AD's English Literature : July 2012

Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Somerset Maugham’s" The Lotus Eater": Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts


 Difficulty Level:  Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30 

  1. Why does the narrator in The Lotus Eater compare most people to tramcars?
  1. Who is called ‘Lotus Eater’? Why is he so called?
  1. Why did the narrator in the Lotus Eater feel interested in Thomas Wilson?
  1. It was on the Piazza in Capri, where I was spending the month of August at a friend’s villa- What is Piazza? Where is Capri?
  1. Describe the dress of Wilson when the author Somerset Maugham first met him.
  1. How did Wilson first appear to the writer, Somerst Maugham?
  1. Her eyes, large and liquid, were the eyes of Hera- Who is referred to in this line? Who was Hera?
  1. I think you story as just the Capri title lattle- Who is the speaker? What is the story referred to here?
  1. I should remark here that this was in 1913- Who is the speaker? What does he indicate by saying this?
  1. I fell in love with the place at first sight – Who feel in love? What was the place?
  1. If people only knew! It’s the most priceless thing a man can have – Who said this and where? What is the most priceless thing referred to here?
  1. How long was Wilson been staying at Capri when the writer of The lotus Eater first meets him?
  1. What was Wilson before he came to stay permanently at Capri?
  1. How did wife and the daughter of Wilson die?

Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts: "Freedom" by George Bernard Shaw


 Difficulty Level: Post Graduation        Time: 1hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30 


  1. What is a perfectly free person? – How does Shaw answer this question?

  1. These natural job can not be shirked – What natural jobs are referred to by the speaker in this line?

  1. What, according to Shaw, should be the object of all honest governments?

  1. But the newspapers assure you that you vole has decided the election and than this constitutes you a free citizen’s– Where does the sentence occur and what does it mean in its context?

  1. The slavery of man to man is the very opposite of this. It is hateful to the body and to the spirit – Where does this pan age occur and what does it signify?

  1. …………………..We are told that all our miseries are our own doing? How are all our miseries our own doing?

  1. How is Nature, according to Shaw, kind to her slaves?

Monday, July 30, 2012

Model Question Paper 2 English Literature Literary Texts: "ARMS AND THE MAN" by George Barnard Shaw


 Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  

 1. What do you know of Catherine Petkoff from the first Act of ‘Arms and The Man’?
2. Comment on the title of the play ‘Arms and The Man’.
3. Critical comment on the title?
4. Is ‘Arms and The Man’ a ‘drama of ideas’?
5. What does Raina do with the portrait of Sergius in her bedroom?
6. When does Bluntschli say, ‘a narrow shame, but a miss as good as a mite”- Why does he say so?
7. Why does Bluntschli speak about Sergius ads a ‘Don Quixote at a windmill’?
8. Why do young solders carry pistols and cartridge and the old ones ‘grub’? Is there any military significance in it?
9. How does Raina soave Bluntschli? 

Model Question Paper 3 English Literature Literary Texts: "ARMS AND THE MAN" by George Barnard Shaw


 Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  


1. Why does Bluntschli say that the Bulgarian officers send for their wives to keep discipline?
2. Why did Raina tell the story of ice pudding? What was its effect on the persons who heard it?
3. Why did Sergius challenge Bluntschli duel? 
4. Why did Sergius refuse to fight later?
5. Why does Louka say is not ashamed of eaves dropping?
6. What did Raina do with her photograph?
7. What part does Riana’s photograph play is the drama ‘Arms and The Man’?
8. When and why does Sergius say Petkoff that the world is not such a innocent place?
9. When and why does Louka say, ‘that touch makes me your affianced wife’?

Model Question Paper 4 English Literature Literary Texts: ARMS AND THE MAN by George Barnard Shaw


Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  


1. Yes; that’s the secret of success in service- Who says this?
2. You touch a button: something tinkles in the kitchen; and then Nicola comes up – Who says this and to whom? What is the thing referred to in this speech?
3. It was the cradle and the grave of my military reputation.- Who says this and to whom? What does it signify?
4. I suppose soldiering has to be a trade life any other trade. – Who is the speaker? What does he mean by it?
5. That is the whole secret of successful fighting- What, according to the speaker, is the secret of successful fighting?
6. I think we two have found the higher love- Who is the speaker? To whom is the spoken? What is higher love?
7. As for her she’s a liar and her fine air are a cheat- Who is the speaker? Of whom is this said?
8. Oh! If I had him here, I’d cram him with chocolate creams till he couldn’t ever speak again! – Who is meant by ‘him’? Why does the speaker mention ‘Chocolate creams’?
9. I don’t care whether he finds out about ‘the chocolate cream soldier’? Why is he called so?
10. Sergius: Raina is mistaken about your friend who was burnt. He was not my informant. – Whose friend was burnt? Who was then the informant?
 11. Age is beginning to tell on me. I’m getting hallucinations- Who say this? What are the occasions of the utterance?
12. What an army! They make cannons out of cherry trees: - Who is speaker? Why does he say?
13. If pity is akin to love, gratitude is akin to the other things- Who says this? What is the significance of this utterance?
14. Dear young lady: isn’t that rather a short allowance? –Who says this and to whom? What is the short allowance?
15. How did you find me out? - Who has found out whom? What is it that has been found out? 
16. You have a low shop-keeping mind- Who says this and to whom? Why has such a remark been made?
17. I get rid of being a servant occasionally– Explain the meaning of the speech is not more than two sentences. What is Louka’s estimate of Nicola?
18. Sell your manhood for 30 lavas and by me for 10? – Who says this and to whom what does the utterance signify?
19. He has beaten you in love – HE may beat you in war. – Who is the speaker? Who will be at whom and now?
20. You’ve no magnetism: you’re not a man: you’re a machine. – Who says this and to whom? On what occasion does he say this?

Conrad’s "Heart of Darkness"": Few Brief Sketches



Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (published 1902)

The name of the boat on which Marlow narrated his tale: The name of the cruising yawl is veiled and it was anchored in the sea-beach of the Thames.

The persons listening to Marlow’s tale: Other than the narrator Charlie Marlow, the others listening to the tale on the Neille were the Director of the companies who was also the captain and host, the Lawyer, the accountant and finally the frame narrator.

The prime narrator describing Marlow’s posture: Marlow is described as a man with sunken cheeks, a yellow complexion, a straight back, an ascetic attitude and sitting cross-legged with the palms of hands outwards, resembling an idol. The prime narrator also describes him as having the pose of a Buddha preaching in European clothes and without a lotus flower. The resemblance to Buddha is repeated throughout the novel, and suggests that yellow too has received enlightenment and that he too has a mission to preach. In his case the enlightenment is the one regarding the evil talent in the human heart.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

Critical Purview of Romanticism: Renaissance of Wonder, Subjectivity, Emotional and Imaginative , Free Human Spirit

The term ' Romanticism ' has been variously defined by different critics Walter Pater calls it ' the addition of strangeness to beauty '. Watts Dunton defines it as the renaissance of wonder. Abercrombie, on the other hand, stresses the subjective element of romanticism, and writes, ' Romanticism is a withdrawal outer experience to concentrate upon inner experience '. Legouis and Cazamian emphasize both the emotional and imaginative aspects of romanticism and point out the ' accented predominance of emotional life, provoked and directed by the exercise of the imaginative vision '. The Romantic Movement, says W. J. Long, ' was marked and is always marked by a strong reaction and protest against the bondage of rule and custom which in science and theology as well as in literature, generally tend to fetter the free human spirit '. So victor Hugo rightly defines romanticism as ' liberalism in literature '.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 25 (Indo-European Language Family)



A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1.Indo-European Language Family is the most widely spoken family of languages in the world covering more or less 1.6 billion speakers. 

2.No written records or solid archaeological evidence of the Indo-European tribe.

3.Indo-European Language Family: Comparative Languages: Albanian, Armenian, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo-Iranian, Italic (including the Romance languages), Slavic, and two extinct subfamilies, Anatolian (including Hittite) and Tocharian.)

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 26


 
A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

Widsith means   ' wide traveler’

Lollard Movement:  Originally a movement group of oxford followers of the unorthodox doctrines of John Wycliffe in the fourteenth century.

The Lollard Movement continued till the Sixteenth century.

Their main demands were for freely available vernacular translations of the Bible, and a reduction in the materialism and powers of the Catholic Church.


In the golden treasury of Elizabethan poetry The Sonnet as a poetical type is of the utmost significance. 

