- Renaissance- renaissance means revival or rebirth of Greek learning, rat, literature and culture of the middle Age in Europe. In England it comes through Italy flourished in the Elizabethan Age in the works of Shakespeare, Spenser, Merowe and Ben ton son.
- Reformation- Reformation was a religious Movement led by Martin Luther in the fifteenth century. It protested against the practices of the Roman Catholic Chance. It advocated complete faith in the Bible and one’s own soul for salvation.
- Wordsworthian definition of poetry- Poetry is a criticism of life musters the laws of poetic trust and poetic beauty. Poetry is a spontaneous overflow of powerful fillings, taking its origin from emotions recollected in tranquility.
- Poetic justice- The term poetic justice is coined by Thomas Rhyme. It means exact reward or punishment given to a character according to his good or bed deeds. This exactness of rustics is possible only in the word of poetry.
- Epic- The epic is the greatest and most sublime from of poetry. The Epic in a long poem divided in to several books, celebrating the life, heroic deeds and a achievements of a national hero, whether his trice or legendry.
Redefining the Goals of General Indian Learners of English in the PostColonial Context: English Teaching-Learning Framework Today; Post Independent Language Policy
- What is called sonnet sequence? Mention two sequences along with their authors.
- What is the meaning of the tile word Astrophel and Stella?
- Bring out the significance. What is the meaning of the title word Amoretti? How many sonnets are there in this series?
- “Oft turning other’s are leaves, to see if there would flow some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sun burnt brain”-Whose brain is ‘sun burnt’ and why? What is meant by ‘showers’?
- Which is called ‘nature’s child’ and why?
- ‘Vain man’, said she, “that dost in vain assay”- Why does the lady call the man ‘vain’? It the lady right in saying so?
- “My verse yours virtues rare shall eternize”- rewrite the sentence in proper grammatical order. What kind of rhetoric is in the quoted line?
- To whom does Shakespeare address his Sonnet no 130? Give two examples of ‘false comparisons’ criticized by Shakespeare this sonnet?
- What is called ‘Volta’ of a sonnet?
- What is stanza division of Shakespearean sonnet? How is it different from Spenser’s?
- Why is the poet, Sidney eager to write verse and to address it to the beloved?
- And yet by heaven, I think my love as rare, As any she belied with false compare.
- O; none, unless this miracle have might, That in black ink my love may still shine bright
- Where when as death shall all the world subdue, Our love shall live, and later life renew
- Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite /”Fool”, said my Muse to me, “Look in thy heart, and write;
- Dickens set so personal a stamp on his books that at every turn he seemed to be an innovator.
- Dickens’ novels reflect the contemporary Victorian urban society with all its conflicts and disharmonies, both physical and intellectual. The stories of Dickens reflect the social evils of the Victorian Age.
- Lamb seldom permitted his profounder views of life to appear above the humorous, pathetic and ironical surface of his writings.
- ‘Above all Charles Lamb was a refined humanist whose smile could be both satirist and tender.’‘Lambs’ essays are lyric poems in prose.’
- Keats was a romantic poet who believed in the importance of sensation and its pleasures which included taste, touch and smell as well as hearing and sight.
has been called ‘a mystic through the medium of the senses’.
- Shelley’s weaknesses as a writer have always been evident; rhetorical abstraction; intellectual arrogance; and movements of intense self-pity. But in great poems like the "West Wind" or great prose works like "Defence", it is precisely these limitations that he transcends, and indeed explodes.
- In the best of Shelley’s poetry, there is splendour of movement and realization of visionary intensity.
Is J. M. Synge’s Riders To The Sea Dramatic?The contentious issue of whether Riders To The Sea is lacking in dramatic action or the characters --- themselves entirely passive , is usually resolve in contrary manners by contradicting critics since there is no human conflict nor is there major dramatic action occurring on the stage - has often led to the opinion that it has a relatively passive plot .
That has such people in't!”
- Critics of Chaucer divided his work into three periods the French period, the Italian period, and the English period.
- To the first is assigned his " A. B. C.," a prayer to the Virgin, translated from the French; a translation of the " Romance of the Rose ; " the " Compleynte of Pity" (1368?), and the "Book of the Duchess,” a poem commemorating the death in 1369 of the Duchess Blanche.
