AD's English Literature : A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 49

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 49




Short notes on History of English Literature 



  1. Pecola is a character in: The Bluest Eye. Pecola in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye is raped by father figure and the novel is about a young black girl growing up in a violent, racist society.
  2. Virginia Woolf was associated with the “Bloomsbury Group”.Bloomsbury Group: Virginia Woolf, Leonard Sidney Woolf, Roger Fry, Clive Bell, John Maynard Keynes, Lytton Strachey, Desmond MacCarthy, E. M. Forster, Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant.
  3.  Lucky is a characters in Waiting for Godot.
  4. The last book of Gulliver’s Travels is : “Voyage to HouyhnhnmsVI ;“Voyage to Lilliput” I;“Voyage to Brobdingnag” II “Voyage to Laputa”III {Part I, Lemuel Gulliver describes how he began undertaking voyages as ship’s surgeon, and ended up during one voyage shipwrecked in Lilliput, a land where the people are twelve times smaller than in England. In Part II, another voyage takes Gulliver to Brobdingnag, a land where every living being is twelve times larger than in England.  Part III Gulliver visits the islands of Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdribb, and Japan. Laputa, the Flying Island, is an allegory of the court and government of George I. Part IV, Gulliver journeys to the land of the Houyhnhnms, rational horses, and the Yahoos, appallingly irrational humans.}
  5. Addison and Steele edited The Tatler.
  6. John Locke’s “Essay Concerning Human Understanding” is about:  nature of the human mind. John Locke In his major work entitled An Essay Concerning Human Understanding states that the mind of an individual is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, upon which experience imprints knowledge. This theory forms the basis of empiricism.
  7. Restoration Comedy marks the restoration of: monarchy .This period extends from 1660, the year Charles II was restored to the throne, until about 1789. The prevailing characteristic of the literature of the Renaissance had been its reliance on poetic inspiration or what today might be called imagination.
  8.  “Fearful Symmetry” appears in the poem :“The Tyger
  9. Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), English novelist and poet, born in Weymouth. A friend of the English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, he was Shelley's literary executor. The publication of Headlong Hall (1816) established Peacock's literary reputation. Nightmare Abbey (1818), a humorous satire of the Romantic Movement in England, is his best-known work.
  10. Thomas De Quincey (1785-1859), English writer, born in Manchester. At the age of 17 he ran away from school to Wales and from there to London. Later, however, he
    studied at the University of Oxford. In 1809 he settled in Grasmere, where he joined the literary circle of the poets Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, and Robert Southey and edited the Westmorland Gazette. Returning to London in 1820, he wrote Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821), a vivid description of his own experiences as an opium addict. He lived for 12 years (1828-40) in Edinburgh. In addition to many contributions in Blackwood's, Tait's Magazine, and Hogg's Instructor, his work includes Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts (1827), Suspiria de Profundis (1845), Joan of Arc (1847), The English Mailcoach (1849), and Autobiographic Sketches (1853).
  11. William Hazlitt (1778-1830), English essayist and critic, famous for the lucidity and brilliance, in both style and content, of his many essays.
  12. Edward Gibbon (1737-1794), the greatest English historian of his time and author of The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (1776-1788). Despite the availability of new factual data and recognition of Gibbon's Western bias, which placed moral judgments on the material decadence of Roman times, Decline and Fall is still read and enjoyed.
  13. Northrop Frye (1912-1991), Canadian literary critic, best known as a major proponent of archetypal criticism.Jacques Derrida (1930-2004), Algerian-born French philosopher, whose work originated the school of deconstruction, a strategy of analysis that has been applied to literature, linguistics, philosophy, law, and architecture.
  14. I. A. Richards (1893-1979), English literary critic, semanticist, and educator, born in Cheshire, and educated at the University of Cambridge. He taught at Harvard University from 1939 to 1963. With the British psychologist and educator Charles Kay Ogden, Richards wrote The Meaning of Meaning (1923), a modern study of semantics viewed from a historical and critical standpoint. Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), Science and Poetry (1926), and especially, Practical Criticism (1929) changed radically the way English is studied and taught. Richards emphasized the importance of close textual reading and warned against the dangers of sentimentality, generalizations, and lazy, careless reading. His work led to the New Criticism, which shaped literary analysis for much of the 20th century.
  15. Abbreviation: fan is a word derived  from fanatic but now it may be used as a verb also with its meaning slightly different ,sometimes we have now words by abbreviations –gin, brandy, rum are all abbreviations only.
  16.  Syncopation: when a vowel slides and the consonants on either side of it are run together, we have syncopation .once has come from ones, close has come from calls and hence from henes.  
  17. The story of Ulysses beings in the early morning of June 16th , 1904, when Bloom gets up and ends in the early hours of the nest day.   
  18. “Hamartia” means: error of judgment.
  19.   Dickens’ novel, A Tale of Two Cities opens with the words “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times ....”
  20. The term “The Fleshly School of Poetry” is associated with the : Pre-Raphaelites.
  21. The line “The sea is calm tonight” occurs in: Arnold’s “Dover Beach”.
  22. The term “gothic”, a category of fiction, also applies to: architecture.  
  23. Miracle plays are based on the lives of: Saints.
  24.  The line “Present fears/Are less than horrible imaginings” appear in: Macbeth .
  25. The author of Ars Poetica is : Horace
  26. A metrical foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable is :iamb


Ref: 1. History of English Literature- Albert 
       2. The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature
       3. Microsoft Students’ Encarta
       4. UGC NET Papers 2006


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