Model Question Paper 1 English Literature Literary Texts: ARMS AND THE MAN by George Barnard Shaw


Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30
ARMS AND THE MAN by     George Barnard Shaw

1. What is the significance of the title, ‘Arms and The Man’?
2. ‘The Man is not a conventional stage soldier’-why?
3. Is the setting of ‘Arms and The Man’ Ruritanian?
4. What is the ‘romantic view of war’?
5. What lesson did Sergius learn from the realities of war?
6. What is a Turkish ottoman?
7. Write a note on ‘Byron’. (Act-i)
8. Write a note on Pushkin (Act-i)
9. What do you understand by ‘Don Quixote at the windmills’?
10. What is Ernani?
11. Why did Raina mention of ‘Ernani’ to a man?
12. What is Byronism?
13. Who is Childe Harold?

Michael Drayton’s- "Since there's no Help, come let us kiss and part” : Critical Appreciation


 "Since there's no Help, come let us kiss and part”
                                       Michael Drayton                                               

Sonnet LXI: Since There's No Help
Since there's no help, come, let us kiss and part,
Nay, I have done, you get no more of me,
And I am glad, yea, glad with all my heart,
That thus so cleanly I myself can free.
Shake hands for ever, cancel all our vows,
And when we meet at any time again
Be it not seen in either of our brows
That we one jot of former love retain.
Now at the last gasp of Love's latest breath,
When, his pulse failing, Passion speechless lies,
When Faith is kneeling by his bed of death,
And Innocence is closing up his eyes,
Now, if thou wouldst, when all have giv'n him over,
From death to life thou might'st him yet recover.


Drayton’s Sonnet,"Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part" is  included   sonnet No - 61 of Drayton’s Sonnet cycle Ideas Mirror, comprising sixty three Sonnet's in all. The Sonnet is typically an Elizabethan one with remarkable grace of love and bitterness.

It is be noted in this connection That Drayton’s Sonnet - sequence of Ideas Mirror is no poetical work of very high order in poetical value , as a whole is rather mediocre . Yet the present sonnet, sonnet No -61 is highly impressive and well - executed specimen of Elizabethan sonnet. This is even estimated as the one specific sonnet that deserves to be ranked with some of Shakespeare’s best workmanship.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Understanding The Background and Intervening Years of Two World Wars: Embarking On Social Life


  
“This is not peace. It is an armistice for twenty years.” 

Marshal Foch of France on Versailles Treaty's contents after First World War

 The period of twenty five years (1914-1939) between the first world war and the beginning of the second world war offered the sharpest possible contrast to the official serenity and complacency of the Victorian era.  Victorian period, followed as it was by the equally staid Edwardian period from 1901 to 1910, made the English society feel itself permanently freed from wholesale destruction of life and devastation of property. Consequently, the First World War, with it’s over whelming anxieties, sacrifices, and disasters, came as a terrific shock to the society. The entire society had to undergo four years of suffering, and sacrifice, and only the hope that this war was a war and surely the world for democracy provided the necessary grit. Yet the war itself was not the end of the nightmare for its impact continued right till the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Major Victorian Poets and Their Contributions in the History of English Literature


The poetic temper of the Victorian Age is not materially different from that of the early 19th century. In its individualism, play of imagination, love of the picturesque, and interest in Nature and the past, it continues the romantic tradition. But in its response to the changed conditions -- political, economic, and scientific and religions -- it no doubt acquired a distinctive character of its own. The Victorian poets lived in the world of their day which looked up to them for guidance. Democracy introduced a new face; science banished God from the universe; and religion therefore had little useful role to play. Upon what platform would England stand then? Tennyson, Browning and Arnold came to her rescue. Each came out with a message of his own to reassure his readers that their doubts, distractions and fears were all right with the world. The poets turned prophets too. Victorian poetry came to be related more to life than the romantic. It is the voice of Victorian England.

Important Events in Chaucer’s Age : Hundred Year’s war, Black Death, Peasant’s Revolt, Collards Movement, and Revolutionized Language



The period from 1340-1400 is called the age of Chaucer. It was an age of transition. This transition implies a shift from medieval to the modern times. The most important events, of the time are: Hundred Year’s war, Black Death, Peasant’s Revolt, collards Movement, and Revolutionized Language.

