AD's English Literature : August 2012

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Character of young Mortimer in Christopher Marlowe’s, "Edward II"



Young Mortimer is the second important character of Christopher Marlowe’s, Edward II (1592?), which was one of the earliest successful English historical dramas and a model for Shakespeare's Richard II and Richard III. He is portrayed with great spirit and power to A. E. Boas, “ the lines of his character , are of course , toned down to suit the altered environment, but there is the same note of lawlessly aspiring  ambition .Boas has presented the bird’s eye view of Mortimer’s character .

In the play Roger de Mortimer is a somewhat imbued with dual- personality. He is a strange combination of strait forward bluntness and Machiavellian tactics. His character undergoes a change in the play. Since time is foreshortened and events develop rapidly in the change I Mortimer’s character comes a bit too suddenly. The few months during which he stays in France with Queen Isabella make him a different man altogether.

Ten Awesome Things You Can Learn about 'Theme Of Education' Studying David Herbert Lawrence’s "The Rainbow"



Teachers and Literature: Holofernes in Love's Labour's Lost and Sir Hugh Evans in The Merry wives of Windsor are two characters whose profession to teaching are mere caricature , and Shakespeare so presents them that they are more ridiculed than admired. Shakespeare's own experience at school said to have been anything but happy and his own attitude to his teachers perhaps finds expression in the portrayal of Holofernes and Evans, neither of whom evokes our sense of respect. Thewackhun and Squire are two tutors in Tom Jones, and they also give an indecent account of themselves. The former is cruel and selfish, hypocrisy being his central passion. He quotes from the scriptures to conceal his selfishness, the latter passes for a philosophy, while the only philosophy of life he follows is the gratification of sexual appetite by fair means or foul. Gradgrind is another teacher who, as Dickens paints him Hard Times, sets store by the utilitarian success life. For him, every student is more a number than living entity. He thinks that a child is nothing but fact, ought to be poured. So it is evident that the education system, along with the personage conducting the machinery, an object of criticism right from Shakespeare down to the present age, and a modern novelist like D.H. Lawrence who had occasion to serve as a teacher for a brief period of time shows his concern for methodology of education which, thinks he, calls for the rough modification, even radical reorientation. The Rainbow has, for its central theme, the nuances of human relationships, and as the development of Ursula’s personality is stressed, some light is thrown on her education. Lawrence observes the affairs of education in his times through Ursula who is involved in education both as a student and as a teacher Ursula at times appears to be the author’s alter ego, and the impression of education that Ursula gathers may reasonably be taken for Lawrence's own impression.

Narrative Technique in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness"



The final years of 19th century saw a change not only in theme but also in the technique of narration. The change in the narrative technique was two fold – the distancing of the author from the text and a scrambling up of the narrative in terms of chronology. Heart of Darkness, utilizes both these techniques and its narrative technique is in perfect harmony with the theme of psychological degeneration depicted in the book In other to prevent Kurtz’s moral fall from lapsing into obtrusive judgement of the author, Conrad presented Kurtz through the eye of at least one other character whom we can guess and from an opinion about. The story opens as a nameless narrator aboard the cruising yawl Nellie, anchored in the Thames River in England, begins to relate secondhand the story of Charlie Marlow's river voyage in the Belgian Congo.

Critical Essay on the Symbolism in T. S. Coleridge’s "The Ancient Marriner



Introduction: The term ‘symbolism’ can be defined as the practice, system and art of representing ideas by means of symbols. The term ‘symbol’ although is a word, a phrase, an object, or a clause even, yet it always represents an abstraction. So the thing represented is an idea, quality, condition, or any other abstract thing.

Kinds of symbols:   Use of symbols in The Ancient Mariner. Coleridge has employed symbolism in The Rime of The Ancient Mariner, as E-E-stolls sums up in two artistic symbolic categories- symbols of distance and symbols of life in Middle Ages.

