AD's English Literature : September 2013

Saturday, September 28, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 62

History of English Literature: A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers :

Critical Estimates of Romantic criticism (William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge,  Percy Bysshe Shelley, Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson)

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
  William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge

  •   Wordsworth was primarily a poet and not a critic. He has left behind him no comprehensive treatise on Criticism. The bulk of his literary criticism is small yet "the core of his literary criticism is as inspired as his poetry". 
  •  "He knew about poetry in the real sense, and he has not said even a single word about poetry", says Chapman, "which is not valuable, and worth thinking over".  Also read the other set of A to Z (Objective Questions) 
  • Wordsworth's criticism is of far-reaching historical significance. When Wordsworth started, it was the Neo-classical criticism, which held the day-Wordsworth is the first critic to turn from the poetry to its substance; builds a theory of poetry, and gives an account of the nature of the creative process. 

Friday, September 27, 2013

Model English Note -14 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations



Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
 1. Describe the ‘garden scene’ in She Stoops to Conquer
                                                                                       
 Ans- The ‘garden scene’ is one of the tricks of Tony played upon his mother to get rid of Miss Neville. In fact, when Hastings’s plan to elope with Neville having been disclosed, Mrs. Hardcastle gets too much stern with Miss Neville and deludes to keep her under aunt Pedigree’s custody for strict supervision upon her until her carriage to Tony actualized. Tony does not like the plan and as a lyric he runs the carriage round their own estate for three hour and at last tops nearby a pond and tells his mother about the place as horrid crack skull common. Here Mrs. Hardcastle meets her husband and mistakes him as highwayman.  
Central Eligibility Test (CTET)
2. ‘One hope remains’-Mr. Woodwork speaks of in The Prologue to She Stoops to Conquer. Which hope remained?                   

Ans- The prologue to she stoops to conquer is engineering in defense of true comedy. Mr. Wood work, the speaker, denounces the false sentiments. The comic muse, Talia is thus in death-bed and awaiting death in the hands of Sentimental dramatists. Yet, at the present condition one doctor has come to revive the true spirit of comedy. Wood work is hopeful of introducing true essence of laughter in comedy in the way of the performance of she stoops to conquer written by deliver Goldsmith.

Sunday, September 22, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 61



A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
1. ‘Inversion’ is the change in the word order for creating rhetorical effect, e.g. this book I like. Another term for inversion is

(A) Hypallage

(B) Hubris

(C) Haiku

(D) Hyperbaton Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
 

2. The phrase ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’ occurs in

(A) Biographia Literaria

(B) Preface to Lyrical Ballads

(C) In Defence of Poetry

(D) Poetics

  
3. The religious movement Methodism in the 18th century England was founded by

(A) John Tillotson

(B) Bishop Butler

(C) Bernard Mandeville

(D) John Welsey

** John Wesley, considered the founder of Methodism, and his brother Charles, the sons of an Anglican rector. John preached, and Charles wrote hymns. Together they brought about a spiritual revolution, which some historians believe diverted England from political revolution in the late 18th century. ** Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)


4. My First Acquaintance with Poets, an unforgettable account of meeting with literary heroes, is written by

(A) Charles Lamb

(B) Thomas de Quincey

(C) Leigh Hunt

(D) William Hazlitt Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)



 5.   Which of the Title and theme is not correctly matched?

(A) Pamela – Love of a peasant girl rewarded

(B) Clarissa- Live History of a nun

(C) A Doll’s House-women’s equality

(D) Cyrano de Bergerac- fictional account of the adventures of an author of the title name

Friday, September 20, 2013

Shakespearean Text: The Stationer’s Register is Important for Publishers, Book-sellers and Scholars



Even much before Shakespeare was born, the book trade of London was monopolized by a Stationer’s Company that existed since 1404. Its incorporation was made by a Royal Charter of 1557 which provided for an elected Master, two Wardens and a Court of Assistants. Read More about William Shakespeare It secured the monopoly of English printing except for the book‘s published by the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge. All the publishers and book-sellers of London as also most of her printers (93 as per the charter of 1557) formed the freemen of the company. The exercise of monopoly powers over publication and printing of books was deemed necessary to fight the political and religious views antagonistic to the regime of Mary Tudor. Read More about History of English Literature (Essay)