Hundred Year’s war: The period between 1338 and 1453 is marked by Hundred Years’ War, a long succession of skirmishes and armed conflict between France and England. The War was a series of short conflicts, broken intermittently by a number of truces and peace treaties. It resulted from disputes between the ruling families of the two countries, the French Capetians and the English Plantagenets, over territories in France and the succession to the French throne. These battles were largely won by English Yeomen. These wars generated the feeling of patriotism and nationalism.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Charles Dickens’ "Great Expectation": The Ending of Great Expectations; The Significance of Wemmick's Museum; Biddy's Childhood and Physical Beauty

The Ending of the Novel Great Expectations: Dickens’ original conclusion to Great Expectation was as ‘Pip remained a solitary man' it was Bulwer Lylton who suggested the revised publicized ending which unites Pip and Estella .Dickens himself added that the story will be more acceptable through the alteration. The reconsidered ending is not only a pretty piece of writing and its appropriateness is not only merely a matter of aesthetic satisfaction. That Estella, of all people should be the daughter of Magwitch brings home to Pip, if Orlick in the sluice -house had failed to do so, that his implication in criminality is not unique but is common to all human being. At the end we find pip broken hearted and had been following Herbert to the East and returned eleven years later to Satis House where he met widowed Estella and sees" no shadow of another parting from her."

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Miracle Ice Cream -Adrienne Rich: Feminine Perspectives


Miracle Ice Cream -Adrienne Rich
Miracle's truck comes down the little avenue,
Scott Joplin ragtime strewn behind it like pearls,
and, yes, you can feel happy
with one piece of your heart.

Take what's still given: in a room's rich shadow
a woman's breasts swinging lightly as she bends.
Early now the pearl of dusk dissolves.
Late, you sit weighing the evening news,
fast-food miracles, ghostly revolutions,
the rest of your heart.

Adrienne Rich, American poet and essayist, best known for her examination of the experiences of women in society reviews Miracle Ice Cream in feminine perspectives. Apparently the title suggests that the poem focuses on a special type or special dish of ice cream. However,  the ice cream has been attributed to something really special in the speaker’s life, thus giving it the name “miracle ice cream.” In fact, Miracle Ice Cream explores love to everyday things and the development of women's roles in seeing life in her own terms.

Salient Features of the Women Characters in Charles Dickens's Great Expectation



 “It is the real unconquerable rush and energy in a character which was the supreme and quite indescribable greatness of Dickens.” … G. K. Chesterton 

Introduction: The world of Charles John Huffam Dickens’ women in Great Expectation   is mostly drawn from lower middle class life. Their Circumstances are comfortable. They are treated with kindness by their men folk and are provided with all possible comforts and nothing is expected from them but a quite discharge of their household duties. Yet they are quarrel some and ill -tempered and make all about them as uncomfortable as possible. Invariably, they are unintelligent and untaught, even imbecile. Education has done little to improve their intellect or their temper. In such presentation, Dickens is realistic, for in his days, among the poor of London, countless such specimens could easily be found. Even the language which they use is the very language which Dickens must have heard them using in the lodging -houses and slums of London.

Analysis of Arthur Miller’s "The Death of Salesman" as Essential Conflict between Public Image and the Real Personality

 
Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman was a thumping success of Broadway, New York (city). Undoubtedly, almost poetic terms the play consisted of themes and images that had a mass appeal. The play got a variety of interpretation. The reaction of scholars and drama critics was a mixed one. They have explained painstakingly why it is or is not a great play or a genuine tragedy. The tragic story of Willy Loman, an average traveling salesman much like Miller’s father has devoted his life to the pursuit of “success.” His misguided philosophy has ruined the lives of his wife and two sons. When Loman is too old to travel, he loses his job. In a series of scenes, brilliantly dramatized by the playwright, Loman relives his experiences. Eventually his mind begins to fail, and he commits suicide.

Wednesday, July 18, 2012

The Craze in Tuition: The Students’ Learning Enterprise



The craze in tuition puts the students’ learning enterprise a paralysis of the whole system. The argument in the learning process is at present such a mockery that the policy makers are saying long faces of the whims and cons in the air conditioned debate whereas the basic words that we want to share is missing forever. The points of red faced broken symptoms of the problematic intuitions is quite clear that we are heading nowhere, nothing is happening and nobody is coming for rescue except the tuition masters!

Now let’s sum up the situations of the students at the college education:

Apathy at Teaching: The teaching method  in higher education in the Indian  universities is to lectures and writing down the words of their instructors. But the large numbers of students  are never instructed in a formal and very organized manner. The teacher should presents his or her description of the key ideas of a subject, and gives interpretations that often include current research on the issue. Following the presentation, lecturers should also invite students to ask questions on the material.