"A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" By James Joyce: Model Test


F.M-50                                                  Fiction                                             TIME- 2hr.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
By James Joyce

1. Answer any Two:-   10*2= 20

 a. Briefly analyze the three main principles of the theory of aesthetics put together by Stephen in A portrait…….? What is known as Thomism?

 b. Define the role of epiphany in A Portrait. Does the epiphany add any special                              meaning in under standings Stephen’s Personality?

c. What are the positive and negative aspects of Stephen Dedalus’ character?

d. . In the beginning of the book, Stephen, wrongly punished by Father Dolan, overcomes his fear to speak with the rector of Clongowes, Father Conmee. What does he learn as a result of this episode? How does his encounter with these two men influence him later in life? 

2. Write Critical note (any Two):- 6*2= 12

  1. His eyes were dimmed with tears and looking humbly upto heaven, he wept for the income he had lost – comment.
  2. A traitor; an adulterer! The priests were right to abandon him – comment.
  3. Define the bird image in A Portrait…
      d. By the end of the novel, Stephen has resolved to leave Ireland.

3. Fictional term (any four) :- 3*4=12

Bildungsoman, Point of view, Aesthetic Autobiography, Stream of consciousness, Symbolism, villanelle,
  
4. Short questions (any six) :- 1*6=6

  1. Who the Aubrey Mills is? How is he remembered by Stephen.
  2. Who called Stephen as ‘a lazy idle little toaler’? Why?
  3. Who were involved in the Christmas Dinner dispute and for what reason?
  4. Give two instance of the school boy slang used by Joyce?    
  5. Who are Eileen, Mercedes, E.C?   
  6.  Joyce’s fictional autobiography is episodic in nature: What is the effect of this method of structuring the story?
  7. Where is Clongowes School?
  8. How would you describe Stephen’s relationship with his family?        Ardhendu De  

Monday, August 27, 2012

"Sailing to Byzantium" by W. B. Yeats: Voyage of the Inner Spiritual Essence into the Wisdom and Freedom



Introduction: Sailing to Byzantium, one of Yeats’ masterpieces is organized round the dichotomy of flesh and spirit, nature and art where the sea symbolizes the energetic vitality of the former. As Yeats advanced into old age he continued to be troubled by the passions. The voyage in this poem is thus an inner voyage of spiritual awakening. To wards wisdom and freedom from the enslavement to nature. Quite apart from the special meaning that Byzantium has in Yeats’ system, historically it was the meeting point of the Pagan and Christian civilization. The poem carries a symbolic pattern and a mystic philosophic notion is derided.

“The Lagoon” by Conrad: Theme and Making Short Story



The soul of the short story is brevity, and critics would aver unity, too. Conrad who is usually famous for his novellas uses a relatively shorter from in The Lagoon, but detractors would claim that there is paraphernalia of themes marring the strict unity of effect. Although the short story rarely has the scope for anything more than a bore incident, Conrad’s short story is unique in its portrayal of an almost entire life. It is a sage of life that involves four diverse themes death, love, courage and guilt to select one among the four as the focal theme would appear an impossibility since Conrad’s mastery of the art makes the four themes inter animate each other.

Friday, August 24, 2012

Poetic Term: Heroic couplet, Rhyme royal, Ottava rima



Heroic couplet:  Two line of rhymed iambic pentameter is known as heroic couplet - a a   bb  cc  and so on . The term heroic is applied to it in the late 17th century when the frequent use of such couplets formed the heroic poems or epical poems andd heroic dramas. 

In English Chaucer is the innovator whose the Legend of Good women and must of The Canterbury Tales are written in the rhyme style. The other masters are Alexander Pope, Dryden, and Samuel Johnson etc.
Example:
 “No Then thyself presume no God to Scan;
 The proper study of mankind is man”
                        The Essay on Man                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                              ---   Pope

Character of Bluntchli in G.B. Shaw’s "Arms and The Man"



The son of a rich hotel-keeper and a professional soldier serving in the Serbian Army, Captain Bluntschli is the hero of G.B. Shaw’s plays Arms and The Man. A perfect man with a charming personality, Captain Bluntschli strikes a balance between two opposite elements in human nature. On the one hand he is prosaic, matter of fact, cool and calculating with a practical common sense and never-failing presence of mind, having a quick and almost mechanical capacity for action. On the other hand he is reckless adventurous and sentimental with an incurably romantic disposition. But these two elements, though they are contradictory to each other, are found in him combined in a perfect poise. Instead of being contradictory they have rather become complementary to each other. Nevertheless, he has come weak points in his character. He is lacking in imagination and eloquence. He is not a splendid talker though he is quick at repartee and possesses a keen sense of humour.

