-awakened flowers? How does this stanza rise to a climax in assertion? Look back and name the details that describe the lark's song as joyous and clear and fresh.
*      Teach us, sprite or bird spirit or bird. Does the poet go too far in attributing spiritual qualities to the lark? What two words stand for wedding song?
*      How does the poet express the idea, "There would be something lacking?" How does the poet say, "Of what would you sing? What inspires you?
*      “Love of nature, love of friends and family, mere joy of living, these are sources of song! Note how the poet says that listlessness will not mingle with joy. What can be the source of the lark's crystal song?

Ardhendu De

Edward Sapira- The Leader in American Structural Linguistics


Edward Sapir was a German-born American anthropologist-linguist and a leader in American structural linguistics. His name is borrowed in what is now called the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis. He was a highly influential figure in American linguistics, influencing several generations of linguists across several schools of the discipline. Following the methods developed by Boas; Sapir gave up his work in classical philology and started analyzing languages of Amerindian tribes. In their pioneering research on unwritten American native languages, anthropologists Franz Boas and Edward Sapir developed the techniques of descriptive linguistics and theorized on the ways in which language shapes our perceptions of the world.

James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young: The epigraph, Bildungsroman,The Christmas dinner, Episodes in the early life of Stephen, Daedalus myth, Charles Stewart Parnell, Stephen’s mother


 The epigraph of A portrait of the Artist As A young Man:

This Latin epigraph is taken over from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, VIII, 188 means ‘And he applies his mind to obscure arts’.
The epigraph sums up the theme of the novel. The mythic Daedalus escaped himself from the labyrinth of crete forming wax wings. Stephen Dedalus, too, is out to emancipate himself from labyrinth like Ireland with which he is disgusted. Evidently he will escape himself from there not by was wings but by ‘viewless wings’ of imagination. So the aim of the mythic Dadalus and Stephen Dedalus are alike.

Critical Short Questions From Bates's story "The Ox"


Q. WHAT IS THE SYMBOLIC IMPORTANCE OF BI CYCLE IN THE OX  ?

ANS: The bi-cycle is the symbol of sole companionship for Mrs. Thurlow . She dreams about it and cannot walk without it. The bi-cycle is an object that externalizes the sway of emotions that lie suppressed in her.

Q. what is the symbolic significance of Mrs. Thurlow's cottage?

Ans: The location of Mrs. Thurlow's house and the movement of seasons   are all symbolic of a symbolic image of the human condition of gloom, despair,isolation and suffering where someone like Mrs. Thurlow symbolizes a Sisyphus-like existentialist fortitude and stoicism which makes her go on amid all the misery.

Rhythm, Meter and Scansation of the Poem



 Like the rhythms in nature, such as the motion of the planets, the succession of seasons, and the beating of the heart, poetic rhythm usually is organized in regularly recurring patterns. Such patterns regulate the motion of the music and aid the human ear in grasping its structure. The most basic rhythmic unit is the Iambic pentameter, alternates weak unstressed and strong stressed syllables to make a ten-syllable line (weak strong/weak strong/weak strong/weak strong/weak strong).

 iamb-- x / . . . . . . . . . (adjective form = iambic)
trochee-- / x . . . . . . . . (adjective form = trochaic)
anapest-- x x / . . . . . . . (adjective form = anapestic)
dactyl-- / x x . . . . . . . . (adjective form = dactylic)
pyrrhic-- x x . . . . . . . . (adjective form = pyrrhic)
spondee-- / / . . . . . . . . (adjective form = spondaic)

dimeter  --two feet per line
trimeter --three feet per line
tetrameter   --four feet per line
pentameter  --five feet per line
hexameter--six feet per line
heptameter --seven feet per line
octameter  --eight feet per line

Character and Role of Fitzwilliam Darcy in Jane Austen‘s novel Pride and Prejudice

           
Fitzwilliam Darcy is the hero of Jane Austen‘s novel Pride and Prejudice. The ups and downs in the romance between Darcy and Elizabeth form the principal interest of the novel. The pride of Darcy gives rise to the Prejudice of Elizabeth and the complications of the plot are due to the increasing prejudice of Elizabeth against Darcy. Most interestingly with the mingling of positive and negative traits, Darcy seems deeply human. 

Chance and Coincidence: Thomas Hardy's Far from the Madding crowd-A Wanton Field of Destiny


Hardy in a fatalist and to him destiny is always hostile to mankind. Fate acts according to its own whims in the form of chances, accidents and coincidences. Hardy thinks that the expected happy reality; the unexpected happens suddenly. The fate of his characters especially the hero or the heroine depends on the working of fate. In far from the Madding crowd there are number of events which make the characters to place them in the odd situation from which they have no way to get out. Chance in its purely malevolent aspect enters our life and spoils it, brings trails and tribulations, sorrows and sufferings, pain and agony in its train. What is the use of being play thing in the hands of “the President of the Immortals”.Hardy's novel Far from the Madding crowd is also a wanton field of destiny.

