AD's English Literature : May 2013

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 60 (Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore): Time’s Destruction is Inevitable, The Verse Will Get Away With It



SONNET 60

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,
So do our minutes hasten to their end;
Each changing place with that which goes before,
In sequent toil all forwards do contend. 

Nativity, once in the main of light,
Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd,
Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight,
And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.

Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth
And delves the parallels in beauty's brow,
Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth,
And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow:

   And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand,
   Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand.


This is one of the most famous of the William Shakespeare’s sonnets and perhaps the best illustration of the theme of the ravages of time. Each quatrain engages the theme in a unique way, with the destructive force of time redoubling with each successive line. Although the poet seems certain that Time’s destruction is inevitable, he is none the less hopeful that his verse will get away with it in the end.

Sunday, May 26, 2013

Ben Jonson: English Dramatist and Poet of Classical Learning, Gift for Satire, and Brilliant Style made him one of the Great Figures of English Literature

When first he threw in his lot with the playwrights, Ben Jonson frankly followed the current demand for romantic drama, showing no small skill in adopting the full – blooded romantic manner. Even here, in the early years of apprenticeship, he displayed vigorous power of imagination; but romantic drama was not characteristically expressive of the man’s personality. After his dismissal by the theatrical manager, Henslowe, a rival manager – William Shakespeare – came forward and helped him to put on his comedy, Every Man in His Humour. It was performed in 1598 by the Lord Chamberlain's Company with William Shakespeare in the cast.   Here Jonson for the first time struck the anti – romantic note, and sought to establish a satirical comedy of manners framed in a definite plan. He saw clearly enough that despite the splendid, exuberant power of the Shakespearean drama, there was no underlying theory or convention, and that its tendency to guide and control. 


In the prologue to Every Man in His Humour (1599), Jonson puts forward his plan of reform, clouting to “sport with human follies, not with crimes”. The word “humour”, as used by Jonson, implied some oddity of disposition, especially with regard to the manners of the day. Jonson had invented a kind of topical comedy involving eccentric characters, each of whom represented a temperament, or humor, of humanity. Here is the same care for clearness and definition are observed; but the moral aim of the satirist is somewhat too obvious; and the machinery creaks at times rather painfully. 

Friday, May 24, 2013

Comparative Study of Spenser's Amoretti ( Sonnet No. 75) and Sidney’s Astrphel and Stella ( Sonnet No.1)


Even though the Spenserian Sonnet Sequence of Amoretti parallels the contemporary sequences like Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella, Daniel's Delia, Drayton’s Idea, and Shakespeare's sonnets, it is unique in the realm of love-sonnets by the virtue of its dramatic lyrics. 

Sonnet No.75 (One day I wrote her name upon the strand) of Amoretti not only presents the dramatic background for the intensely personal colloquy between the lover and the beloved, but it seems to be even a reenactment of the eternal drama of mortality and immortality. 

The first quatrain presents the lover attempt to eternize his beloved’s name on the sea-shore, the second the lady’s virgins opposition since she feels instead that she cannot be eternized by a mere physical etching; and finally  the poet lover's declaration that the extermination of his beloved would proceed naturally from time's point of view but his poetry enliven their token of love forever.
              “Vayne man”, sayd she,“that doest in vaine assay,
            A mortall thing so to unmortalize,
            For I my selve shall lyke to this decay,
            And eek my name bee wiped out likewise”.

Thursday, May 23, 2013

Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 (Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?) - Fair Lord’s Timeless Beauty


SONNET 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date: 

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;

But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this and this gives life to thee. 


 William Shakespeare’s sonnets are grouped in a rough pattern, loosely linked by subject matter, stylistic device, or theme. The first 126 sonnets are addressed to the young nobleman. In the first 17 sonnets the poet urges the young man to marry and beget children, since his youth will fade.However, William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 18  is arguably the most famous of the sonnets, its opening line competitive with “Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?” in the long list of Shakespeare’s quotable quotations. And the gender of the addressee is not explicit, but this is the first sonnet after the so-called “procreation sonnets” (sonnet 1-17), i.e., it apparently marks the place where the poet has abandoned his earlier push to persuade the fair lord to have a child. The first two quatrains focus on the fair lord’s beauty: the poet attempts to compare it to a summer’s day, but shows that there can be no such comparison, since the fair lord’s timeless beauty far surpasses that of the fleeting, inconstant season.