George Herbert’s "The Collar" as a Metaphysical Religious Poem



The Collar
By George Herbert

I struck the board, and cried, No more.
I will abroad.
What? shall I ever sigh and pine?
My lines and life are free; free as the road,
Loose as the wind, as large as store.
Shall I be still in suit?
Have I no harvest but a thorn
To let me blood, and not restore
What I have lost with cordial fruit?
Sure there was wine
Before my sighs did dry it: there was corn
Before my tears did drown it.
Is the year only lost to me?
Have I no bays to crown it?
No flowers, no garlands gay? all blasted?
All wasted?
Not so, my heart: but there is fruit,
And thou hast hands.
Recover all thy sigh-blown age
On double pleasures: leave thy cold dispute
Of what is fit, and not. Forsake thy cage,
Thy rope of sands,
Which petty thoughts have made, and made to thee
Good cable, to enforce and draw,
And be thy law,
While thou didst wink and wouldst not see.
Away; take heed,
I will abroad.
Call in thy death's head there: tie up thy fears.
He that forbears
To suit and serve his need,
Deserves his load.
But as I raved and grew more fierce and wild
At every word,
Me thoughts I heard one calling, Child:
And I replied, My Lord.


For George Herbert poetry is religion and religion poetry. He believed that a man should dedicate all his gifts to God’s service, that a poet should make the altar blossom with his poetry. Accordingly his most famous poem included in The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations (1633), The Temple as well as his other poems like Virtue and The Pulley are full of faith and fervor. Read More Poetry In the poem Elixir the poet declares that his only desire is ‘In all things Thee to see’ and that the only true elixir is God. Yet not all of Herbert’s poems are of placid piety, for he himself declared that in many of his poems he presented ‘a picture of the many spiritual conflicts which have passed between God and my soul’. The Collar which is included in the said volume exemplifies such a spiritual conflict, the difficult, lifelong struggles of the Christian faith presented in terms of metaphysical wit and conceits.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

John Milton’s Grand Style in "Paradise Lost" , His 'Adventurous Songs’


Milton himself wrote of Paradise Lost as his 'adventurous songs’. That with no middle - flight intends to soar above the Aounion Mount , while it pursues Things Unattempted yet in prose or rhyme . Indeed in Paradise Lost, Milton, in choosing, the grandest of theological subjects, has undertaken a gigantic task. Satan's appearance and behaviour , the prospect of Hell and the fallen angels , the consultation , of the infernal chiefs , Satan’s flight though choose to the borders of his world , - all these discover the most lofty ideas that ever entered into the conception of any poet . Read More Poetry To suit such a grand theme, Milton must use a proportionately grand style, and he did it with a bang.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Analysing Title OF Dickens’ "Hard Times"


HARD TIMES was serialized in Dickens’ magazine HOUSEHOLD WORDS in the winter of 1853 -54. Before the publication of the novel, Dickens took great pain with the title of the book. He experimented with as many as 24 titles Like ' According cooker the grindstone ' ' something tangible ' ' Rust and Dust’, ‘Hard Heads and Soft Hearts’ etc. Later on those whittled down to just four : ' Two and Two are Four ' ,‘A matter of calculation’  , ' The Gradgrind philosophy ' and ‘stubborn things’ of these the first three admittedly pointed to the utilitarian apotheosis of facts , figures and averages . The last one however, indicates the unbeatable nature of fancy and imagination. But these titles too were left out in favour of the present one - Hard Times. Understandably Dickens intention is not, to figure at the irrational reverence for fact in Victorian society but to outline the dystopia to which this leads. The present title implies that the novel's principal thematic preoccupation is the hard times which Dickens argues are the logical backlash of fact ' -- worship to the total neglect of tender human impulses.

