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Showing posts from March, 2015

Definition of Romanticism: Master Artists and their Shaping Influences

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"I could lie down like a tired child,
And weep away the life of care
Which I have borne and yet must bear,
Till death like sleep might steal on me."
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822)
English poet.
"Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples"

Romanticism has been variously defined. Some consider it s the Renascence of Wonder’, some as ‘a revolt against tradition and authority’; others take it as ‘a return to Nature’ or ‘addition of strangeness to beauty’ or ‘liberty’.
The limits of the Romantic Age in English literature are generally set at 1789 (i.e., the beginning of the French Revolution) or 1798 (i.e., the publication of the Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge) and 1832 (i.e., the year of Scott’s death and the introduction of the Reform Bill which granted voting right to the middle-class people). Its span, therefore, extends to three or four decades.

Open Air Play-houses in Elizabethan Stage (Theatre): A Brief Survey

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"But men must know, that in this theatre of man's life it is reserved only for God and angels to be lookers on." Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) English philosopher, statesman, and lawyer. The Advancement of Learning
The Elizabethan theaters were open air play-houses. Some were polygonal or roughly circular in shape. They held last audience of two or three thousands. They had two or three levels of roofed galleries that extended, on the upper levels, all the way around the theater surrounded an open space. In this space were the stage and the dressing room as well as the so called yard. In the yard stood the spectators, who chooses to pay less and were exposed to all kinds of weather.
Unlike the yard, the stage itself was covered by a roof. The stage was a large rectangle platform that threshes for into the yard, perhaps even as far as the centre of the circle formed by the surrounding galleries.

Major Highlights from Habib Tanvir’s play "Charandas Chor"

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"He who confronts the paradoxical exposes himself to reality." Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921 - 1990) Swiss writer. The Physicists


Character of the minister: The minister is newly appointed. His rank is next to the queen. So he is supposed to be an intelligent and responsible man. But here he appears to be a gullible person. He comes to the village to take the stock of the royal treasury. On the way he met with the Guru and cannot resist the temptation of a long series of inauguration. Thus he is easily befooled by Charandas and his associates. Later he obeys the orders of the queen placidly instead of giving her true advice. He is also snubbed again by the queen for not carrying out his orders properly. He acts like a puppet. Thus the playwright pokes fun at the inefficiency of a high positioned administrator like him.

Famous Novels for Literature Students : Gleams of Classic Works

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"The novel being dead, there is no point to writing made-up stories. Look at the French who will not and the Americans who cannot." Gore Vidal (1925 - 2012 ) U.S. novelist and essayist. Myra Breckinridge

A novel is a literary work where the author narrates a fictitious story in the prose form which can taken the place of the ancient epics if not in The magnitude of epic by the volume or narrative enlargement; rather by expansion of thought and perception. The term, 'novel' has been coined from the Italian word novella during the late 18th century. Though the novel form was introduced much later than the other forms of literature namely, the poetry and drama; novel, today has gained immense popularity among the masses. Today, one is exposed to innumerable novels written by authors from every corner of the world.  Today's novels reflects the conscience of an age, its life style and thought equilibrium. As from Homer to Milton the epics become the carriage of social, …

Birth of English: Indo-European Language Study-Old English Overview

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"The people of the United States...speak, as a body, incomparably better English than the people of the mother country." James Fenimore Cooper (1789 - 1851) U.S. novelist. Notions of the Americans
Although English is not bound by this geographical boundary and spoken by millions in many other parts of the world, its history as a language is confined almost wholly to England. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)The language , a variant of West Germanic, forefathers came to that country from the lowlands in the north-western part of what is now called Germany, during the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries of the Christian era, and destroyed or pushed back the Celts the indigenous Celtic-speaking peoples, who had lived there before and who spoke a language much likewise of the present day. The invaders belonged to three different tribes of certain Germanic peoples of the regions comprising present-day southern Denmark and northern Germany, known as Angles, Saxons, and Jutes (or Frisi…

Creative Writing : "Autobiography of a Teacher" Model for Writing Class for EFL Students

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A creative article like that of An autobiographical article can focus on many points-
1. Introduction
 2. Development of the story 3. Analytical Discussions 4. Personal views 5. Conclusion
Writing an autobiography helps the power of creatively and imagination which play an important part in it. So it may be said that the information given in an autobiography may not be true always as the author has the liberty to exaggerate an idea in his own way. The author personalizes that object in his own way. Thus an autobiography develops the personal insight of the writer. It colors the whole subject. So it suggested that the author. Read More Teaching EnglishTEFLShould consult various sources for writing an autobiography so there may develop a similarity between the objective and the conceptions. It surely represents our aesthetic sense and develops our power of imagination.   Here we might alight the key points of arguments in writing An Autobiography of Teacher and impliedly telling the story of…

Analysis of Jack (John) Tanner as Shavian Don Juan in 'Man and Superman'

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"I am a gentleman. I live by robbing the poor."
George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950)
Irish playwright.
Man and Superman


 Don Juan is a type by himself, invented by a Spanish Monk early n the 16th century. He is an archetypal character who has passed through different ages.He was represented as an ardent rebel against God and religion. Read More Drama He took ‘arms against a sea of’ conventional values about morality and ethics. As an enemy of God, he exulted in sensuous or carnal pleasure and remained unrelenting until the doomsday. This is the traditional Don Juan—a licentious and immoral and unrepentant libertine who flouted all norms of sex and amorality and was not struck by penitence even up to the end. The old Spanish tale recounts the promiscuous Don Juan's seduction of the daughter of Sevilla's military commander. After killing the commander in a duel, Juan cynically invites the victim's funerary statue to a feast. The statue comes to life, seizes the defiant Ju…

