AD's English Literature : February 2016

Understanding The Background Of ‘Malapropism’: A Ludicrous Misuse of Word



 ‘Malapropism’ is a compound word derived from three French words ‘ma! a propos’ which means something ‘out of place’. It is defined as ‘a ludicrous misuse of word, especially for one resembling it.’ This confusion between sets of words is characteristic of Mrs. Malaprop—an immortal creation of Sheridan, fit to occupy a prominent place in the portrait-gallery of comic characters in world-literature. Mrs.pro..J. monumental instance of Sheridan’s highly developed artificial ‘humour’ as illustrated in her instinct for ‘a nice derangement on epithets’. Yet she is not a mere stock-character as her very name implies but one instinct with life and vitality, which is a measure of the genius of Sheridan.

Providing feedback to an English Test in Classroom Situation



Providing feedback to an English test in classroom situation is one of the most important purposes of English testing. From the feedback the learner can get a chance to modify and develop. S/he gets a chance of self-correction and thus to learn effectively.(not learning)
In the context of teaching in general, feedback is information that is given to the learner about his or her performance of a learning task, usually with the objective of improving the performance.

Creative Writing Lesson: How to Write an "Autobiography of Road"? Model for Writing Class for EFL Students


 Writing a Topic Paragraph:

Early stage:
Men write their autobiographies then why do I not? I am a road at Lake Town in Kolkata. I don’t know whether I should be proud of my present stage or feel sad for that. Let's know who am I? I'm a Road, path established over land for the passage of vehicles, people, and animals. Roads provide dependable pathways for moving people and goods from one place to another.

James Thurber’s "The Night the Ghost Got In": More Funny Than Scary



James Thurber writes about their family’s encounter with a ghost in an extremely witty and humorous manner, which makes the description more funny than scary in "The Night the Ghost Got In". The incident also helps to highlight the eccentric and fictionalized account of life in the Thurber household. The story begins with a short introductory paragraph that prepares readers for the more colorful events that will unfold in the pages to come—his mother throwing a shoe through a window, his grandfather shooting a policeman—and then goes right into the events of that night. James taking a bath at one o’clock at night, his mother desiring to throw a second shoe through the neighbour’s window, his grandfather deliberately mistaking the policemen for Meade’s men—all illustrates the unusual characteristics of the Thurbers. Thurber himself acknowledges that their unpredictable behaviour puts a strain on the more sedate people around them. ‘Most everybody we knew or lived near had some kind of attacks.’

Is Teaching English Through Group Teaching Any Good? Ways You Can Be Certain!!


"I pay the schoolmaster, but 'tis the schoolboys that educate my son."

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 - 1882)
U.S. poet and essayist.



Teaching English through group teaching is the subject in which principals and parents are most vitally interested, for it is not only the groundwork of all the other studies but the foundation of study culture. This teaching method aims to give teachers of elementary and high school Teaching English through group teaching as well as mothers and all others interested in child training knowledge of the types of literature and the most representative classics.

Design of Christopher Marlowe's "Doctor Faustus": Most Rewarding type of Scholarship!!

The idea of an individual selling his or her soul to the devil for knowledge is an old motif in Christian folklore, one that had become attached to the historical persona of Johannes Faustus, a disreputable astrologer who lived in Germany sometime in the early 1500s. The immediate source of Marlowe’s play seems to be the anonymous German work Historia von Dr. Johan Fausten of 1587, which was translated into English in 1592, and from which Marlowe lifted the bulk of the plot for his drama. Although there had been literary representations of Faust prior to Marlowe’s play. Marlowe’s Dotor Faustus is the first famous version of the story. Later versions include the long and famous poem Faust by the nineteenth- century Romantic writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as well as operas by Charles Gounod and Arrigo Boito and a symphony by Hector Berlioz.