Model English Note -7 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations


Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  

1. What is the called pantheism?                                                                                             
 Ans- The concept that everything is God or mature is God. In Christian terms this was somewhat flawed if not heretical. Such is the Wordsworthian view that nature is spiritually felt and transmuted. His views evolved  and changed but they fundamentally saw a supernal element in nature.
2. Which is the called a ‘succession of’ hungry generation’ in Nightingale’s why? 
                                                                         
Ans- Keats observe a pessimistic outlook in his Nightingale. The transitory world is an inadequate place to live-in. The very helm of our existence is hunted by loss, decay and detrimentality. Such is the case with human life which is affected by pains. Keats means this world by the quoted phrase.
3. As lumber did my spirit seal-what is the reason behind the poet’s slumber? 
                                                      
Ans- Lucy’s presence in the poet’s life has engrossed him so much so that he has lost him selfontrol and has imbedded through the mysterious and impulsive power of the lady. A slumber is a state of total surrender of self in the benevolent power of Lucy.
4. The wild swans at cooled ends with a note of fear-What is it and why does the poet think so? 
                                
Ans-Yeats concludes his lyric by saying that the beauty of the swans, with its mystery and passions might not be seen in future. what he fears is that he might be burden of  the eye for such a beautiful sight. He might  loss the vision as a result of it.
5. What might be the reasons of the travel lees arrival at the haunted house? 
                                                                  
Ans- The traveler has an appointment with somebody at this place and at this stipulated time. But such a place of supernatural powers and the imams vicious time indicates that the invitee as well as traveler are placed deliberately in such a condition to meet the unseen third persons-the weird aspects.
6. To what does Ulysses refer when he speaks of the ‘Happy Isles’?                                                                           
Ans-Addressing his mariners, Ulysses bids farther brave the world with indomitable spirit, dignity and velour. By the journey made, he might roach the shore of Happy Isle-a remote island of the Vilest, indentified with the Elysian Fields as the abode of the us at men after death. BY him brave uncanny journey he might reach the reign of death and meet great Greek heroes like Achilles.

Friday, May 17, 2013

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 65 (Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea): Addressing the Passage of Time on Earthly Things but not on Love




SONNET NO. 65

Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea,
But sad mortality o'er-sways their power,
How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea,
Whose action is no stronger than a flower? 

O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out
Against the wreckful siege of battering days,
When rocks impregnable are not so stout,
Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays?

O fearful meditation! where, alack,
Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid?
Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back?
Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? 

 O, none, unless this miracle have might,
 That in black ink my love may still shine bright. 

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 65 continues the theme of the two sonnets preceding it, addressing the passage of time with the similar approach of how it destroys all earthly things. Sonnet No. 64 discusses the “lofty towers I see down-raz’d”, the “brass” which is “eternal slave to mortal rage,” or a victim to war, and the destruction of “the kingdom of the shore” by the “hungry ocean” Here again, “brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea” can escape the ravages of time.

Line 3 asks, “How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea,” characterizing beauty as the plaintiff in a legal dispute. Time is thus characterized as an unfair tyrant, against which delicate beauty stands no chance in court. The legal terminology is continued in the following line with the use of the word “action.” The idea of time’s “rage” links Sonnet No. 65 to the previous sonnet. In Sonnet No. 64, “brass” is described as an “eternal slave to mortal rage.” The term “rage” in association with time is also seen in Sonnet No.13, which refers to the “barren rage of death’s eternal cold.”

Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 55 (Not marble, nor the gilded monuments ): Shakespeare Seeks to Build a Figurative Monument to His Beloved, the Fair Lord


SONNET NO. 55

Not marble, nor the gilded monuments a
 Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme;b
But you shall shine more bright in these contents a
Than unswept stone besmear'd with sluttish time.b 4

When wasteful war shall statues overturn,
c
And broils root out the work of masonry,
d
Nor Mars his sword nor war's quick fire shall burn
c

 The living record of your memory.d 8

'Gainst death and all-oblivious enmity
 
 Shall you pace forth; your praise shall still find room f 
Even in the eyes of all posteritye
That wear this world out to the ending doom.
f 12

So, till the judgment that yourself arise,
g
You live in this, and dwell in lovers' eyes.
g 14


The ancient poets (Ovid, Horace etc.) and to some extent, their renaissance imitators made certain distinctions between different kinds of transience, which is not found in the sonnets of Shakespeare. In such ancient poetry, we very often find a distinction between Ovid’s all – devouring Time and Horace’s brief span of Time allotted to humans. There is also a further distinction between the brevity of human life in general and the still briefer brevity of youth and beauty. However,  Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 55 builds on Horace’s theme of poetry outlasting physical monuments to the dead: Exegi monumentum aere perennius / Regalique situ pyramidum altius … / Non omnis moriar. This phrase translates to, “I have built a monument more lasting than bronze / And taller than the regal peak of the pyramids… / I shall never completely die. In Horace’s Ode 3.30, it is himself who will be immortalized by his poetry, but in the case of Sonnet No. 55 Shakespeare seeks to build a figurative monument to his beloved, the Fair Lord, “Mr. W. H.”.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

John Milton’s Paradise Lost and University Notes

  •  Milton's indebtedness to earlier poetry in his use of epic convention. His magnificent ‘Paradise Lost' is considered to be the finest epic poem in the English language.     
  •                                                                          
  •  Milton modified classical epic convention in the first 26 lines of Paradise Lost.
    (Bk-1) to suit his own purpose. Milton's originality in his use of the invocation- Fusion of the pagan (classical)  and the Christian.
  •  
  •  Milton's portrayal of Satan is unique—a character with real motivations and desires, Satan is led astray by excessive pride and belief in his own power over God’s power.
  •  
  • For the student who is reading Milton's work for the first time, his poetry is admittedly difficult. There are many references to obscure Biblical and mythological people. Milton's language is often high-flown, deliberately literary, and far from common or natural. 

  • John Milton
    Once these difficulties are overcome, however, the student can recognize why Milton is great. First, he sees that Milton's subjects are lofty and magnificent. The conflict between Satan and God in ‘Paradise Lost', however far from the reader's own experience, is one that he knows is basic to all religious thought. The theme of ‘Samson Agonistes' is closer to home, yet the agony and the final triumph of the blinded Samson are tragic and sublime.

  • Second, Milton tells an engrossing story. Action is swift and events are exciting. The characters are human and believable. Indeed, many critics have felt that Milton made Satan too human.

Articulation and Philology: Velar closure and Velic closure : Contrastive distribution and free variation : Consonant cluster and consonant gemination.



  1. Which is the position of Soft Palate during the production of [n]?
Ans:  Soft Palate is lowered to touch the back of the tongue.

  1. Velar Consonant and Velarized Consonant.
  Ans:    A velar consonant is one in which the primary arliculatary feature is the movement of the back of the tongue towards the S.P. [k], [g] and [n] are all velar consonants. A velarised consonant is one in which there is a secondary movement of the back of the tongue towards the s.p.or velum e.g. [t] which occurs only before consonants and in the final position is a velarised consonant because in addition to the primary articulatory movement of the tip of the tongue towards the alveolar ridge, the back of the tongue is raised towards the s.p. or velum.

