- Periodical publications released on a regular basis may include news, feature articles, poems, fictional stories, or other types of writing. It is a magazine or journal published at regular intervals: monthly, quarterly, etc.
- The periodical, as we understand it today, dates from the middle of the 17th century.
- Little Magazine, a form of periodical, devoted to publishing specialized, avant-garde writing and criticism.
- Because of limited circulation and marginal financial backing, the so-called little magazines are generally short-lived.
- Historically, most periodicals have differed from newspapers in their format, publication schedule, and content.
- The exclusively literary periodical is more recent.
- The earliest periodicals include the German Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen (Edifying Monthly Discussions, 1663-1668), the French Journal des Sçavans (1665; subsequently titled Journal des Savants), and the English Philosophical Transactions (1665) of the Royal Society of London. These were essentially collections of summaries (later essays) on developments in art, literature, philosophy, and science.
- Then came the Italian Giornale de Letterati (1668-81), and the British Mereurius Librarius (1668-1711).
- The Athenina Mercury (1690-97) and the Gentleman’s journal (1692-94) were then precursors of The Spectator.
- The opening years of the 18th century were vital in the evolution of the periodical and the essay because of Defoe’s Review of the Affairs of France and All Europe (1704-12) – and the Tatler(1709-11) the Spectator(1711-12) and the Guardian(1713)-all three of which were established by Addison and Steele.
- Mixing politics, serious essays, and sly satire, the 18th-century periodicals The Tatler and The Spectator, founded by the statesmen and literary figures Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, were enormously popular and influential.
- In 1731 the Gentleman’s Magazine first came out and was to last until 1907.
- It is the first periodical of the modern general type, devoted to a miscellany of reading entertainment, was the English publication The Gentleman's Magazine (1731-1907)—the first instance of the use of the word magazine to denote a forum for entertaining reading.
- Boswell was one of its more famous contributors. Similar publications were the London Magazine (1732-84), the Scots (1739-1817) which became Edinburgh seven years after that, the oxford (1768-82) and the European (1782-1826).
- The museum (1746-47) and the monthly Review (1749-1845) were landmarks in the development of the literary periodical.
- The latter was a Whig journal and from this time politics were to influence the genre for many years.
- Three important Tory periodicals from about the same period were: the Critical Review (1756-1817), the London Review (1775-80) and the British Critic (1793-1843).
- The long-lived German Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung (General Literary News, 1785-1849) was devoted to commentary on new literary ideas.
- In 1802 was published the Edinburgh Review, one of the most famous and influential of all periodicals. It lasted until 1929.
- The serious monthly and quarterly literary reviews, such as Graham's Magazine (1826-1858) and The Southern Literary Messenger (1834-1864), both of which writer and critic Edgar Allan Poe was connected with
- The Quarterly Review, a Tory publication, began in 1809 and is still published. From this period, too, dates the foundation of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine.
- The early 20th century saw the introduction of several magazines that represented more sophisticated literary tastes and that protested the remnants of Victorian morality. These included Smart Set (1900-1930); Vanity Fair (1913-1936; revived in 1983); and the American Mercury (1924-1951), which was edited by critics H. L. Mencken and George Jean Nathan.
- From the beginning of the 19th century there was a steadily increasing number of periodical’s until the First World War.
- Women's magazines gained strength in the late 1800s.few important women periodicals: Ladies' (later Woman's) Home Companion (1873-1957), McCall's Magazine (1876), Ladies' Home Journal (1883), Good Housekeeping (1885), and Vogue (1892).
- Since then, and especially since the Second World War, the number has steadily decreased, largely because they are too expensive to produce.
- With the change of time online magazine exploded in the literary field. Sports Illustrated and Forbes are two popular online magazines.
A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 40
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