- To the second period, extending from 1372 to 1384, during which, as we have seen, Chaucer three times visited Italy, and is supposed to have fallen under Italian literary influence, are assigned his " Parliament of Fowls," " Troilus and Cresside," certain of the " Canterbury Tales," the " House of Fame," and some minor poems.
T. S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral is not just a dramatization of the death of Thomas Becket: It Is a Deep Searching Study of the Significance of Martyrdom
Subject -- English; June: 2012; Paper – II
(ALL THE ANSWERS ARE COLOURED. I HAVE TRIED TO GIVE LOGIC BEHIND ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS. WITHOUT SYLLOGISTIC FORMAT YOU NEED AN ELFIN TOWER TALL HEAD.)
What is the advantage using ‘stream of consciousness’ technique in Virginia Woolf’s ‘To The Lighthouse?
Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers is Autobiographical Novel- Discussion on how Autobiography has Shaped the Growth of the Theme of the Novel and how Lawrence’s Personal Experiences have Shaped the Mode and Material
Joseph Addison as an Essayist: The Social Documents of the Eighteenth Century English Life of Middle-class People
Short notes on History of English Literature
The Dream of the Rood
- There are certain religious poems in the old English period which seem to have been written under the influence of Cynewulf. It is known as Cynewulf Cycle, and of some of these Cynewulf (born cir . 750) was certainly the author, since he wove his name into the verses in the manner of an acrostic.
- One (the Vercelli Book, which turned up, rather mysteriously, in a small town in northern Italy) contains Christian poems based on themes from the New Testament or lives of saints; the best known of these is the “Dream of the Rood,” spoken by the cross on which Jesus was crucified.
- The best-known surviving Christian poem, probably written by Cynewulf, “The Dream of the Rood,” shows how the religious message could be blended with the traditional heroic motifs.
- The text of The Dream of the Rood is chiseled as runic text onto the Ruthwell Cross of Northumbria.
- The Dream of the Rood and Elene both are discoveries of the cross- The discovery in Elene is pseudo-historical; that in the Dream is visionary.'
- The role of the Cross formulates an interesting paradox: The Cross serves as a faithful retainer, but in order to obey its Lord, it has to become his slayer.
- The poem has quite a few apocalyptic elements. One of those is the idea of the Cross as a salvatory instrument before judgement.
- Similar poems with Cynewulf’s guidance: Juliana; The Christ ; Andreas , a story of St. Andrew; Elene , which describes the search for the cross on which Christ died, and which is a prototype of the search for the Holy Grail; Fates of the Apostles.
- There is little agreement among scholars as to who wrote most of these poems. The only works to which Cynewulf signs his name are The Christ , Elene , Juliana and Fates of the Apostles . All others are doubtful, and our biography of Cynewulf is largely a matter of pleasant speculation.
- Aside from the value of these works as a reflection of Anglo-Saxon ideals, they are our best picture of Christianity as it appeared in England during the eighth and ninth centuries.
- Most of the poem tells of a dream in which the “Rood” (the cross on which Jesus was crucified) tells of the crucifixion.
- But instead of showing Jesus as a passively suffering victim, the poem depicts him as a conquering hero, eagerly embracing the cross. Old English heroes were supposed to fight fiercely, not turn the other cheek.
- It is the oldest surviving English poem in the form of a dream or vision.
- It falls into three parts: the opening words of the dreamer, the words spoken by the Rood, and the words of the dreamer, after the dream is over.
- The speaker beings with his dream in which he saw the true Cross and it spoke to him, telling him its history from the time when it was a tree growing in the woods to the time.
- The Rood goes on to urge the dreamer to promote its cult, where the practical point and purpose of the dream comes out.
- Which the Rood’s speech the dreamer ends his narration.
- The dreamer now exclaims how his dream about the Rood has changed his life for ever since he has devoted himself to the cult of the True Cross, and hopes to win a heavenly home thereby.
- In this way, the poem concludes with the dreamer’s account of his own religious hopes.
- This poem is charged with a simple eloquence and sustains a high note of religious fervour.
An English Teacher; M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified
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