AD's English Literature : January 2013

Thursday, January 31, 2013

FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : TET, SSC ETC



1. Using suitable words from the list --( horde, mob, crowd, gang, band, group, company, squad,crew, team

Ans- (a) During the riots the mob got out of control and police were forced to open fire.

(b) The sergeant major was drilling a company of soldier’s on the aquarium.

(c)Although they defended themselves bravely, they could not keep off the horde of Indians that attacked then in thousands.

(d) The crowd that watched the football match broke in to groups on leaving the field.

(e) The aeroplane crew could see the gang of robbers rushing away to hide in the forests.

(f) The hoarder/band of workmen soon had the new piece railway track lay.

2. Arrange the words in the two lists so as to make pairs.

A                    B

1. Pelican 1.orchaed

2. Crapes 2. Oil

3. Fruit trees 3. Case

4. Cricket 4.tannery

5. Barrel 5. Mint

6. Coal 6. Crossing

7. Leather 7. Rod

8. Spectacles 8. Vineyard

9. Angler 9. Pitch

10. Money 10. Scuttle

Ans- 1_______6 /2_______8/ 3_______1/4________9/ 5_______2/6_______10/

7________4/ 8_______3/ 9_______7/10_______5

Wednesday, January 30, 2013

The Conformity of Tom Jones with Fielding’s Theory of the Novel


Fielding was essaying in the art of the novel when the genre was yet in its incipient stage and Fielding can therefore be called a pioneer. More than anybody else Fielding himself was aware of his role in the evolution of his genre and although he disclaims the title of a pure divine tyrant, he asserts his independence about being ‘founder’:
As I am in reality, the founder of a new province of writing,   So I am at liberty to make what laws I please there in.  And there laws, my readers, whom I consider my subject, Are bound to believe in and obey………[Book II Tom Jones]
It is in the preface to Joseph Andrews that Fielding points out the true nature of his creation ‘a comic epic in prose. He distinguishes it from many other genres including history, serious romance, and comedy, burlesque and heroic romances. It is different from history in that it does not imitate the ‘painful and voluminous historian’ as also in that it often admits of ‘chasms’ in the history. It is distinct from the serious romance in that the comic and the fable and action world ‘light and ridiculous’ instead of serious and dignified. Further, the characters in such a comic epic would be of ‘inferior rank and consequently of inferior manners’. In its sentiments and distinction, too, 'it preserves the ludicrous instead of the sublime’. The comic again differs from comedy just as the serious epic differs from the tragedy, that is, in its range and scope. Its action is more extended and comprehensive and contains a larger variety of characters. But although such a genre is a ‘comic’ from of the elevated epic, this does not imply a burlesque and the unnatural. While the ‘comic’ is strictly confined to the ‘just imitation of nature’, this also constitutes its difference from the heroic romance? While proceeds beyond the ‘realm of probability’ it is significant that all of Fielding’s novels like the ‘domestic’ novella Amelia – Joseph Andrews, Jonathan Wild and Tom Jones are comic epics.

Sunday, January 27, 2013

Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones as a Picaresque Novel: ‘comic – epic in prose’



"Heroes, notwithstanding the high Ideas, which by the Means of Flatterers they may entertain of themselves, or the World may conceive of them, have certainly more of Mortal than Divine about them. However elevated their Minds may be, their Bodies at least (which is much the major Part of most) are liable to the worst Infirmities, and subject to the vilest Offices of human Nature. Among these latter the Act of Eating, which hath by several wise Men been considered as extremely mean and derogatory from the Philosophic Dignity, must be in some Measure performed by the greatest Prince, Heroe, or Philosopher upon Earth; nay, sometimes Nature hath been so frolicksome as to exact of these dignified Characters, a much more exorbitant Share of this Office, than she hath obliged those of the lowest Order to perform."- Tom Jones by Henry Fielding


Although Fielding called his novel a ‘comic – epic in prose’, the epithet of ‘picaresque’ would be equally justified. This, of course, does not contradict Fielding’s own claim, for the picaresque is in many ways related to comic epic, the picaresque novel being epical in scope and comic in nature. Generally speaking, the picaresque novel as derived from the Spanish word for ‘rogue’, picaro, is concerned with the life story of a clever and musing adventures who proceeds by tricks and roguery through a series of adventures. The picaresque fiction which had its origin in Greek and Latin word literature as in the case of Odysseus , the hero Homer’s Odyssey who was driven around the known world by the wrath of the god Poseidon just as Tom is driven about England by his fate. Fielding’s great master was the Spanish write Cervantes. Cervantes’ Don Quixote had appeared almost century earlier, and another novel in the same picaresque tradition, The Adventures of Gil Blas of Santillane by Alain Lesage had appeared about a decade before Fielding’s Tom Jones. A picaresque novel has in addition to a roguish hero, long journeys an episodic structure, and realistic lowlife descriptions.