  1. Linking /r/ and intrusive /r/:
Ans: Although /r/ is not pronounced in the final position in English, it is pronounced it the ward ending with this sound is followed them another word beginning with a vowel sound in a continuous utterance. This phenomena is called linking /r/. e.g. ' father arrived ' Intrusive /r/ is the name of the phenomena in which there is an addition of the speech sound /r/ between syllables or words in connected speech for the ease of pronunciation e.g. there is an intrusive /r/ in the pronunciation of 'Law and order ' /la:ran'c:ds/

  1. Active and Passive Articulator:       
   Ans:  The active articulator is the member of the oral cavity which moves towards another relatively placid member in order to form particular strictures. ---
      The passive articulator is the relatively placid member towards which an active articulator moves to from a particular stricture and sound. In the production of the sound [t], the active articulator is the tip of the tongue and the passive articulator is the alveolar ridge.

Edmund Spenser’s Literary Works that Bridged the Medieval and Elizabethan Periods


It was Charles Lamb who called Spenser ‘the poet’s poet”. Spenser is called ‘the child of Renaissance and Reformation’ as his works are the finest expression and exposition of the ideals and principles of the Renaissance and the reformation. Spenser was an extremely learned poet, acquainted with the best models not only in English, but in Greek, Latin, Italian, and French. Like Wyatt and Surrey, Spenser derived his chief impulse from Italy. He knew and admired Chaucer and the other old English poets, but his real masters were Ariosto and Tasso. 

Spenser stands in between Chaucer and Shakespeare and it would not be wrong to entitle him as the “second father” of English poetry as Chaucer is called the father of English poetry. However, a greater contrast to Chaucer it would be difficult to imagine. Spenser "dwelt in a world ideal;" the visionary sights and beings which fill the land of Faerie floated round him continually; his imagination rose above the rough practical world in which he lived to take refuge with the allegorical beings who occupied his thoughts. Chaucer, on the other hand was very well satisfied with this world, enjoying heartily the frolics, the eccentricities, the virtues, nay even the vices of its inhabitants, ready always to laugh with those who laughed, and to weep with those who wept. There is, as will be admitted even by his warmest admirers, a want of human interest about Spenser's works; it is just their deep human interest which makes Chaucer’s works so constantly attractive in spite of their antique dialect, and the fact that they refer to a condition of society which can now be conceived only by an effort of the imagination. 

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

The Dawn of British drama: A Vehicle of Religious Propaganda



Drama is defined as an articulate story presented in action: The origins of Drama  have always been deeply rooted in the religious instincts of mankind. This is true of the Greeks, Indians, Chinese, Egyptians and also Christians. In Europe, the Church was the cradle of English drama. In fact, English Drama  originated as a vehicle of religious propaganda. In their attempts to Christianize the Celtic island, the inhabitants of which were illiterate, drama was chosen as a mode of presentation and it was hoped that this spectacular and visual performance could have better effect on the people.  Dramatized versions of biblical stories, from the creation to the Resurrection, were popular in the middle Ages. Their early history cannot be confidently outlined, though it is widely accepted that the movement towards dramatizing Christian doctrine and biblical history outgrew the comments “upon our literature the drama is incomparably the greatest force of the time it inspired our grandest poetry as well as our sweetest lyrics: it gave variety, flexibility and clarity to our prose. Philosophic reflection, poignant introspection, joyousness of heart, agony of sprit: all these things clamored for utterance in drama.” 

‘The Ox’ Renders ‘Unsentimental Pities’ for those that Suffer Alone – Character sketches of Mrs. Thurlow




In H. E. Bates' The Ox we find Mrs. Thurlow is grounded by poverty and being ever immersed in toiling life, is often troubled by the harsh remarks of his husband and sons.  She receives reproaches   for her dullness in as much as she does not stir herself about emotions but money. Her necessity and the constant drudgery are set out to try her fortune to seek a better future for his two sons. Fatigued by the labours of the four square, she stooped to bovine spirit. Describing her toils the author indirectly deplores both her approach as well as the society’s insipid outlook. Read More Short Stories Her way lacks the generous woman’s heart, a motherly love, no less than the wandering beggars whose needs never meets all ends. So she comes home with a further throng of beggars behind her.  Bate sees the scene and becomes desperate. He does not curse poverty, but in a few lines droops down the story of Mrs. Thurlow in dead silence with ‘unsentimental pity’.