William Blake’s Prophetic and Esoteric Melody in His Writings and Paintings

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"He has no sense of the ludicrous, and, as to God, a worm crawling in a privy is as worthy an object as any other, all being to him indifferent. So to Blake the Chimney Sweeper etc. He is ruined by vain struggles to get rid of what presses on his brain—he attempts impossibles." William Hazlitt (1778 - 1830)


British essayist and critic.Referring to William Blake.
William Blake (1757-1827), English mystical poet, painter, and engraver is among the most original, lyric, and prophetic in the language. By his own effort he learnt Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and Italian. The Bible, Milton, and the Elizabethan poets inspired him profoundly. He also absorbed ideas from the Swedish visionary, Swedenborg, from the German mystic Boehme, from the Neo-Platonist, and from the esoteric doctrine of Rosicrucianism.
During his lifetime Blake was known more as an illustrator than as a poet, and he earned his scant living chiefly by engraving and illustrating other men’s works. His quality as …

Analyzing Oliver Goldsmith’s 'The Vicar of Wakefield' as Charming Narrative

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"Conscience is a coward, and those faults it has not strength enough to prevent it seldom has justice enough to accuse." Oliver Goldsmith (1730 - 1774) Irish-born British novelist, playwright, and poet. The Vicar of Wakefield


Oliver Goldsmith (playwright and novelist) (1730-74), Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist, best known for his witty comedy She Sloops to Conquerwas not a regular novelistand yet his novel The Vicar of Wakefield, is an early best example of the form and well recognized. He became a novelist only by chance and necessity. He was in urgent need of money, a novel, The Vicar of Wakefield, was found ready in his desk, end Dr Johnson sold it for sixty guineas. Read More Novel The publication of The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) is believed to have been hastily arranged by Johnson in order to save Goldsmith from going to jail for debt. In this way was the initial novel enriched by this charming, delightful, little piece. He has place in the history of…

General Estimation of Shakespeare’s History Plays: Analyzing Henry IV of Second Tetralogy (Richard II, Henry IV Part 1, Henry IV Part 2, and Henry V)

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"PRINCE HENRY If all the year were playing holidays, To sport would be as tedious as to work. William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright. Henry IV, Part 1, Act 1, Scene 2"

Politics do appear in passing in the comedies. A banished Duke is at the centre of As You Like It, and the action in Much Ado About Nothing is preceded by a battle between the reigning Duke and his bastard brother. However, personalities and individuals dominate the comedies rather than nations and monarchs or rulers. This latter area is the concern of Shakespeare’s history plays.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 82

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A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
A. Prose poetry should be considered as neither primarily poetry nor prose but is essentially a hybrid or fusion of the two, and accounted a separate genre altogether. Prose poetry originated in early 19th century France and Germany as a reaction against dependence upon traditional uses of line in verse.
Read More A to Z (Objective Questions) Prose poetry dates back to the ancient writings of Hebrew scholars. It was used in the King James version of the Bible in the Book of Psalms.
Examples
Psalm 93
“The Lord reigneth, he is clothed with majesty;the Lord is clothed with strength, wherewith he hath girded himself: the world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved.
Thy throne is established of old: thou art from everlasting.
The floods have lifted up, Oh Lord, the floods have lifted up their voice; the floods lift up their waves.
The Lord on high is mightier than the noise of many waters, yea, than the mighty …

English Environment While Teaching English as Second Language: Observations and Investigations: The Rising Middle Class

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"Poor Knight! he really had two periods, the first—a dull man writing broken English, the second—a broken man writing dull English." Vladimir Nabokov (1899 - 1977) Russian-born U.S. novelist, poet, and critic. The Real Life of Sebastian Knight
With intensive interaction with the teachers, parents, and people interested in education in the post modern era in non speaking zone of English, we are simply much impressed by the widespread desire for Englishin almost all stations of life, and in all classes and categories of people. An overwhelming majority of the parents told in clear and unambiguous terms that they wanted proactively to learn English, and learn it early. This is true for general query to Google search. They do not simply call what the neurologists say, unless they say something which, coining to them second-hand and much distorted, they feel works in their favour, and they remain totally rigid. They are impervious about the pedagogical or logistical arguments again…

Capacity of Creativity Writing : Writing an Autobiography

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“Make 'em laugh; make 'em cry; make 'em wait.” Attributed to Charles Reade (1814 - 1884) British novelist and playwright. Advice to an aspiring writer. 

 Creativity is simply the capacity to have new thoughts and to create expressions unlike any other. Creativity is a basic element in many human endeavors, such as art, music, literature, and performance. Such creative impulse can be cultured into the pupils for the very outset of their learning process. 

What is The Shakespearean Apocrypha ? Plays of Doubtful Authenticity

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"Shakespeare enjoyed the advantage of living in a creative age in a vigorous Protestant country where the madness of bigotry was silent for a while." Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832) German poet, playwright, and scientist. "Shakespeare: a Tribute"

Shakespeare’s Apocrypha—Apocrypha means in its dictionary sense hidden or secret things and it is specially applicable to certain books or parts of books of the Old and New Testaments, which are not generally accepted as canonical or authoritative by the Jews and the Christians Apocryphal accordingly has come to ‘stand for something rather spurious, of doubtful authority or authenticity.




The Shakespearean Apocrypha comprises the plays of doubtful authenticity attributed to Shakespeare but not included in the canon of First Folio of 1623. These works fall into four groups:

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