Saturday, January 26, 2013

Indo-Anglican Fiction of the Post-Independence Era



"After independence, the Indo-Anglican writer of fiction is more self-confident than ever before. These are a sudden widening of the horizons and a keener and deeper interest in the history of our people and country. Again and again we find a conflict of ideologies raging in the minds of our post independence novelist. Whereas poverty, hunger, death and disease form the key notes of symphony, movements like humanitarianism, socialism and liberalism spot-light the finer and the more sublime aspects of their dreams for the future. The post-independence novelist seems to stand between the two worlds-one dead, the other yet to be born. It is difficult to predict the course of this novel, though it is full of potentialities which may be vital to the nation as a whole." (The  Cambridge History of English Literature)
The fiction writers in this era are not in large number. A sparkling writer is Sudhin Ghose with his three books And Gazelles Leaping, Cradle of the Clouds and Vermillion Boat. Read More History of English Literature ( Essay) He is a new current tongue of colour, vitality and warmth, a close to life. He, indeed, has translated a country. The other fiction writer in English is Bhabani Bhattacharya whose novel Music For Mohini and  So Many Hungers have proved greatly successful with the result they have been translated in to various European languages.

Friday, January 25, 2013

Tiresias in The Waste Land: Central Figure and Interested Spectator of the Modern Waste Land


Introduction: Tiresias: The central figure: Tiresias, according to Eliot is the central figure in The Waste Land, an interested spectator of the modern waste land and, what Tiresias sees in the substance of the whole poem. The significance of Tiresias is complex and varied. Historically he is connected with the story of king Oedipus of Thebes, which is clearly and demonstrable the classical legend of a waste land, with striking resemblance to the drought infested, sin – ridden kingdom of the medieval Fisher King. 

Tiresias: Connection with king Oedipus and His Waste Land: The way the introduction of Tiresias serves complicates the unethical frame of the poem and universalizes its central significance by bringing home to us that the sin involved in the violation of the sublimity of sex has in all ages and countries led to decay and degeneration, and the necessity of purifying the sinner’s soul through suffering as the sole way to salvation. Oedipus unwittingly kills his father and marries his own mother and thus calls down upon his supposedly innocent heads the curse of the gods in the form of a virulent plague, epidemic and destruction, which neither king nor commoner fails to regard as a punishment for some dark and hidden crime. Tiresias, the blind prophet, is summoned and when compelled by the king tells the socking truth that he, the king himself, is the plague – spot. Such is the conspiracy of circumstances that the king is slowly, but irresistibly driven to the realization of this horrible truth. Nothing remains for the king but the duty of expiation, self mutilation, self exile, self-abasement and a prolonged penance, which eventually result in spiritual calm and inner illumination. 

Development of English Essays from Bacon to Addison


An essay is short composition in prose. Sainsbury calls 'a work of prose arts’. Dr., Johnson defines it as 'a loose sally of the mind, an irregular, undigested piece , not a regular and orderly  performance’. There are various types of essay-personal, giving the author’s own experiences, impression or reactions: Aphoristic, giving impersonal reflection on wisdom and philosophy; periodical, Read More Essay published in dailies, weeklies or monthlies detailing contemporary social or political problems etc. Now we should carry to the different stages of its development in English particularly from Bacon to Addison.

To trace the history of the English Essay we shall have to go back to the Elizabethan Age, The Miscellaneous work of a few University wits like Lyly, Greene, Lodge, and Nashe has some Traces of novel. It has also the first anticipation of the Essay. Apologia For Poetries of Sir Philip Sidney has a semblance of essay though in uncertain style.

Thursday, January 24, 2013

Raja Rao’s Contribution to Fiction: Critical Assessment


It is significant coincidence that Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, and Raja Rao, the three major writers of the Indian novel in English, belonged to the thirties of the twentieth century. Their prolific literary output defined the Gandhian dream of India. Their bland of political ideology and social realism ensured that the English prose fiction would be the medium for the definition of a new Indian and aspiration. We will now carry a few sketches of Raja Rao’s life and literary outputs.

