AD's English Literature : November 2014

Literary Project Works: Aims and Objectives: Essential Guidelines to Students for Preparation and Understanding Literature Project

"When enthusiasm and commitment take root within a project, that project comes to life."
Robin Sieger 
 Project Works are a wonderful way to get excited about literature learning, but they require a lot of hard work. If you want the benefits of participating in a literature project, but don’t know where to start, this guide is for you. It will provide a brief overview of the most important aspects of a literature project and get you well on your way to having a display at your school and college work out. Read More Teaching English Though the information is most applicable for middle school students, it can be adapted for use with elementary students and can be a great resource for first-time college participants. This article attempts to provide essential guidelines to students for preparation of their Project Proposal for consideration of the ‘Project Board’ of the institute. As per the provisions of the academic regulations, a student after passing the Qualifying Examination has to submit a detailed outline of the proposed topic of project with the concurrence of the proposed supervisor to the Project Board.

Analysis of James Boswell’s "Life of Johnson" - Best Biography in the English Language

"The Life of Johnson is assuredly a great, a very great work. Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets, Shakespeare is not more decidedly the first of dramatists, Demosthenes is not more decidedly the first of orators, than Boswell is the first of biographers."

Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800 - 1859)

James Boswell (1740-1795) is a Scottish writer who became a close friend and biographer of the writer Samuel Johnson. Boswell, whose father was a well-known advocate, was born in Edinburgh, and educated at Edinburgh High School, the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Utrecht. Read More Criticism Boswell was admitted to both the Scottish and English bars and practiced law but devoted himself primarily to the pursuit of a literary career. His most important early works were An Account of Corsica, The Journal of a Tour to that Island, and Memoirs of Pascal Paoli, which won him some reputation as a writer. Notably, An Account of Corsica is a sympathetic study of the struggle for independence of that island, written after an extended tour of Europe.   The historical part of this book is commonplace, but the Journal is vivacious and attractive. He settled down, however, as much as his nature permitted him, to read for the Scottish Bar, diversifying his studies by writing verse and prose of would-be sprightliness, and by cultivating the society of the most eminent men in Edinburgh.

Analysis of Eugene O Neill’s "Mourning Becomes Electra" is an Aeschylean Model: Comparative Study on Trilogy- "Homecoming", "The Hunted" and "The Haunted"

Eugene O' Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra which is about a brother and sister trying to avenge their father’s murder is constructed as a trilogy- Homecoming, The Hunted and The Haunted -on a very large scale. Eugene O' Neill’s play is adapted from Aeschylus’s tragic trilogy called the Oresteia. The model is Aeschylus, and the pattern of Homecoming and The Hunted follows very closely the pattern of Oresteia. Though each play has a beginning, a logical development and convincing and, the three plays cannot be taken separately. The sequence of parts, exposition, complication, climax and resolution, is reflected in the trilogy as a whole. The complication and climax naturally begin with the murder of Ezra Mammon and end with Orin’s suicide. 

The Modern Rules Of Translating A Passage: Other Language Learning and Understanding the Culture

The works of modern poets throughout the world have been inspired by Dante. And it is imbued with Dantean imagery, especially that of Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot, Gabriele D’Annunzio, Paul Claudel, and Anna Akhmatova. Read More Teaching English Again, among the many notable translations into English are verse renditions by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and, in the 20th century, by the English writer Dorothy L. Sayers and the American poet and critic John Ciardi. In the other part of the world, the Persian poet Omar Khayyam is also made a place in our heart by the translation (published anonymously in 1859) of the Rubáiyát by Edward FitzGerald. But ware these possible if they have not been translated into other languages!!