Plot Structure of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen


Jane Austen at a considerable skill in constructing her plots which were simple plans of novels the plans for telling her story the way she would like too. Read More Novel The plot of the novel Pride and Prejudice turns on the development of love between Darcy and Elizabeth and its final culmination in marriage Jane Austen has shown remarkable dramatic scene in exhibiting the different stages of growth of pride and prejudice of the hero and the heroine and their final self knowledge which cure their feelings. 

INDIANNESS IN “THE MAN EATER OF MALGUDI” (1961)


What Chaucer has done in the 14th century England in his Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, Pope in the 18th century in his Rope of the Lock and Tennyson in the 19th century England in his poems, R. K. Narayan has done the same in his novels of the 20th century India. His novels are the miniature form of India. We find everything what are typically Indian in his novel as his novels are blessed with ‘Bharat Darshan’. The idiosyncratic, likeable Indian characters in Narayan’s novels and the mythic town of Malgudi that he created as the setting of his ‘Man Eater of Malgudi’ are well known all over the world.

Katherine Mansfield’s “The Fly” : As a Short Story



Modern short story has grown mere or to the lyric and close to the psychological mood-poem. Katherine Mansfield’s short story “The Fly” is a case in point. It has the minimum of story in its shaping. Read More Short Stories It radically differs from the conventional short story in its mechanics of presentation. In it the treatment is not clear and logical enough. It offers a sympathetic insight into human soul in a moment of shock relying on atmosphere and suggestion. Read More Short Stories It has not plot and technique it is akin to the “stream of consciousness method” of fiction.

The Structural Approach to the Teaching of English: the Possible Grounds for Dissatisfaction


The structural approach to the teaching of English is technique by which students are taught to master the pattern of sentences. In the words of Menon and Patel, the structural approach is based on the belief that in the learning of a foreign language, mastery of structures is more important than the acquisition of vocabulary. This approach employs techniques of the direct method of teaching. Speech is mainly stressed bat reading and writing is not neglected. The structural approach is not a method in the strict sense of the term. It is an approach, a technique, a device which can be used to put into practice any method successfully. It is a way to teach English by using only of the traditional method like grammar translation or direct method etc. According to Prof. B. D. Srivastava, “The structural approach is, in fact, the situational approach of language teaching"

According to Menon and Patel the following are the objectives of the new structural approach:
1. To lay the foundation of English by establishing through drill and repetition about 275 graded structures.
2. To enable the children to attain mastery over an essential vocabulary of about 3000 root words for active use.
3. To correlate the teaching of grammar and composition with the reading lesson.
4. To teach the four fundamental skills, namely understanding, speaking, reading and writing in the order names.
5. To lay proper emphasis on the aural – oral approach, activity methods and the condemnation of formal grammar for its own sake.


Prof. F. G. French has entitled the following principles underlying the structural Approach:
1. Importance of framing language Habits – The structural approach lays stress on the importance of forming language habit, particularly the habit of forming words in English.
2. Importance of speech – The structural approach is based on the principle of effective used of speech.
 3. Importance pupil’s activity – The structural approach is based on the principles of the pupils’ activity. The importance of pupil’s activity rather than the activity of the teacher is the sure way to learning English.
4. The principle of oral work – Oral work is the sheet anchor of the structural approach. Oral work is the basis and all the rest are built up from it.
5. Each language has its own grammar – Instead of teaching grammar of the target language and its structures are to be taught. Each language has its own grammar.

The structural approach makes use of the following features for teaching the language.

 Word order – Word order or the patterns of form is very important in English language. Each word in ascertain arrangement has a fixed place which can not be changed. If we do so, we distort the meaning, considering the following arrangements -

a)      Ram killed a snake
b)      A snake killed Ram.
    
 The presence of Function words Function words are structural words. They function as the structural links. Function words help in modifying meaning consider the following sentences –
a) I kill a snake.
b) I am killing a snake.
c) I shall kill a snake.
d) I have killed a snake.
e) I have to kill a snake.
The use of a few Inflections: Another important characteristic is that English language makes used of an inflection as compared to other languages. Inflection changes are prominent in the following examples:
a)      In verbs; I play; he plays; I am playing; I played.
b)      In Nouns: One boy; two boys; one man.
c)      In adjective and adverb.
i)                    great –greater – greatest.
ii)                   Great –greatly.