Raja Rao belongs to an ancient Brahmin family of Mysore. He receives his early education from Muslin from Aligarh Muslim University Raja Rao has been familiar with variety of languages Kannada, Telugu, Urdu, English and even French etc. His wide learning and the discovery of the mantra of true in the classical literature of ancient India lead him as a creative artist.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

20th Century Literary Criticism with Special Reference -T.S. ELIOT, Arthur Symons



Twentieth century literary criticism has a wide variety. It is the result of the great  variety and complexity of the century itself-in all walks of life. The arm of the century inherited subjective and impressionistic criticism from Waller patter and Swinburne. The impressionistic criticism is based on the individual response to a literary work. Symons and Spingram are the well known impressionistic. Then, there is a psychological school of criticism, and a sociological school of critics. Then, there is a psychological school of criticism, and a sociological school of criticism. There psychological school of criticism regards all literary creation as the mar formation of the artist’s psychological abnegation. 
The sociological school of criticism lays stress on the importance of mid-line in reference to the making of an artist. Modern criticism has discarded some of the bold canons of crisis and commendable work in evaluating some of the Elizabethan and Noe-classical writers, and has revived interest in the Metaphysical school of poets, particularly Donne. T.S. Eliot combines in himself both the tendencies of modern criticism.

Pre- Raphaelite Poetry: ‘Fleshly School’ of Sexual Passion



The Pre- Raphaelite movement was started in 1810 by two German painters, Cornelius and Overbeck. It was called Pre- Raphaelite Brethren’. In England it was started by D.G. Rossetti, Hunt and Millais in 1848. It was called Per- Raphaelite Brotherhood. Its object was to revive in painting the simplicity, natural ease and grace of the early painters of Italy before Raphael. They indented themselves artistically with the painters before Raphael. Later on the move mint was joined by Morris and Swinburne. Of these D.G. Rossetti, Morris and Swinburne were poets, the other were painters. Rossetti was both painter and poet. These there poets represent the Pre-Raphaelite school of poetry. The poetry of the Per-Raphaelite poet was also called by some critics as the poetry of the ‘Fleshly school’.

Monday, January 14, 2013

One Act Play Made its Entrance in the Twentieth Century and Concentrates both the Denouement and Climax within its Short Space



Introduction: The one act play practically made its entrance in the twentieth century and it concentrates both the denouement and climax within its short space. Herman Old comments on one act play as, “It may be neat, compact and rigid: but it may also be wayward, expansive and flexible. So long as it does not conflict with the fundamental principles of drama, it may venture in to a hundred different directions and exploit almost as many themes as the ingenuity and inventiveness of the author can suggest.”

It’s Organ: Although in 20th century there is the preponderance of one act play, its origin can be stressed back to the 15th century among the Morality, miracle and Mystery plays. In old Sanskrit text there is also the shadow of one act play. But among those plays there is only the outward from not the essence of the modern time.

John Galsworthy’s Art of Characterization in The Man of Property



John Galsworthy, a “master of yesterday” in English fiction, does not ate height in critical evaluation today. That perhaps in an indicator of transience of fame when based on the surface of things or better still it exhibits the parade of literary fashion which so often rejects the beau model of yesterday are for the beau ideal of the next if only to keep the critic abreast of his times. Galsworthy has been variously described as one of the vile materialists, the protagonist of the well-made novel and the creator of well-made characters, which rather correspond to types despite the particularization they receive in the hands of their creator. Perhaps these are all true, but what is true is that these by themselves do not tell the whole truth.


Galsworthy’s presentation of characters in The Man of Property presumes a background with which the novelist was intimately connected in life. The action of the novel or the trilogy of which if forms a distinct and independent first part is woven round the sense of property is Victorian England in which is rooted deep the dominant contradiction of opinions, interests and ideas. Galsworthy who himself came from an old English stock knew the breed of Forsytes at first hand, and so the characters came to be portrayed with a realism that was not sheer fake posturing, even if it was the surface allegedly that he painted. One may observe while studying the characters in The Man of Property the presence of a certain feminine fiber in Galsworthy’s moral nature but that does not on the whole take away much from his ability to create some virile characters with a robust relief. One may also notice that in his art of characterization Galsworthy is not much influenced by masters at home but by the Great Russian Turgenev especially in the latter’s practice of precision and restraint. Both the Russian and the Englishman display some common traits in their art for delineation of characters, particularly in their enchanting sense of beauty and the gently ironical view they lathe of thee tragic follies and fables of common humanity.

