William Shakespeare's "SONNET NO. 116" (Let me not to the marriage of true minds): Analysis of Rhetoric
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no! it is an ever-fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come:
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
This is a case of Hyperbaton since the normal word order should have been.
This is also a case of synecdoche (abstract for the cocrety ) since the abstract ‘ true minds’ stands for the concrete lovers who are faithful to 'each other ’
It is also a case of Alliteration since the sound /m/ occurs at the beginning of words.
In the play the final impression is of Edward’s suffering. It is bound up with power – the power that Edward loses, the power that Mortimer wins. If a man had no power over other, there could be no suffering such as Edward knew. King Edward was too desperate for the power and just of friendship that he can not foresee the future consequences. He even deserts his wife and deprive her in his love. Here starts cropping up the seeds in infidelity in her heart. The king gives vent to his sufferings fanning the fire of hostility. He is robbed of his friendship for barons murder Gravestone. When he was defeated and is imprisoned he is made in undergo all sorts of physical and mental tortures like a mean prisoner is inflicted with . But till his imprisonment he keeps on boasting and never pays any heed to the fact that a king cannot continue to be in power until he cares for the advice of hi9s subordinates and threat tyrant faces defeat at the hands of his own subjects where all his pride of power is nullified.
I wonder by my trouth , what thou , and I Did , till we Lov’d?
That time of year thou mayst in me behold When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold, Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.
In me thou see'st the twilight of such day As after sunset fadeth in the west; Which by and by black night doth take away, Death's second self, that seals up all in rest.
In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire, That on the ashes of his youth doth lie, As the death-bed, whereon it must expire, Consum'd with that which it was nourish'd by.
This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong, To love that well, which thou must leave ere long.
It is a case of Hyperbaton because the normal order of words has been changed.
That time of year thou mayst in me behold .
When yellow leaves, or none, or few do hang .
This is a case of Metaphor since the poet compares his present condition to the season of winter. This comparison is not stated explicitly.
This is also a metaphor in another sense because the ‘sweet birds’ not only refer to the literal birds but also to the ,choir singers in the church.
Get with child a mandrake root,
Tell me where all past years are,
Or who cleft the Devil's foot,
Teach me to hear mermaids singing,
Or to keep off envy's stinging,
Serves to advance an honest mind.If thou be'st born to strange sights,
Things invisible to see,
Ride ten thousand days and nights,
Till age snow white hairs on thee;
Thou, when thou return'st, wilt tell me
All strange wonders that befell thee,
Lives a woman true, and fair.If thou find'st one, let me know,
Such a pilgrimage were sweet;
Yet do not, I would not go,
Though at next door we might meet:
Though she were true, when you met her,
And last, till you write your letter,
False, ere I come, to two or three.
With naked foot stalking in my chamber. '
This is a case of Metaphor .The women have been here compared to predatory animals through their prey is not ordinary food but sexual flood.
--It is also a case of Hyperbaton since the word order in ‘did me seek’ has been changed from the usual one .
'That sometime they put themselves in danger
To take bread at my hand; and now they range
Busily seeking with a continual change. '
--- This is a case of Metaphor since the amorous women have been here compared to birds while the poet himself has been compared to the feeder . The comparisons are left in explicit .
“ Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
Of Humber would complain. I would
Love you ten years before the Flood;
And you should, if you please, refuse
Till the conversion of the Jews.”
This is a case of Hyperbole. The poet exaggerates the extant of physical distance between the two lovers .
He also exaggerates the length of time for which they would love each other .
This is also a case of Allusion since flood refers to here alludes to the Biblical flood in which none but No an and his family was left alone .
'My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires, and more slow.'
This is a case of Metaphor. The maturation of non-physical platonic love has been compared to the slow and insensible growth of vegetable love .
This is also a case of Irony. Although he seems, to praise vegetable love, -- the poet actually criticizer its lack of intelligence and vitality .
by William Collins
May hope, chaste Eve, to soothe thy modest ear,
Like thy own solemn springs,
Thy springs, and dying gales,
O nymph reserved, while now the bright-haired sun
Sits in yon western tent, whose cloudy skirts,
With brede ethereal wove,
O'erhang his wavy bed:
Now air is hushed, save where the weak-eyed bat
With short shrill shriek flits by on leathern wing,
Or where the beetle winds
His small but sullen horn,
As oft he rises 'midst the twilight path,
Against the pilgrim borne in heedless hum:
Now teach me, maid composed,
To breathe some softened strain,
Whose numbers stealing through thy dark'ning vale
May not unseemly with its stillness suit,
As, musing slow, I hail
Thy genial loved return!
For when thy folding-star arising shows
His paly circlet, at his warning lamp
The fragrant hours, and elves
Who slept in buds the day,
And many a nymph who wreathes her brows with sedge
And sheds the fresh'ning dew, and lovelier still,
The pensive pleasures sweet
Prepare thy shadowy car.
Then let me rove some wild and heathy scene,
Or find some ruin 'midst its dreary dells,
Whose walls more awful nod
By thy religious gleams.
Or if chill blust'ring winds or driving rain
Prevent my willing feet, be mine the hut
That from the mountain's side
Views wilds and swelling floods
And hamlets brown and dim-discovered spires,
And hears their simple bell, and marks o'er all
Thy dewy fingers draw
The gradual dusky veil.
While Spring shall pour his showers, as oft he wont,
And bathe thy breathing tresses, meekest Eve;
While Summer loves to sport
Beneath thy lingering light;
While sallow Autumn fills thy lap with leaves;
Or Winter, yelling through the troublous air,
Affrights thy shrinking train
And rudely rends thy robes;
So long, regardful of thy quiet rule,
Shall fancy, friendship, science, smiling peace,
Thy gentlest influence own,
And love thy favourite name!
Alexander Pope's "ESSAY ON MAN ; EPISTLE II OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL": Rhetoric Constituted
OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN
WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL
KNOW then thyself, presume not God to scan,
The proper study of mankind is man.
Plac’d on this isthmus of a middle state,
A being darkly wise, and rudely great:
With too much knowledge for the sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic’s pride,
He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;
In doubt to deem himself a God, or beast;
In doubt his mind or body to prefer;
Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little or too much:
Chaos of thought and passion, all confus’d;
Still by himself abus’d or disabus’d;
Created half to rise, and half to fall;
Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all;
Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl’d:
The glory, jest, and riddle of the world!
Know then thyself , presume not God to scan;
This is a case of Antithesis because both parts of the statement which appear in balanced form, reinforce the idea that the knowledge of man is to be achieved by the person himself by looking into himself .
This is also a case of Hyperbaton . The normal word order should have been 'don’t presume God to scan' rather than ‘presume not God to scan’ .
a. Etherege, Wyeherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar contributed a great deal to the development of the comedy of manners.
An English Teacher; M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified
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