 In absolute poverty, without proper food, decent clothing, and timely sleep, Mrs. Thurlow continues to serve his master with diligence. She knows no comfort. The Ox is a story of such a bereaved mother and lonely suffering . Hers is the story pathetic, sentimental and earns the pity of the reader for her relentless struggle- To survive her family particularly breeding of her children. Hers is the story of isolation from the mirth of life and to lead herself into the domain of suffering devoid of sentiment and any sort of feelings exercised by an ordinary woman. 

This Thurlow’s has a dwelling on a small hill- a secluded domain of unforeseen calamity. The house is raised by invisible stilts and has a wooden flight of steps to the front door. As the house if isolated and exposed in any position where wind strikes at it from all quarters. In front of the house there lay empty ploughed lands and has the color of wet steel. The country outside has its wide horizons has the beauty per excellence. But all this means nothing to Mrs. Thurlow. She is circling in the sphere of her houses hills empty barren front lands and the windy shakes. All this situations perfectly suits the psyche of Mrs. Thurlow. Read More Short Stories She is burdening her world with the circumference of hazards. Her gamut of thought, her liking and disliking so profusely and profoundly within the small circumference of living and sustenance of her family and her sons that she is, in real sense isolated, dejected, dilapidated, rejected and frustrated in  a condition that is perfectly an objective correlative to the very setting of the house.

Tuesday, May 7, 2013

SHAKESPEARE BIOGRAPHY: Students' Approaches




William Shakespeare is the English playwright and poet who is recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists and the most widely quoted author in history, details about whose life are sketchy, mere surmise based upon court or other clerical records. For someone who lived almost 400 years ago, a surprising amount is known about Shakespeare’s life. Indeed we know more about his life than about almost any other writer of his age.

There are still significant gaps, and therefore much supposition surrounds the facts we have. His parents, John and Mary (Arden), were married about 1557; she was of the landed gentry, he a yeoman-a Glover and commodities merchant. By 1568, John had risen through the ranks of town government and held the position of high bailiff, similar to mayor. Although the exact date of Shakespeare’s birth is unknown, his baptism on April 26, 1564, was recorded in the parish register of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, a prosperous town in the English Midlands. Based on this record and on the fact that children in Shakespeare’s time were usually baptized two or three days after birth, April 23 has traditionally been accepted as his date of birth.  The Shakespeare also died on April 23, 52 years later, may have resulted in the adaptation of this birth date.

William no doubt attended the Stratford grammar school, the King’s New School in Stratford where his parents lived, and would have studied primarily Latin rhetoric, logic, and literature. Shakespeare’s writings show that he was well acquainted with the Latin poet Ovid as well as other Latin works, including comedies by Terence and Plautus, two much-admired Roman playwrights. William most probably serve as a schoolmaster for the Hoghtons, a Catholic family in Lancashire between his baptism and his marriage.  At age 18(On November 27, 1582), William married Anne Hathaway, a Warwickshire farmer’s daughter eight years his senior. Their first daughter (Susanna) was born six months later (1583), and twins Judith and Hamnet were born in 1585.

Shakespeare’s life can be divided into three periods: the first 20 years in Stratford, which include his schooling, early marriage and fatherhood; the next 25 years as an actor and playwright in London; and the last five in retirement back in Stratford where he enjoyed moderate wealth gained from his theatrical successes. The years linking the first two periods are marked by a lack of information about Shakespeare, and are often referred to as the “dark years”; the transition from active work into retirement was gradual and cannot be precisely dated.

The Rich Metaphorical Significance of the Hell-scene in G. B. Shaw's "Man and Superman"



Act III of Man and Superman is loaded with rich metaphorical significance. It is virtually a full-fledged one-act play incorporated into and inter-fused with the texture of this drama by the superb dramatic genius of Shaw. The drama being a realistic one the Hall scene typifies Shaw’s ability to create fantasy.