Monday, August 20, 2012

Analysis of Robert Frost's Attitude to Nature: Inheritor of Wordsworth and Emerson



 Robert Frost (1874-1963), a Continuation of the Romantic Attitude to Nature or a Departure from it?
                                                                    
It is a matter of critical debates if Frost is a great nature poet or not has been. Alvarez only defines his as a pastoral poet but the critics like Marion Montgomery admires him a great nature poet of his own class. Basically, Robert Frost is the quintessential New England poet. His poems are spare. He has close affinity with nature and his poems are meditative -- qualities he shares with the Romantic poet Wordsworth. Often, ordinary natural objects suggest something greater in his poems. He plays around with metre in order to capture the easy rhythm of the speaking voice. His poems flow very smoothly, like a good conversation.

Sunday, August 19, 2012

Poetic Term: Prosody, Metre and Terza Rima


That art of writing poetry or part of grammar which deals with laws governing the structure of verse or versification is called prosody. It encompasses the study of all the elements of language that contribute towards acoustic or rhythmic effects chiefly in poetry but also in prose. Ezra pound called prosody “the articulation of the total sound of a poem ". Simply speaking all that can produce harmony and melody in poetry may be taken as the subject - matter of poetry. The plinth of prosody is based on two elements -- quality and accent. However, the accent is the key factor in understanding prosody.

Lord Alfred Tennyson’s "The Lady of Shalott": Symbolism and Pictorial Quality

Lord Alfred Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott is a symbolic tale of a lady condemned by a mysterious curse to weave ceaselessly a magic tapestry. The poem itself has something of the tapestry , notably in the description of the passersby ,but it is far from being a piece of sentimental medievalising. Part I shows us the island castle of Shalott inhabited by the mysterious lady , and the road to Camelot , image of the external world of action . In part ii we move to the lady herself weaving compulsively under the strange curse, seeing external reality only through the mirror she uses for her weaving, and seeing it as pageant in which she has no part. In the third section, which takes place in harvest times, the magnificent Sir Lancelot, lover of Queen Guinevere, appears, riding to Camelot, and singing as he goes. The Lady leaves her tapestry and looks down to Camelot, and the curse is fulfilled. In part (iv), the dying lady floats down the river to Camelot singing her last song.

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Analysis of John Donne’s "The Sunne Rising" as a Metaphysical Love Poem

In Metaphysical poetry John Donne is an outstanding name. He is regarded as the leader and master of this. The novelty of John Donne's metaphysical poetry is marked specifically in his love poems which perfectly balance impulse and intellectual basis in his hand. In this respect The Sunne Rising is a characteristic work from John Donne.

The poem The Sunne Rising is on joyous fulfilled love. The lover’s mood is self complacent absolutely satisfied with his love that he extols over all other things. His sense of pleasure feed him to challenge the sun and claims that his love is not subjected to the mere laws of Nature. The intensity of the poetic emotion is echoed in the lover's excited assertion ------  
“Love all alike no season knows not clime ,
Not hours, days, monthes, which are the rags of time.”

Saturday, August 11, 2012

The Analysis of Marvell's "The Garden" : Developed Through Studied Contrast

Andrew Marvell (1621-1678) unlike most of his modern readers thought it possible to recover the lost harmony with nature, which before the fall man had possessed in the garden. The theme of innocence, experience, alienation, harmony, and the complications of human relationships, alienation, harmony, nature and art are present in his poem The Garden. His intentions were those of a moralist to put matters in proper perspective - so that salvation can be attained, so that the lost innocence, the paradisaical integrity of Nature might be reconstructed with the aid of literary art in the garden of the mind.

Friday, August 10, 2012

John Keats Saw Beauty in All Things



PREFACE: During the time written value was a religious ceremony of nature. Keats was the religious ceremony of beauty. Love of beauty is the rule note of his poetry from “Endymion” to his last poem, Hyperion: A Vision. Beauty was his religions to him. His fancy was to the feelings of beauty and he was at his best only is the presence of the perfect beauty. In one of his letters, he wrote, “With a great poet the sense of beauty overcome all other considerations”.