The protagonist Faustus is a brilliant sixteenth-century scholar from Wittenberg, Germany, grows dissatisfied with the limits of traditional forms of knowledge—logic, medicine, law, and religion—and decides that he wants to learn to practice magic. His friends Valdes and Cornelius instruct him in the black arts, and he begins his new career as a magician by summoning up Mephastophilis, a devil. Despite Mephastophilis’s warnings about the horrors of hell, Faustus tells the devil to return to his master, Lucifer, with an offer of Faustus’s soul in exchange for twenty-four years of semice from Mephastophilis, Meanwhile, Wagner, Faustus’s servant, has’picked up some magical ability and uses it to press a clown named Robin into his service.
Christopher Marlowe
Mephastophilis returns to Faustus with word that Lucifer has accepted Faustus’s offer. Faustus experiences some misgivings and wonders if he should repent and save his soul: in the end, though, he agrees to the deal, signing it with his blood. As soon as he does so, the words “Homo fuge,” Latin for “0 man, fly,” appear braced on his arm. Faustus again has second thoughts, but Mephastophilis bestows rich gifts on him and gives him a book of spells to learn. Later. Mephastophilis answers all of his questions about the nature of the world, refusing to answer only when Faustus asks him who made the universe. This refusal prompts yet another bout of misgivings in Faustus, but Mephastophilis and Lucifer bring in personifications of the Seven Deadly Sins to prance about in front of Faustus, and he is impressed enough to quiet his doubts.
Armed with his new powers and attended by Mephastophilis, Faustus begins to travel. He goes to the pope’s court in Rome, makes himself invisible, and plays a series of tricks. He disrupts the pope’s banquet by stealing food and boxing the pope’s ears. Following this incident, he travels through the courts of Europe, with his fame spreading as be goes. Eventually, he is invited to the court of the German emperor, Charles V (the enemy uf the pope), who asks Faustus to allow him to see Alexander the Great, the famed fourth-century hock Macedonian king and conqueror. Faustus conjures up an image of Alexander, and Charles is suitably impressed. A knight scoffs at Faustus’s powers, and Faustus chastises him by making antlers sprout from his head. Furious, the knight vows revenge.

As the twenty-four years of his deal with Lucifer come to a close, Faustus begins to dread his impending death. He has Mephastophilis call up Helen of Troy, the famous beauty from the ancient world, and uses her presence to impress a group of scholars. An old man urges Faustus to repent, but Faustus drives him away. Faustus summons Helen again and exclaims rapturously about her beauty. But time is growing short. Faustus tells the scholars about his pact, and they are horror-stricken and resolve to pray for him. On the final night before the expiration of the twenty-four years, Faustus -is overcome -by fear and remorse. He begs for mercy, but it is too late. At midnight, a host of devils appears and carries his soul off to hell. In the morning, the scholars find Faustus’s limbs and decide to hold a funeral for him.
 
In a long soliloquy, Faustus reflects on the most rewarding type of scholarship. He first considers logic, quoting the Greek philosopher Aristotle, but notes that disputing well seems to be the only goal of logic, and, since Faustus’s debating skills are already good, logic is not scholarly enough for him. He considers medicine, quoting the Greek physician Galen, and decides that medicine, with its possibility of achieving miraculous cures, is the most fruitful pursuit—yet he notes that he has achieved create renown as a doctor already and that this fame has not brought him, satisfaction. He considers law, quoting the Byzantine emperor Justinian, but dismisses law as too petty, dealing with trivial matters rather than larger ones. Divinity, the study of religion and theology, seems to offer wider vistas, but he quotes from St. Jerome’s Bible that all men sin and finds the Bible’s assertion that “the reward of sin is death” an unacceptable doctrine. He then dismisses religion and fixes his mind on magic which, when proper pursued, he believes will make him the mighty god”.

Ardhendu De

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 100


A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK


  1. Two foreign authors who influenced the English fiction in later 19 th century and early 20 th century: French novelists—Flaubert, Zola, Mupassant; Russian novelists—Dostoevsky, Turgency, Tolstoy. 
  2. Three unpleasant plays of G.B Shaw: Windowers’ Houses(1892), Mrs Warren’s Profession(1894), The Philanderer(1893). 

Principal Objectives of Teaching English as a Second Language in Elementary or Primary or Secondary Schools of Indian Subcontinent



The place of English in the whole scheme of our subcontinental education has been a subject of much heated debate and the heat has not yet subsided. English is a foreign language and being a foreign language is like our foreign plant, can grow with great difficulty on the native soil. Study of mother tongue is the labour of love. The language in which students are taught is one of the most significant issues for schools. Many academicians have become concerned about how best to educate students about the skills of English language and the culture. As children of all ages and from dozens of language backgrounds seek an education, most schools have adopted some variety of bilingual instructions. As days are passing and globalizing is hitting the nook and corner of Indian conditions, we are becoming ardent admirers of English. In fact, English education has admittedly done us great good.

What are the Effects of the World-Wide Spread of English?


"I have no accord with the desire expressed...that by any mode whatever there should be an attempt made to oppress the one language or to render it inferior to the other; I believe that would be impossible...and it would be foolish and wicked if it were possible."

John A. Macdonald (1815 - 1891)



There are many implications of the world-wide spread of English. In the first place, we can talk of many world varieties of English such as British English, American English, Canadian English, Australian English, Indian English, Nigerian English, Ghanaian English, and South African English to mention just a few. Thus, while English remains one language; it has developed many geographical varieties or dialects.

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