  1. The structural approach has limited application. It is best suited for the early stage of teaching English.
  2. The structural approach ever emphasizes oral work and speech manipulation. There is blind repetition of structural items during oral teaching.
  3. The approach ignores reading and writing children fail to expand their language acquisition.
  4. This approach fails to exploit children’s mother tongue.
  5. The proper working out of the structural approach requires efficient teachers. There is acute dearth of such teachers.
  6. It is not practicable in Indian schools.
  7. It will not help cover the syllabus.
Ardhendu De

Ref : Methods of Teaching English  by M.  E.  S.  Elizabeth 


The Man Eater of Malgudi: Sketching the character of H. Vasu


H. Vasu like Iago in Shakespeare’s ‘Othello’, Healthcliffe in Emile Bronte’s ‘Withering Heights’, Voss in Patrick White’s ‘Voss’ “is the prince of darkness and in darkness his activities are to be conducted”. He has been called ‘man-eater’, ‘terrifying’, ‘unreasonable’, ‘man with the dark halo’, ‘cruel’, ‘rakshasha’, ‘arrogant by implication’ and one who laughs ‘diabolically’. Vasu, a gigantic ex-circus “trong-man”, is farther attributed as wild animal hunter and a taxidermist.

Analysis of the chatacters of Cathleen and Nora as chorus in J.M. Synge's Riders to the Sea


Before we set our discussion on Nora and Cathleen as a choric element in Synge’s play, Riders to the Sea, it is better to pip into the chorus first. Chorus, the term, used originally by the ancient Greeks in Attic drama of the 6th and 5th centuries bc, is a group of singers and dancers who take part in a drama and are accompanied by music. Being independent from the crux of the action they represent as objective observer, commentator, author’s point of view and even a conscience of the audience. Since its first use as a dramatic convention chorus do have many changes depending upon the dramatist’s purpose. However, the main elements remain more or less the same.

Robert Browning’s treatment of human psychology and attitude to life reflected in : Two in the Campagna and The Laboratory


“Through out my life I have learned to love. Love is the Summum bonum of my life”. – says Robert Browning in a letter to his friend. And what he says here constitutes the philosophy he wishes to advocate in all his poems. Browning’s philosophy is optimistic, heartening and cheering. He is a poet of hope, joy faith, and immortality of soul, invincibility of good and supremacy of God. The best of his poems: The Last Ride Together, A Grammarian’s Funeral, Fralippo Lippi, Pophyria’s Lover etc. been ample evidence of his philosophic outlook. As a dramatic monologue, Browning’s  poem Two In The Campagna sheds light on another facts of his philosophy of life, namely ‘an instant cannot be made eternal’, while poems like Porphyria’s Lover and Andrea Del Sarto strongly uphold the poet’s apposite point of view that instant can be made eternal. In Two In the Campagna, Browning holds just the opposite view, stressing the ever fluctuating nature of human thoughts and feeling including the moment of consummation. In fact, Browning was fully aware of the wide and varied phases of passions and thoughts. He gives an expression almost all of them in his poetry. He can point the fierce passion (Pippa Passes), the romantic love (The Last Red Together), the abnormal love (Porphyria’s Lover), married love (Meeting at Night), and so on.

“Araby” by James Joyce is a Realistic Short Story with Symbolic Overtones

“Araby” is one of the fifteen short stories that together make up Joyce’s collection, Dubliners {Published 1914}. It is the most typical of Joyce’s short stories and is told from the perspective of a boy just on the verge of adolescence in that it is more like prose – lyric or psychological mood – poem. It relies more on symbolic suggestions than on straight forward narration. It is essentially poetic in tone and texture in spite of the occasional jarring notes provided by its shabby realistic setting. Read More Short Stories Realism and romantic vision coexist in it and form its very stuff. It is much more than a mere story; it is a vivid waiting – waiting with baited breath for the realization of an ideal that remains ever elusive. Its symbolic design more than the rigid frame work of a conventional short story befits the mysterious working of an adolescent heart experiencing the first impulse of love that ends in utter frustration. Symbolically the boy’s failure in love suggests the universal non-realization of the human ideal. Araby concentrates on character rather than on plot to reveal the ironies within self-deception.

Katherine Mansfield‘s “The Fly”: Analyzing Woodifield


 The Old Triumvirate: Ketherine Mansfield has presented three old men in her story, “The Fly” – the old Boss, Old Woodifield and Old Macey. The Boss is the Central character in the story; Old Woodifield, an old and infirm man, who is only allowed to leave his house on Tuesdays and who lives with his wife and daughter, is a minor figure, but he is of much importance in the story.  He fulfills some important function in the story. Farther his story displays sensitivity to emotion by giving attention to the inner conflicts of his character.

Students' Digest - William Shakespeare's AS YOU LIKE IT

 As You Like It,(Written and performed about 1599 and first published in 1623) five-act comedy by English playwright and poet William Shakespeare, with its engaging characters, situations, and mix-ups, delights the theater goers. Based on the prose romance Rosalynde (1590) by Thomas Lodge, a pastoral romance of the sentimental type, Shakespeare’s As You Like It becomes a portrait of innocence rural life as well as a satire on the conventional sentimental pastoral comedy. Again Shakespeare transforms Lodge's sentimental Rosalynde into the witty, strong, and warm-hearted main character Rosalind

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