Survey Line for Comprehensive Understanding Literary Stories

For understanding literary stories, a Survey line can help you organize the steps in the process. A literary time line can help you write down the story's events in the order they occur. It is especially helpful for writing a plot summary and ready reference note book for comprehensive understanding the story itself. Read More about Teaching English

Ready reference note book help you understand books studied in schools and give you insights that make for great book reports. Gain a new perspective by reading about the author, and learn how settings, characters, and themes help make these books acclaimed works of literature.

Ingenious Ideas For You To Explore With The English Alphabet: A Study of Symbol


An Alphabet (from Greek alpha and beta ) is a set of letters or other symbols used to represent sounds, so that letters combined into syllables and words convey through the eye the same ideas as are conveyed through the ear by sounds. A perfect alphabet would neither have more than one letter for any one sound, nor express more sounds than one by one letter. These letters can be combined to write all the words of a language. But alphabet commonly has more letters than one for some of the sounds in the language, that is, they are redundant:

Tuesday, July 17, 2012

The Personality of Paul Morel in D. H. Lawrence's "Sons and Lovers"

"When Eve ate this particular apple, she became aware of her own womanhood, mentally. And mentally she began to experiment with it. She has been experimenting ever since. So has man. To the rage and horror of both of them."-
D. H. Lawrence (1885 - 1930)
 

Introduction: Paul Morel, a coal miner’s son in D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers (1913) whose mother has great ambitions for him, was ‘caught between two worlds' quite early in life. As a result of discord and strife between his parents, the home environment was uncongenial and agonizing, and this put an excessive emotional strain on the growing child. He was pale and sickly, and had frequent fits of depression and melancholy, and would weep without cause. The father would come home drunk and would often give a black eye to the mother. Paul would lie awake in his bed attentive, listening to every sound, praying for the safety of his mother and guessing as to what his father will do next. The silence terrified him all the more, for it seemed to him to be the silence of blood. The result was that became neurotic hypersensitive introvert, who shrank form least contact with the outside world.

Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts: CHARLES LAMB'S DREAM CHILDREN


DREAM CHILDREN: A REVERIE
 by Charles Lamb

 Difficulty Level: Post Graduation        Time: 2hr 
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
  1. It was in this spirit that my little ones crept about me - Who is the speaker? What was the spirit referred to in this sentence?
  1. Certain it is that the whole story of the children and their cruel uncle was to be fairly carvel out in wood upon the chimney –piece of the great hall- What is the story referred to in this sentence? Which hall is mentioned here?
  1. Here John smiled as or much as to say; that would be foolish indeed! – What would be foolish? Why was it thought to be so?

Monday, July 16, 2012

Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts: James Joyce's Araby



 Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
  1. Where was North Richmond Street? When was it quite disturbed?
  1. What is the meaning of Araby?
  1. North Richmond Street being blind Where and when did the boys in Araby play?
  1. When and why did Mangants Mister call her brother? Did her brother obey her at once?
  1. This happened morning after morning - What happened morning after morning?
  1. Who was the former tenant of the house in which the boy –narrator of Araby lived?
  1. Her image accompanied me even in places most hostile to romance- mention the places most hostile to romance?

Thursday, July 12, 2012

Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts: Entrance Examination



 Difficulty Level: Post Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30 


      1. Describe, in brief, the beauty of the poet’s friend as it is depicted in the sonnet ‘Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day’?
      2. “The night has been unruly.” – Why does the speaker think that ‘the night has been unruly”? Why do you think that the earth was unruly?
      3. Why does Louka say she is not ashamed of eavesdropping? (Arms and The Man)
      4. What techniques have been adopted by Synge to create a supernatural atmosphere in ‘Rider to The Sea’?
      5. Conflict is the essence of drama. Do you find any conflict in Synge’s ‘Riders to The Sea’?