Analysis of Lord Tennyson (a) Representative Poets (b) Artist, (c) Poet of Nature (d) Thinker



INTRODUCTION: In oracle to form a correct estimate of Tennyson as a poet, we must consider him as (a) a representative poets (b) an artist, (c) a poet nature, and (d) a thinker

A GREAT REPRESENTATIVE POET: Tennyson is a representative poet, one who represents his age not in fragrant but completely, in all its manifold variety and complexity. According to Haden, he was to Victorian England what three centuries earlier Spenser was to the England of Elizabeth, and much that is most deeply characteristic of the victorious spirit entered into the texture of his writings. As stop ford Brooke has said: “For more than sixty years he lived close to the present life of England, as far as he was capable of comprehending and sympathizing with its movements; and he in wove what he left concerning it into his poetry”. The extraordinary diversity of his work is itself typical of the immerse complexity of his age. “ He work on classical , semantic , and modern subjects on subjects taken from humble and  rustic life ; on English history and Celtic legend ; on the deep eat   problems of philosophy and religion ; and the range of his method and style is scarcely less remarkable than that of his matter”.

Thursday, August 9, 2012

Stage Direction: "Arms and The Man" By G.B.Shaw

Shaw has been an innovative dramatist in his elaborate use of prefaces, a fresh principle of characterization and the use of dialogues as debates or discussions. Also his is the elaborate stage direction in his plays. They from an integral part of his dramas and are full of dramatic significance. They create the necessary atmosphere, comment upon stage settings and interpret characters rightly. Now we will carry out a discussion on his use of stage-directions in Arms and The Man.

"In Memoriam" and "Adonais": Two Imortal Elegy in English Literature

                                       
In Memoriam, Tennyson’s most acclaimed work, was begun in 1833 and completed in 1850. It was written in memory of A. H. Hallam, a young man of great promise and an intimate friend of Tennyson who died at a very early age.

In Memoriam is not so much a single elegy as a series of poems written at different times. These were inspired by the changing moods of the author’s regret for his friend. The series describe “the way of the soul,” as Tennyson Sometimes called it in the presence of great sorrow. It shows the gradual transformation of the regret fell by the living for the dead and of the longing for the bodily presence in to a sense of spiritual contact and possession. It widens out into a great love of God and humanity: “We have but faith, we can not know; for knowledge is of things we see; And yet we know it comes from thee: a beam in darkness; let it grow.”

Analysis Of Keats ' "Ode To A Nightingale" as a Romantic Poem


Keats occupies a distinctly remarkable place in the realm of romantic poetry . His fame rests on his odes. It is in these odes, that one comes into personal contact with the mind of Keats. And it is here that we experience the depth of Keats ' struggle to control his personal experience and to give poetic expression. In the bitter sweet poignancy of his experiences lies his romanticism. In his control over them lies the Hellenism and classical quality of his poetry. The odes of Keats are as all great poetry is, romantic and classical at the same time.

Sunday, August 5, 2012

Symbolic Import of H. E. Bates' "The Ox" is Immense; Story Element Thin


Analyses of  H. E. Bates' The Ox

The symbolic import of The Ox is immense, though the story element of it is rather thin. It is the hard attempt of a women for a happy hewer of her husband, and the tragic realization that what she has valued most is reduced to nothingness that virtually forms the texture of the story. But within this slender outline, the story has an important tragic overtone, “An obsession with pain,. Pain stretched to breaking point, point prolonged beyond all seeming endurance. Bates show a manly and unsentimental pity for those who suffer alone. Yet the story of such intolerable pain is strangely given the title The Ox. It is strange in this sense that the titer indicator an animal and the story have no mention of such an animal. It is clear that the titer is metaphorical. It hints at the bovine qualities of an ox present in human character, and therein lays the meaning of the title.

Friday, August 3, 2012

Character Estimation of Beelzebub in John Milton's "Paradise Lost ( Book I)"


The word Beelzebub means ' The god of flies ' in Hebrew. He was worshiped at Ekron , a city of the Philistines as a fertility god. Beelzebub is called is Matthew, xii, 24, 'The prince of the devils’; hence he is represented by Milton as next to Satan in power and in crime. The crime is the crime of rebellion against god. Beelzebub followed Satan, next in the act of rebellion. Next to Satan, Beelzebub shared the greatest responsibility for the rebellion against god and overthrow of the angels.