The system once introduced continued and practical procedure was laid down for licensing. The printers who were the freemen of the company entered their copy in the stationer’s register for a fee of 4£ pence, which was later raise to 6 pence. Read More about Drama  
This procured for them the sole right of printing or selling a book. The company had total control of the licensed presses and unlicensed printing became well-nigh impossible. 

Saturday, September 14, 2013

Why Should Every Student Learn from Sententious Polonious? Act I, Sc III, Hamlet



“Yet here, Laertes! aboard, aboard, for shame!
The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail,
And you are stay'd for. There; my blessing with thee!
And these few precepts in thy memory
See thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act.
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.
Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatch'd, unfledged comrade. Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in,
Bear't that the opposed may beware of thee.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
For the apparel oft proclaims the man,
And they in France of the best rank and station
Are of a most select and generous chief in that.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be;
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all: to thine ownself be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.
Farewell: my blessing season this in thee!”


LORD POLONIUS to  LAERTES    Act I, Sc III, Hamlet

Polonius’ famous advice to his son, Laertes is given in Act I, Sc III of Hamlet. In this scene, we are able to get a glimpse, and a very important glimpse, of the Polonius household. The characters of Polonius, the head of the family and his son, Laertes, and daughter, Ophelia, are sketched here in outline.Read More about Drama   

When the scene begins, we find Laertes packing up for his journey to Paris. He is a young man worldly wise beyond his years. He takes leave of his sister, Ophelia, while advising her to careful in receive the court of Hamlet. 

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Critical Analysis: Theme and Image: Miller’s The Death of Salesman



Theme and image: The Death of Salesman: Miller’s Death of a Salesman (1949) was a thumping success; won the Pulitzer Prize, Tony Award and New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award and is considered a milestone in America drama. Undoubtedly, the play consisted of themes and images that had a mass appeal. The play got a variety of interpretation. The reaction of scholars and drama critics was a mixed one. They have explained painstakingly why it is or is not a great play or a genuine tragedy.

Regarding its essential theme, different explanations have been forwarded; some regard it as communist propaganda denouncing capitalism in all its muck and sooty filth, which others view it as a sympathetic stud , of the problems of big  business . some have interpreted it in exclusively Freudian terms have attributed to its author , rigid psychological theories .A catholic view of the play recognize it as warning of the meaningless  and futility of life in a society where religion has been thrown to days . Read More about American literature    
Miller rejects the validity of any of these interpretations as his intention one of the others.

Way to Admission to PhD: Rules: The University Grants Commission


"I'm not an educator...I'm a learner."-Bill Gates (1955 - )


 
On the basis of the The Mungekar Committee Report and subsequent The University Grants Commission (UGC NET) note sent to all universities that students should appear for an entrance examination for admission to PhD programmes is a boon for many students. UGC has created an examination system for students in India that served as the basis for PhD degree in India and entrance into college teacher-ship in the state. However, these examinations established another form of control over educational standards. As the note states: "Admission should be based on combined merit of the entrance exam and interviews Teaching English conducted by the universities”, getting a PhD degree in India is not a cakewalk anymore. 

Theory and Criticism: Philip Sidney: An Apologie for Poetry / A Defence of Poetry: Sidney’s Reasons for the Superiority of Poetry to History



Sidney’s Apology is an important renascent document. It is a synthesis of the critical doctrines of Plato, Aristotle, Horace, Scaliger, Minturn, and a host of other writer and critics. It brings together romanticism and classicism. It is the first attempt in English to deal with the poetic art, practically and not those tidally. Read More about Criticism

On the nature and function of poetry, on the three unities, on tragedy and comedy, and diction and metre, Sidney represents contemporary trends. Everywhere his work reflects the influence of Aristotle and Plato and other classical writers. But his originality lies in the skill with which he has drawn upon, selected, arranged and independently arrived at. He makes use of  Read More about Criticism
1. Italian critics
2. Classical critics, Plato and Aristotle 
3. Roman critics, Horace and Plutarch
4. He also shows the influence of the medieval concept of tragedy, and
 5. His didactic approach to poetry is typically renaissance approach. However, his manner of presence is typically renaissance approach.