 Indeed it is suggestive of an exquisite imaginative fecundity of Shaw. Thus, by skillfully interweaving this piece of fantasy with the drama Shaw has made wonderful admixture of realism and fantasy. “Without this scene Man and Superman is merely a comedy, the story of a marathon man-hunt on the part of a woman. With this scene alone it attains the dignity of a philosophy”. In stage representation this scene proved to be exceptionally effective and Shaw himself intended it to figure as a vital and inextricable part of the drama. The entire scene is laden with philosophical ideas of almost encyclopedic magnitude. Prof. A. C. Ward has made an illuminating comment on the merit of this scene; “Among the many conversation – pieces in Shaw’s plays this is supreme. In sustained brilliance of argument in paradox and wit and humor, it is unsurpassed in dramatic literature. Yet these are no more than its raw materials”.

The scene is conspicuous for its verbal music. It is a marvelous tour de force of discussions, capable of enthralling the listeners by its sheer power of enchanting music apart from the merit of rich philosophical undertone. The meaning underlying this scene is of no mean importance. Commenting on the musical aspect of this scene, Prof. A. C. Ward says;“Passages of Mozart’s music bridge the gap between the actual and the drama state as the scene begins and great chords roll out later”.

Great Expectations: Characters and “Family Tree”




 “It is the real unconquerable rush and energy in a character which was the supreme and quite indescribable greatness of Dickens.” - G. K. Chesterton 

Pip (Young Phillip Pirrip)
*               The narrator as well as the protagonist of the story.
*      Pip is an orphan being raised by his sister, Mrs. Joe Gargey and her husband, Mr. Joe Gargery, a blacksmith.
*        in constant fear of punishment -A sensitive boy, he is frequently beaten or starved and verbally abused by his sister.
*      Pip has long-standing belief that he deserves more in life than becoming a blacksmith like Joe.

Characteristics of Renaissance: Reflection in Literature


“In essence the Renaissance was simply the green end of one of civilization's hardest winters.”
John Fowles (1926 - 2005)
British novelist.
The French Lieutenant's Woman



The characteristics of Renaissance, both in England in Europe, were similar. Freedom of thought and a broadened vision became the order of the day. Dogma in matters of fate or destiny and morals disappeared. Read More History of English Literature (Short questions) Reformation questioned the authority of the spiritual energy. The discoveries of navigators and astronomers created a sense of wonder and astonishment on the part of men and women. Classical Literature of Rome and Greece was looked upon as very great and beautiful.

Sunday, May 5, 2013

The World of Egdon Heath in Thomas Hardy’s The Return of the Native

There were many texts of Thomas Hardy based on animism, the belief that all objects have a spiritual being. This belief led to his careful stewardship of nature out of fear or respect for these divine spirits. Moreover, rustic lifestyles, dependent on nature become respectful attire in his writing. The same is true for his The Return of the Native. Here the nature is presented through the Egdon Heath which is a fictitious area of Thomas Hardy's Wessex . However, Hardy draws Egdon Heath keeping in mind east of Dorchester and north-west of Wareham broadly.

The Three Woman and Their Respective Approaches Towards Egdon Health: Eustacia Vye, Thomasin and Mrs. Yeobright are the three women as mentioned in Book 1 of The Return of the Native. This three major woman character had their different reactions and outlooks towards Egdon.

Thursday, May 2, 2013

George Bernard Shaw as a Dramatist: “For art’s sake’ alone I would not face the toil of writing a single sentence”



Before George Bernard Shaw started his career as a dramatist, the English drama had already entered into a new phase of development under the influence of the Norweigian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The romantic tradition of the Elizabethan drama which held the English stage for more than three centuries began to lose its influence from the middle of the nineteenth century. “Is drama to be limited to the surface characteristics of a life that is no longer lived in surface, or will drama reflect in form and substances the deepest life of the time?” This was the question which vigorously agitated the mind of the mid-Victorian dramatists. They finally realized that the new drama had a serious purpose to server and it should be brought in line discarded the romantic tradition of the Old English drama and accepted the real and serious problem of the age as the themes of the new English drama. In the absence of any British playwright to supply them with motive and model they drew inspiration from the continental playwrights particularly from Ibsen who had already made social problems of his time the subjects of his plays.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 43