      Wednesday, July 11, 2012

      Things That Matter When You Are analysing English In India


      Introduction: We speak English in India no more as a colonial burden but of our own urge of speaking it.  In fact, all uses of language within a society take place within a context. In starting to study on this subject, we learn how it has developed. The similarities, the geographical distribution, special interest, linguistic, social, political, geographical and economic factors contribute in spread of English. The India’s official language is Hindi, spoken by about 60 percent of the population. English is also used for a second language situation for different requirements. Today, Indian students frequently study English as a second language. The purpose of studying English can be categorized as following:

      Tuesday, July 10, 2012

      Walt Whitman as the Poet of Democracy: Worth of the Individual and the Oneness of all Humanity





      'I celebrate myself, and sing myself ...' Leaves of Grass, 'Song of Myself,' (1855)

      Walt Whitman (1819-1892), the representative poet of America is primarily the poetic Spokesman of democracy whose work boldly asserts the worth of the individual and the oneness of all humanity. Truly, the English Romantic poets had been vigorous supporters of the democratic ideals but where Whitman differed from them was in his more pragmatic down- to -earth approach. His ideal of democracy was no visionary’s dream but had a practical approach to it. Whitman’s defiant break with traditional poetic concerns and style exerted a major influence on American thought and literature. Whitman has to furnish the great "psalm of the Republic," the poem of Personality—Personality as it exists in America; and, wrapped in "sublime egotism"—the egotism of a man who feels himself a king upon earth, not "wearing the purple," but in the humble guise of a working man, one whose genius
      "Knows no end,
      And will to countless years extend
      Undimm'd, unstained, in glow;"

      Sunday, July 8, 2012

      Things You Can Learn From Studying Technicality Of Answering

      For a few days I was just wandering about a new post of technicality of answering rather than the answers to the topic. I was wandering least knowing myself, my students and their answers. Truly, he passage through the answers of my students teaches me many things that I like to share to enlighten a little:

      Among various recent trends in the literature profession, teaching and freelance writing are the most widespread. Today, many literature students, like would –be- doctors and lawyers, are more professional than wayfarer. Professionally successful literature students are required for construction of lucid and commercial sentence structures, especially installations where public interest is a consideration. The trend in modern literature students is overwhelmingly toward modernization. Internet is increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling, storing, and generating the enormous volume of data modern students must work with.

      Analysis of Percy Bysshe Shelley's "A Defence of Poetry": How To Master The Points Of Argument ?


      Introduction: The unfinished critical work A Defence of Poetry (written 1821; published 1840), was originally written, as its title suggests, in a polemic vein, as an answer to Peacock's The Four Ages of Poetry. In its published form, much of the controversial matter was cast out, and only one or two indications remain of its controversial nature. The essay as it stands is among the most eloquent expositions that exist of the ideal nature and essential value of poetry. Its chief distinction lies in the sincerity and enthusiasm of the author.

      The Points of Argument:  A Defence of Poetry is based on one of those fundamental distinctions here that between reason and imagination which Coleridge so frequently expounded, and which here serves as a point of departure. Sidney here defended the poetic imagination. There are many underlying themes:

      Model Question Paper: Poetry: Difficulty Level: Graduation


                                                Poetry                                

       Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt

       1. Answer any ten questions. one or two sentences                         

      1. On which date Dover Beach was written?
      2. What is the overwhelming question by prufrock?
      3. What is Ilion?
      4. Give an example of Wordsworth’s pantheistic creed?
      5. What does Shelley wish to be in Ode To The West Wind?
      6. What is called inscape?

      Saturday, July 7, 2012

      Model Question for WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE'S "MACBETH": Difficulty Level: Graduation


      WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE'S MACBETH
       Difficulty Level: Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt

      1.Answer any one:- (600 words)

      1. “Lady Macbeth’s fiction of masculinity is never more than valour of the tongue.”- How far the line is true?
      1. Write a short note on the role of witches in Macbeth.
      1. “Macbeth the man is a study in self damnation”-Discuss.

      Model Questions From J. M. Synge's "Riders To The Sea": Difficulty Level: Graduation



      Riders To The Sea
      J. M. Synge
      Difficulty Level: Graduation      Time: 1hr 30 Mnt

      1. Answer all the questions :- one or two sentences

      i. Mention two stage properties for the enactment of the play Riders To The Sea?

      ii.Who are the ‘riders’ in the play Riders To The Sea?

      iii.“……….. getting holy water in the dark nights after Samhain”- What is Samhain? Does the holy water refer to the water of the christian church?

      Friday, July 6, 2012

      A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 24



      a. Keats was a romantic poet who believed in the importance of sensation and its pleasures which included taste, touch and smell as well as hearing and sight.

      b. Shelley’s weaknesses as a writer have always been evident; rhetorical abstraction; intellectual arrogance; and movements of intense self-pity. But in great poems like the "West Wind" or great prose works like "Defence", it is precisely these limitations that he transcends, and indeed explodes.

      c. Mathew Arnold describes Shelley “a beautiful and ineffectual angel beating in the void his luminous wings in vain”.

      d. “In Hamlet we see a great, an almost enormous intellectual activity and a proportionate aversion to real action consequent upon it.”  Coleridge.