Interrelationship between Faith and Poetry in Rabindranath Tagore’s ‘Gitanjali’: Universal and Timeless Appeal

Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali one of the poet’s three collections of exclusively devotional poems, the other two being Gitimalya and Gitali .These religious poems naturally raise the question of the interrelationship between faith and poetry. It is often said that poetry which is based on a particular religious faith is necessarily limited in its appeal and Dr. Johnson declared categorically that “contemplative piety or the intercourse between god and the human soul can never be poetical”. Read More Poetry  Tagore’s religious poetry may at first sight appear to be severely limited in its appeal to western readers, because its faith is too Indian to have any universal significance. 

Earnest Hemingway’s "The Old Man and the Sea" Portrays a Man’s Fulfillment in Striving rather than in Success: Investigating Santiago's Consciousness

  'A man can be destroyed but not defeated.' _
Earnest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea

It has been rightly suggested that Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea portrays a man’s fulfillment in striving rather than in success. The book's simple plot contains some element of suspense, but above all, the book lives in its beautiful imagery, the poetic evocation of the sea, and the admirable character of an old man. Read More American literature The story of the novella is that of an old fisherman’s single-handed fight with a giant marlin and then with sharks is the Gulf Stream, north of Havana and it is unmistakably a parable on the theme of fighting the good fight. Hemingway focuses on Santiago's consciousness in this quest story. Read More American literature Very much in the way that a traditional soliloquy or an interior monologue serves to reveal character, this novella functions as one long exploration of the old man's character. Hemingway shows here that is human experience as a whole there are many forms of both marlin and sharks with which men love so fight like Santiago and in Hemingway’s code it is not the end that matters but the way man struggles against these forces. Like the other ‘code heroes’ of Hemingway, Santiago has the courage and endurance of a matador and like them, he reveals ‘grace under pressure’. Santiago is a ‘code hero’ also in the way he combines the matador figure with that of the crucified hero. The wounds he receives during his epic battle first with the marlin and then with the sharks not only equal him with Christ but also suggest that suffering is the inescapable lot of the Hemingway hero. Hemingway's symbolism suggests that Santiago is a Christ-figure. After the sharks attack his fish, for example, Santiago says, 'Ay'; Read More American literature Hemingway writes that 'there is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood.' 

How to Write a Good Essay? Key Methods and Techniques

An essay, a literary composition, is usually a number of related sentences dealing with one main idea or topic. Often brief in scope and informal in style, the essay differs from such formal expository forms as the thesis, dissertation, or treatise. Read More Essay The essay is more compact with ideas than data or vociferation. It is more a stream of ideas and logical assertions. And that idea may be stated in a topic sentence, which is often the first sentence in the essay. The sentences that follow may be related in two ways:

(a) Each sentence should help develop the topic.
(b) Each sentence should lead smoothly into the thought of the next.

How to Prepare a Good Book Summary? The essentials of Book Summaries

A good summary is a condensation that gives in a few words the main ideas what a writer or speaker has said. Book Summaries help the student understand books studied in schools, colleges and give them insights that make for great book reports. It also helps to gain a new perspective by reading about the author, and learn how settings, characters, and themes help make these books acclaimed works of literature. In such a case a scientific logical way is validated.

The essentials of   Book Summaries
(a) Content
  The salient points in the original passage are to be included in the summary and they should be written in their logical order,
(i) A summary should be written in one’s own words. It is not necessary to change the technical and scientific terms, names of persons, places, etc., but as far as practicable, words and expressions should not be borrowed from the original.
(ii) In making a summary of a passage containing conversation or speech, indirect mode of narration must be employed.
(iii) Proper care should be taken to use the pronoun forms: he, she, it, they, etc.
(iv) Above all, in making a good summary, what a student needs is to practice strict economy in the use of words, and for this purpose, he must know how to shorten sentences, how to use a single word for a group of words, and how to condense information.
(c) Length: A summary must be brief   and contain fewer lines than in the original passage.
(d) Yes/ No personal comment: In the summary the writer should not make any personal comment or criticism, as his function is only to summarize, not to add his own views. But in the final comment section, he/she can use it free logically.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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