W. B. Yeats’s Poetry: Analysis of Organic Development and Growth

The entire poetic career of Yeats, stretching over a period of about fifty years may be classified in to four sharply distinct hazes. It is of course, true that a critical analysis which concentrates on dissection is bound to be erroneous. Indeed it is not fair to segregate and pin down each phase as exclusively separate. A critical analysis which is equivalent to true appreciation will not put each such phase in to water bight compartment.

Three is however, a consensus of opinion amongst crib as that Yeast’s poetic career shows a development which is almost organic. Eminent cities including T.S. Eliot hold the view that Yeats’s creative faculty manifests a sort of organic development and growth. T.S. Eliot’s pertinent observation merits quotation.
             “I can think of no poet, not even the greatest, who has shown a longer period of development than Yeats. Development to this extent is not merely generous, it is character.”

Sunday, January 13, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 41


Short notes on History of English Literature

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1.      Arcadia (1590), a pastoral romance in verse linked by prose passages; the first considerable work in English in this form, it became a model for later pastoral poetry.

2.      Ben Jonson’s first comedy, Everyman in His Humour, is a satiric picture of his own age, to write with cool irony of contemporary human foibles as he considered them and as Terence had done.

3.      Utopia, by Thomas More, is a powerful and original study of social conditions, unlike anything which have had ever appeared in any literature except some points of resemblance in Plato’s Repubilic.The book is divided into two parts.

4.      Utopia’s influence is found in several important works of European literature, including Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels (1726) and French philosopher and author Voltaire’s Candide (1759).

Monday, January 7, 2013

Men That Keep Attention: Life and Contribution: Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, The First Indian Poet in English


                                                       
The first Indian poet in English Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was born in 1809. By the early influence of his mother and teacher, establishing the dimension of his thinking and writing, he wrote The Fakir of Junghera, a Metrical Tale (1828) inspired by the gigantic rock rising out of a river and woven around a young Brahmin widow. Read More Men That Keep Attention This poem launched him on his rewarding poetic career- he came into contact with john Craft, Editor of The Examiner who helped him to get an important position in The Indian Gazette.

Thursday, January 3, 2013

Woman Novelists of the Victorian Era: CHARLOTTE BRONTE, EMILY BRONTE, Mrs. Gaskell, GEORGE ELIOT


Introduction: The Victorian era is known for the galaxy of female novelists. CHARLOTTE BRONTE, EMILY BRONTE, Mrs. Gaskell and GEORGE ELIOT are in prime focus.  They also include Mrs. Trollope, Mrs. Gore, Mrs. Maroh, Mrs. Bray, Mrs. Henry, charlotte younger, Miss Oliphant, and still more. However, the four most important women novelists, who yet are quite important, are charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, Mrs. Gaskell and George Eliot. Of the four, the two first named were sister, and their methods and achievement as novelists met at many places. But each of the remaining two priced her own line and made herself known in the field of English novel in her own way. 

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

Revival of Poetic Drama in 20th Century: A Late Start in England



The poetic drama had a late start in England. During the thirty years from 1890 to 1920 the pure poetic play was almost non-existent in England. However, in Ireland, it attracted some of the Abbey theatre authors. Stephen Philips remained strictly faithful to the verse form. His Paolo and Francesca, which was modeled upon Dante's famous episode in Inferno, was a great success in 1900. His other plays were Herrod, A Tragedy, Ulysses, The Sin of David and Nero. John Drinkwater also endeavored to re-establish the poetic play in his earlier career. His notable plays Rebellion and The Storm  are written in this style. W.B. Yeats, the great poet, whose work belongs to the Irish Literary Movement and the Abbey Theatre also wrote plays in this style. His finest achievement in this sphere is The Countess Kathleen. J.M. Synge is the other important name in the history of the poetic drama. He evolved a new from more closely in accord with the spirit of his age. He contributed immensely to the development of Irish school of imaginative plays. His Riders to The Sea and The Shadow of the Glen are masters in prose-poetry.

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