      Analysis of T.S. Eliot's "The Murder in The Cathedral" : Religious Elements,Becket as a Passive Character, Becket’s Martyrdom and its Significance



      The Religious Elements: In this play T.S. Eliot has shown how drama can still bean instrument of community in the two sense corresponding to its original function as an extension of the liturgy and as an interpretation of god’s word in truest of flesh and blood.

      For the purpose of his play, the audience became a congregation, having interpreted to the significance of martyrdom and being invited to participate in the celebration of an act of martyrdom. Part-11 has something of the quality of liturgical celebration. It is not a plain representation of the historical fact which is lice that of the Holy Communion to the last super.

      Analysis of "Stupidity Street” (“I saw with open eyes”) By Ralph Hodgson


      The dominant theme of Ralph Hodgson’s "Stupidity Street” (“I saw with open eyes”), as evident from the title, is Stupidity. Our ignorance about nature typifies our ignorance about our beautiful earth in general. And Each of us has his or her particular form of Stupidity : neurotic obsession for sweet birds’ meat. In fact, the danger of being marked by Stupidity is its affect on our beloved planet.

      The song is a traditional lyric note, like that of an oral performance. It has also added a thin veneer of a deeply humanitarian point: Love to nature or natural phenomena. It is an artistic triumph. Farther, the question has been argued at great length in the last half of the poem– that is, loves to nature and how we are blind-folded. Ralph Hodgson’s "Stupidity Street," is eco-friendly poem which blends nature and the human life. Like that of Native American literature it gives an impression that we have to engineer our conscious for protecting the environment. Our vital and seminal relationship with the nature is made to realize through this poem.

      To develop a vision and to operationalize the activities of the humane qualities we need a broad heart to lead to life and its true meaning. Thus to function a perfect society we need to entertain a better living condition where nature is befriending quality. As with the various political machinations which so often upset economies -- from war to command economic measures -- there are times when mankind experiences man-made scarcity and even man-made famine. The notion of "singing birds" sold as food, and visions of spoiled grain tell a tale of "Stupidity Street," wherein the stupidity is caused by man himself. The song is therefore aggressive in scope. It is we that destroy our health of living by paralyzing the natural system. When our improper acts cause "nothing for people to eat," there is an appropriate rage which should always be directed to our corrupt thought.

      We Need self-Assessment on the safety of our society. The emerging needs, debates and discussions are to be held with individuals and countries representing better thought and action. And that is the future dream of us where Stupidity Street will turn into street to life.


      Ref: 1. Nature Poetry: A. K. Madhugal
               2. IGNOU Study Guide

      Model Question Paper For Poetry: Entrance Examination


                             Poetry        Model Question Paper          Time- 2hr.

      Difficulty Level: Graduation
                                                                                                          
      1. Answer any two question:- 600 words                        

      a. What is the theme of Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 65?
      b. What conventional line is Shakespeare following in Sonnet No. 130?
      c. Discuss The Sun Rising as a typical metaphysical love lyric. What is called metaphysical conceit?
      d. Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country churchyard is a transitional poem – discuss. Comment on the conclusion of the poem.
      e. What are the heroic qualities portrayed in Satan’s character in Paradise Lost BKI ? In what way Satan claims to be equal to God and in what way he is inferior?
      f. How far do you agree in saying that The Rape of The Lock is the characteristic picture of the 18th century? Name two contemporary of pope?

      2. Explain with reference to the context (any two)  :-  

      a. "And when this dust falls to the urn,
      In that state I came, return."

      b. "And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare,
      As any she belied with false compare."

      c. "The grave’s a fine and private place,
      But none I think do there embrace."

      d. "What  through the field be lost?
      All is not lost- the unconquerable will,
      And study of revenge, immortal hate, 
      And courage never to submit or yield;"

      3. Indentify and explain any two rhetoric:-              

      Invention, Nature’s child, Fled step-dame study’s blows.

      4. Answer any five short questions   :- One or two sentences

      a. Define a false comparison from Sonnet 130 by Shakespeare?

      b. What is called ‘Bright shoots of everlastingness’ (The Retreat) ?

      c. What is called 'carpe diem’ theme (To His Coy-mistress)?

      d. Why does the speaker in To His Coy-mistress mention Ganges and Humber?

      e. Which can mike ‘a Heaven of Hell, a hell of heaven’(Paradise Lost BKI)?
          How is it possible?

      f. In which edition supernatural machinery was reinforced in The Rape Of The Lock? What might be the source of this?