Critical Analysis of John Keats' "Ode on Melancholy" :Serene Acceptance of the Whole of Life, its Pathos and its Piety

Among all the diverse odes of John Keats, the Ode on Melancholy is the only one which approximates in thought and style to the maturity of his final poem the Fall of Hyperion. Unlike Ode to a Nightingale and Ode on a Grecian Urn this Ode does not merely explore ways of escape from the painful realities of life. It is one poem which does not shun reality but rather exhorts man to experience and even relish reality both its joys and its sorrows. A short poem of only there stanzas it rivals Ode to Autumn in its vivid power of expression the sublime truth that ' truth is beauty’. Instead of flying from life into the elusive world of the natural nightingale or the delusive world of the artful Urn in Ode on Melancholy seizes on life itself.

"Son and Lovers" by D. H. Lawrence: Important Short Questions


  Son and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence

  1. When and why does Clara return to her husband?
Ans- Baxter Dawes once becomes seriously ill and he imagines that he is going to die soon. When Clara comes to know about Dawes condition, she is obviously moved. Remorse fully she says that she has been very rude to him. She further admits that her husband has loved thousand times better than Paul. Thus Clara ultimately returns to her husband and become man and wife again.
 
  1. How does Paul react to his mother’s death?
Ans:- At his mother’s death Paul bewails the event most lamentably. He, alike a possessive, did not allow the neighbors to see the dead body. At the some time Paul is angry with him father for sentimentalizing over the death of his wife. A kind of nihilism overcomes the young man and there is a kind of emptiness in the objects about him.

The Epilogue to "Saint Joan" by George Bernard Shaw: St. Joan's Triumph Over the Forces of Death and Glory of Canonization

British playwright George Bernard Shaw was 
awarded the 1925 Nobel Prize for the play, Saint Joan.

The Epilogue to Saint Joan is a real attempt to show Joan's tragedy in the ultimate light of divine comedy"-Nicholas Greene

Despite of the criticism as anticlimactic, being comic in tone adversely in the tragic piece, the Epilogue to Saint Joan mends a through understanding. St. Joan in the play is independent, courageous and Zealous. Read More George Bernard Shaw Yet she had to die because as a protestant she threatened the authority of the church, and as a nationalistic she imperiled the power of feudal lords. This theme of the rejection of the moral genius by the conservative elements of society is recapitulated and generalized in epilogue through comic overtone.

Wednesday, August 1, 2012

"The Fly" by Katharine Mansfield : Model Question Paper English Literature Literary Texts


 Difficulty Level: Post Graduation        Time: 1hr 30 Mnt
Each Question: Word Limit: 30 
                                                      The Fly by Katharine Mansfield

  1. For what purpose did Woodifield come to the boss?
  1. When was Mr.Woodifield allowed to go out freely? What did his wife and daughter imagine he did on that day?
  1. Give in not more than thirty words your first impression of Mr.Woodifield?
  1. What new object the boss show to Woodifield?
  1. There was something I wanted to tell you said old Woodifield. – What did old Woodifield want to tell?
  1. Why did Woodifield girls go to Belgium?
  1. “They’re quite near each other, it seems.” – Who are they? How are they quite new to each other?
  1.  The girls were in Belgium last week having a look at poor Reggie’s grave – Who are the girls? Who is Reggie?
  1. What was the speciality about the wind that the boss offered to Woodifield?
  1. He couldn’t have look more surprised if the boss had produced a rabbit. – Who is he? Why is he surprised?
  1. There’s miles of it and it’s all as neat as a garden. – Who said this and to whom? What is referred to in the line?
  1. He wanted, he intended. He had arranged to weep….. – Who is ‘he’? Did he weep?
  1. Whom Macey had handed him telegram. – Who was Macey? To whom did he hand the telegram? What did the telegram contain?

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