AD's English Literature : October 2016

Friday, October 28, 2016

John Galsworthy's Falder in "Justice": How does his Tragedy Prove Social Injustice?

 Introduction:

John Galsworthy's Falder in Justice is not a hero in the Aristotalian or Shakespearen sense. The dramatic action of Justice by Galsworthy revolves around Falder. He is in the middle of our attention of sympathy and pity. He is the tragic hero and the victims of social injustice which we all resent. He is the character of a man who is in the machinery of social injustice.
  

"The Rising of the Moon" by Lady Gregory as a Drama of Patriotism

"MAN [going towards steps]. Well, good-night, comrade, and thank you. You did me a good turn to-night, and I'm obliged to you. Maybe I'll be able to do as much for you when the small rise up and the big fall down . . . when we all change places at the rising [waves his hand and disappears] of the Moon."-The Rising of the Moon 
The Rising of the Moon by Lady Gregory is a play concerning patriotism and struggle for freedom in the background of Ireland political history involving two characters- one the disguised ballad singer and the other the sergeant in search of a run away prisoner. The Rising of the Moon carries a title well chosen from a popular ballad for the Irish Revolutionary who would relay round at the precise moment for same undertaking. Fenian poet John Keegan Casey composed his well known ballad with the following lines:
“Who would follow in their footsteps at the Rising of the moon”

Thursday, October 27, 2016

Biographical and Autobiographical Writing in English Text: Preview of It's Journey

Biographical and autobiographical prose is more or less true-to-life stories and often bears great literary merits. They pervade the world of history, philosophy, psychology, ideology, propaganda, untold mysteries, confessions, criticism, travelogues etc. These works are conventionally classified into factual writing and fictional writing, or simply, true and semi true. The present essay deals with biography and autobiography and its truthfulness and literary merits. As a descriptive term, biography and autobiography is completely meaningless, since all story is beyond eyewitnesses when it first appears. Further, if one takes it as applying to all modern perceptions, one soon discovers that they differ so much among themselves that any simple definition of the school will exclude a number of important lies. One perception will emphasize close reading, another symbol, another morality, another psychology, sociology, and till another mythical as of criticism.

Now coming to the terminology into better introspection, the fertile of English biography emerged in the late eighteenth century, the century in which the terms "biography" and "autobiography" entered the English lexicon. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as 'pedantic'; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writer's memory.

Monday, October 24, 2016

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 103

A Set of Objective Questions & AnswersUGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

1.Oxymoron: A figure of speech made up of two seemingly opposite words.

2. John Dryden’s poems that describe the political and social events of the Restoration period: Astraea Redux, in celebration of Charles II’s return to the English throne and Annus Mirabilis giving a spirited account of the great fire in London . The title Annus Mirabilis means the wonders of the year .

3. Absalom and Achitophel: Dryden wrote Absalom and Achitophel. It is a political satire in the form of allegory. The historical figures hidden under the Biblical characters referred to in the title are Charles II, the Duke of York and the Earl of Shaftsbury.

4. Allusion: A passing reference to something outside of a literary work.

5. Restoration: Restoration indicates the restoration of monarchy. Charles II was restored the throne of England after a period of Puritan vale.

Significance of the Dumb Scene (Act III Sc. III) in John Galsworthy’s "Justice"

In John Galsworthy’s play Justice the exercise of social injustice in the name of legal justice has been criticized. And in the dramatic action of the Dumb Scene (Act III Sc. III)  of his play, Galsworthy has portrayed the deep agency of a sensitive prisoner kept in a solitary confinement. With a cudgel in hand here Galsworthy is merciless in his criticism of prison administration that treats prisoners not as humans but as dumb inhabitants of dungeon.


Roman Mob in William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" is Itself a Character

Introduction:

 In the group of Shakespearean  Roman plays, Julius Caesar remains an epic making work and like Coriolanus, their other theatrical play, Julius Caesar also has a strong opening scene of a crowd in commotion. In fact, the presence of Roman Crowd in their various characteristics can be felt throughout the play of Julius Caesar. However, it is in the opening scene and in the forum scene that they are actively instrumental in mounding the course of the play. Let us now have a close look of their characteristics under the following heads.

Saturday, October 22, 2016

R. K. Narayan's "Emden" is the Reminiscence of Human Life in Old Age: Clocking Time

Some of the important literary qualities of R. K. Narayan's Emden are the use of humanized time reference, character complexity and development, interwoven stories, a flashback technique to vividly portray past events, and a setting that demonstrates themes, personalities, and conflicts. Emden, the title character in R. K. Narayan's Emden, is more than 100 years old and now he can’t even remember his age. Emden, the oldest man in Malgudi, who hated birthdays. He abominated birthdays because according to him it may reduce the days of birthdays' count. He has nearly lost his hearing abilities and can’t retain names. According to Narayan “Even such a situation was acceptable, as it seemed to be.........by nature to keep the mind uncluttered in old age”. 

Narayan in his portrayal of the oldest man gives a glimpse of his history through half remembered memories by the old man who loves his routinely two-hour walk. We also get a peep into his history through an account by others who witness him on this routine. Like the photographer who mixes Emden’s history with his fiction while gossiping about him as Emden crosses his shop.

Monday, October 17, 2016

Eliminate Your Fears and Doubts about Comprehension Skill of a Target Text

The students will have to complete numerous comprehension exercises during their time in school, both in class and at end of each Key Stage examination. This is true from early secondary stage to the post graduate label. The tasks i.e. The Comprehension Skill of a Target Text which help the students with their writing, such as adjective use, creating atmosphere and so on, introduce the skills that the students will need to discuss in their analysis of texts. Learning of these skills and implementations of them are very crucial both for the students and the teachers.

Sunday, October 16, 2016

George Herbert’s “The Pulley”: Establishing Our Relation to God

Before we go into the Christian doctrine let’s focus on the title Pulley or the Gift of God by George Herbert first. Pulleys and hoists are mechanical devices aimed at assisting us with moving heavy loads through a system of ropes and wheels (pulleys) to gain advantage. We should not be surprised at the use of a pulley as a central conceit since the domain of physics and imagery from that discipline would have felt quite comfortable to most of the metaphysical poets. God is the most important character in “The Pulley”, and the only one whose name is given except the poet narrator. In the beginning of the poem, he is excited by the ringing of the truth while He and his creations, i. e. the human being are having a conversation while in imaginations through the poet’s conversation with the God. Herbert sees a perfect design of our psychology in Christian ideological terms explained through his God's eyes, but he longs to join the religious journey.

Monday, October 10, 2016

Is “The Anniversary” by Chekhov a Comedy or Farce?

In a farce, there is exaggeration both in situation and character for the sake of humourous effect. The difference between a comedy and a farce is that there is a soul of seriousness in the comedy. A comedy, says Schlegel, calls forth the most petulant hilarity by its jocose and deprecatory view of things. In it the perception of the incongruous and the unexpected conduces to our mirth follies, absurdities, odd audients, cross purposes, sallies of nit and humour is it striking features. The Anniversary is, sorry to say ,miss the quality of comedy proper. 

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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