Saturday, September 7, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 59


  History of English Literature: A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

  Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene : 26 Points

  1. Edmund Spenser plans his poem The Faerie Queene(1590-1596) of 12 books, each made up of 12 cantos; he completed only 6 books, however.  Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions) 
  2. The Faerie Queene is a kind of tale, in which characters symbolize abstract human qualities, is called an allegory. 
  3.   As pointed out by Spenser in his letter to Sir Walter Raleigh, which forms the preface to his epic, his aim in writing the poem was, “to fashion a gentleman, or noble person, in virtuous and gentle discipline”. He used the device of the allegory for this purposes. The virtues chose by him are those of Christian morality.  
  4. For The Faerie Queene, Spenser originated a nine-line verse stanza, now known as the Spenserian stanza—the first eight lines are iambic pentameter, and the ninth, iambic hexameter; the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
  5. The six completed books relate the adventures of the knights who represented the qualities of holiness, temperance, chastity, friendship, justice, and courtesy.

Friday, September 6, 2013

Model English Note -13 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations



Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
 1. Why is autumn called a son of mists? 
Ans The poet address autumn  the season of mist in his poem Ode to Autumn. In fact mists are produced in this season by the evaporation of water as a result  of the ‘maturing sun'. Mist is further the most characteristic feature in Autumnal season, thus the poet bids him such.
2. How does the other compare autumn as a cider-presser? 
                                                                       

Ans- The author represents autumn as one who is sitting by a machine, cider press, used to extract and ferment apple-juice into wine. It requires a lot of patience to see how the process of extraction is going on. For drops ooze very leisurely in aforementioned.
3. What is the musics of autumn? 
Ans- Autumn is capable of charming us with its own music. This music is generally heard during the sunset. As the day sets calmly and slowly in the west, clouds covers the sky and music tunes in choirs of small gnats, elating of lamb, singing of hedge crickets, whistles of rolling redbreast etc.

Thursday, September 5, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 56




History of English Literature: A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

  1. Match the following:
I. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
a.  secular vision poem of   semiallegorical nature
II. The Parliament of Fowls
b. impassioned work in the form of dream visions
III. The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman
c. a romance, or tale, of knightly adventure and love
IV. Le morte d'Arthur
d. Arthurian romance
(I) (II) (III) (IV)
(A) (d) (b) (c) (a)
(B) (d) (a) (b) (c)
(C) (b) (c) (d) (a)
(D) (c) (a) (b) (d)

2. A novel which tells the story of an artistically inclined man from childhood to maturity is called Künstlerroman ("artist novel") -is about the development of an artist and shows a growth of the self- a subgenre of Bildungsroman

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

Model English Note -12 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations


Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
 1. What is the meaning of the world somber? Why does the poet have no human fears?    
                                                                                                                                                            
Ans- The lover’s insensitivity to the clams of mortality is interpreted as lethargy of spirit- a strange slumber. Thus, the human fears that he lacked are apparently the friars normal to human beings.  It could mean fears the loved one as a mortal human being.
2. ‘Strange friend’, I said, ‘here is no cause to Mourne’ ‘none said the other, ‘save the undone years.’- Why is there no case of mourn? What is ‘undone years’?   
                                                                                            
Ans- The dead two soldiers meet strangely at oblivious reign of death. As the enmity, cruelty and horror no more reside here, or as they have no anxiety of losing their lives, there are novas to mourn. But they must reflect on the unprofitable west of youth unclear the wheel of war machine in which all of their vitality wasted worthlessly.

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