      Ref:1. Wikipedia
               2. IGNOU Study Guide
             

      Wednesday, July 4, 2012

      Analysis of John Osborne's "Look Back In Anger": Jimmy’s Newspaper Reading, Animal and the Game in the Play, Feminism, Jimmy a Romantic Hero



      Look Back in Anger (1956): Rebellion Against Traditional Mores
       by
      John Osborne (1929-1994)

      Symbolic Importune of Jimmy’s Newspaper Reading: All three acts open by showing Jimmy reading newspaper and repeatedly surfaces in the conversation. The newspaper helps to create a domestic atmosphere with a ritual, as well as providing the starting point for most of the discussions or speeches about religion and politics. It brings the outside or public world into the private, familiar setting of the play, and its constant presence makes it, in effect, impossible to clearly separate the two worlds ----- one invades and informs the other through the newspaper.

      Importance of Animal and the Game in the Play: Through the symbol of animals and the game Jimmy and Alison impersonate them. They have toy bear and squirrel kept upon a chest of drawers, and Alison points them out to Helena who thinks this is proof of Jimmy’s being ‘fey’ or mad. An extension of the game is the comparison of the couple’s home to a zoo or a menagerie. This animal symbol works in two ways ---- first, as discussed above, it offers a refuge from the misery of the couple’s daily married life, and provides the only way for then to communicate with each other. Second, it implies that the only way for then to satisfy marital love in their case, seems to be based on not munch more than the physical attraction between the sexes, which functions at a level below the rational. Though, it is true that ‘bear and squirrel game’ is more complex a pattern to highlight the various relationships and solitude. We would better quote where the play unnaturally closes with a repetition of the game:
      Jimmy: ….. There are cruel traps lying about everywhere, just waiting for rather mad                                                   
                            , slightly fanatics very timid little animals. Right? (Allison nods)
                             (Pathetically) poor squirrels !

      Alison : Poor bears (she laughs and tenderly says) Oh, poor poor bears ! 

      Feminism “Have you ever noticed how noisy women are? Have you? The way they kick the floor about, simply walking over it? Or have you watched them sitting at their dressing tables, dropping their weapons and banging down their bits of boxes and brushes and lipsticks?” Mr. James Porter, age 25

      Looking at how women are presented in the play , and at the way in the male characters speak of and react to the female characters are the formation of feminism. Jimmy has often  expressed misogyny , of which he finds himself a sufferer. Jimmy does see personal relationships as offering the only alternative to the lack of causes in public life, but views such relationships as given women a chance to ‘devour’ and to destroy  his (and by implication , all mans’) self-hood and autonomy . This goes hand in hand with his being completely tied to women in the shape of being unable to break away from them sexually or emotionally. Jimmy sees himself as suffering under the system of class which privileges Alison and her family, but does not see Alison’s suffering under the system of patriarchal marriage that privileges him over her . Society’s attitude to women are shown up in the play and both Alison and Helena share a similar pattern of behavior – fascination alternating with resentment and antipathy – with regard to Jimmy . They share a common feminine nature – similar backgrounds and upbringing.

      Jimmy a Romantic Hero despite of being “the angry young men” : One of the defining traits of romanticism is its interest in the individual and its tendency to exalt individual experience and expression over the collective or the social. The romantic hero / protagonist , however  inexplicably cruel or wrong his behavior is always presented as driver or compelled by a nature too extreme and forceful for those around him to understand , as consequently is seen as always isolated from his world . Very much of this is true of Jimmy, as least in his own eyes – “Was I really wrong to believe that there’s a – a kind of – burning virility of mind and spirit that look for something as power full as it self? The heaviest, strongest creatures in this world seen to be the lowliest.” (LBA ,Act III , 11)  Futher Helena’s words about him , “I fill he’s still in the middle of the French Revolution” confirms the sense of Jimmy’s perception of himself as a Romantic hero. 


       Also Read @ John Osborne's Jimmy Porter is a Modern Hamlet- A Comparative Analysis

      Ref:1. Wikipedia
               2. IGNOU Study Guide
               3. Politics In Drama Artists: Dr. A. L. Avanchou

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