Short notes on History of English Literature
A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
  
a.  Catherine is the heroine of ‘A Farewell to Arms’.Henry is the hero of ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Lieutenant Henry was commander of an Ambulance unit.
b.    Willy Loman is a hero of ‘Death of a Salesman’.
c.   ‘Walden’ is written by Thoreau. Mahatma Gandhi was inspired by Thoreau. Thoreau had read Hindu Scriptures.
d.    ‘Stopping by Woods’ inspired Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
e.    Frost is also called a regional and pastoral poet.
f.    In the last scene of Hamlet Horatio   bids flights of angels to sing Hamlet to his rest.
g.   Jane Austen’s light comic touch and finely developed sense of irony are evident in Emma.
h.  Jane Austen’s last completed novel, Persuasion, has a more sombre tone than her earlier work.

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

UGC NET Solved Paper II; Subject -- English; December: 2012



UGC NET Solved Paper II; Subject -- English; December: 2012

 Note: This paper contains fifty (50) objective type questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. Attempt all the questions.

 [Maximum Marks: 100 Time: 75 mnts]

(ALL THE ANSWERS ARE COLOURED. I HAVE TRIED TO GIVE LOGIC BEHIND ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS. WITHOUT SYLLOGISTIC FORMAT YOU NEED AN ELFIN TOWER TALL HEAD.)

1. Identify the work below that does not belong to the literature of the
eighteenth century:
(A) Advancement of Learning
(B) Gulliver’s Travels
(C) The Spectator
(D) An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot
(Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626), English philosopher, statesman, and lawyer composed The Advancement of Learning. Here Bacon   sets guidelines for study and presents a highly organized survey and classification of knowledge. Bacon rejects learning by astrologers and others who gather unrelated facts. )
2. Which, among the following, is a place through which John Bunyan’s
Christian does NOT pass?
(A) The Slough of Despond
(B) Mount Helicon
(C) The Valley of Humiliation
(D) Vanity Fair
(Christian, a character in The Pilgrim's Progress, passes through places bearing names like Vanity, Beulah, Doubting Castle, and Beautiful. He also encounters physical obstacles like the Slough of Despond, the Hill Difficulty, the Valley of the Shadow of Death, and the river before the gate to the Celestial City. They all represent different spiritual and mental states and temptations or the particular psychological condition one will fall prey to when one's faith begins to slip.)
3. The period of Queen Victoria’s reign is
(A) 1830–1900
(B) 1837–1901
(C) 1830–1901
(D) 1837–1900
4. Which of the following statements about The Lyrical Ballads is NOT
true ?
(A) It carried only one ballad proper, which was Coleridge’s
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.
(B) It also carried pastoral and other poems.
(C) It carried a “Preface” whichWordsworth added in 1800.
(D) It also printed from Gray’s Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.
5. One of the following texts was published earlier than 1955. Identify the text:
(A) William Golding, The Inheritors
(B) Philip Larkin, The Less Deceived
(C) William Empson, Collected Poems
(D) Samuel Becket, Waiting for Godot
6. Who among the poets in England during the 1930s had left–leaning tendencies ?
(A) T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Richard Aldington
(B) Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon, Rupert Brooke
(C) W. H. Auden, Louis MacNeice, Cecil Day Lewis
(D) J. Fleckner, W. H. Davies, Edward Marsh
(W. H. Auden was the center of a group of literary intellectuals that included Stephen Spender, Christopher Isherwood, C. Day Lewis, and Louis MacNeice. They belonged to a circle of promising young poets who were strongly leftist (people who advocate liberal or radical measures to effect change in the established order, especially in politics).
 ( QUESTION BEARS A CONFUSION) OPTIONS –C/D IS CORRECT)

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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