AD's English Literature : Articulation and Philology: Velar closure and Velic closure : Contrastive distribution and free variation : Consonant cluster and consonant gemination.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

Articulation and Philology: Velar closure and Velic closure : Contrastive distribution and free variation : Consonant cluster and consonant gemination.

 


  1. Which is the position of Soft Palate during the production of [n]?
Ans:  Soft Palate is lowered to touch the back of the tongue.

  1. Velar Consonant and Velarized Consonant.
  Ans:    A velar consonant is one in which the primary arliculatary feature is the movement of the back of the tongue towards the S.P. [k], [g] and [n] are all velar consonants. A velarised consonant is one in which there is a secondary movement of the back of the tongue towards the s.p.or velum e.g. [t] which occurs only before consonants and in the final position is a velarised consonant because in addition to the primary articulatory movement of the tip of the tongue towards the alveolar ridge, the back of the tongue is raised towards the s.p. or velum.

  1. Linking /r/ and intrusive /r/:
Ans: Although /r/ is not pronounced in the final position in English, it is pronounced it the ward ending with this sound is followed them another word beginning with a vowel sound in a continuous utterance. This phenomena is called linking /r/. e.g. ' father arrived ' Intrusive /r/ is the name of the phenomena in which there is an addition of the speech sound /r/ between syllables or words in connected speech for the ease of pronunciation e.g. there is an intrusive /r/ in the pronunciation of 'Law and order ' /la:ran'c:ds/

  1. Active and Passive Articulator:       
   Ans:  The active articulator is the member of the oral cavity which moves towards another relatively placid member in order to form particular strictures. ---
      The passive articulator is the relatively placid member towards which an active articulator moves to from a particular stricture and sound. In the production of the sound [t], the active articulator is the tip of the tongue and the passive articulator is the alveolar ridge.

  1. velar closure and velic closure :   
     Ans:A velic closure is one in which the soft palate or velum is raised to touch the back wall of the pharynx in order to completely back the passage of air through the nasal cavity as in the production of the stops like [p] , [t] , [k], [g], [b], [d] , and [ts] , [d3] . 
   A velar closure is one in which in addition to the velic closure the back of the tongue is raised to touch the raised soft palate so as to black the passage of air through both the oral and nasal cavities . The two velar stops [k] and [g] are produced in this manner.

  1. Broad and narrow transcription:
      Ans:  Broad transcription is a type of phonetic transcription using a restricted number of symbols and no allophonic variations so as to produce a readable transcript. A narrow transcription is a type of phonetic transcription which tries to represent the speech as accurately as possible by the use of all the allomorphic variations. E.g. in representing the English word  ' pit ‘/pit / is a broad transcription narrow transcription [phit]

  1. chest pulse and stress pulse :
        Ans:A chest pulse is the muscular contraction of the diaphragm which begins the aggressive pulmonic air stream and produces an ordinary syllable. A stressed pulse or a sinecure chest pulse is on which occurs with an extra burst of energy. A stressed pulse produces a stressed syllable.
 (i) voiced palats alveelar fricative  -- [3]
    (ii) voiced velar nasal -- {n}
    (iii)voiceless glottal fricative -- [h]
    (iv) voiced labio - velar semivowel  -- [w]

  1. What is a syllabic consonant? Give an example
Ans:When there is no vowel in a syllable and the consonant takes the position of the nucleus, then that consonant is known as syllabic consonant. For example, in the word 'uncle ' there is one vowel but two syllables: /nn/ and /ke/. In the latter there is no vowel, and it is the consonant /l/ which sweeps as the nuclide therefore /e/ is called a syllable consonant in this ease.
  1. Contrastive distribution and free variation : 
Ans:If two sounds can be substituted for each other and the substitution brings about a change in meaning, then they are said to be in contrastive distribution. For example in ' sit ' [sit] 'sin' [sin], [s] and [n] are in contrastive distribution, since the replacement brings about a change in meaning.
               Two sounds are said to be in free variation if their substitution by each other does not bring about a change in meaning. Far example 'cat' may be pronounced with either an unreleased ' plosive ' is in [khgt]or a released one [khgt<] at the end , but this toes not bring about a change in meaning . [t] And [t<] therefore in free variation.

  1. Consonant cluster and consonant gemination:
Ans: A consonant cluster is a combination of two or more adjacent consonants occurring within the same syllable. For example, the consonant cluster in 'stop ' has two consonants, and in ‘split ' has there consonant gemination refers to the repetition of the some consonant sound successively in the same syllable. There is no consonant gemination in English and that is why they pronounce ' bhutto ' with a single ' t ' sound. ' Contoids ' is a phonetic term referring to the entire class of consonantal sounds instinctive of language , in distinction from ' consonant ' which is a phonetic term referring to the consonants in a part language , similarly , 'Voeoids' is a phonetic term referring to the entire class of vowel sounds instinctive of language , in distinction from ' vowel ' which is a phonemic term referring to the vowels in a part language .

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