AD's English Literature : December 2014

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 78

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1. Items in a published book appear in the following order: Copyright Page, Footnotes, Bibliography, and Index.

2. The books of Gulliver’s Travels are:

 Part I “Voyage to Lilliput”, Lemuel Gulliver describes the habits and politics of the people of Lilliput and the neighboring nation of Blefuscu.

 Part II “Voyage to Brobdingnag”, another voyage takes Gulliver to Brobdingnag, a land where every living being is twelve times larger than in England.

Part III “Voyage to Laputa”   Gulliver visits the islands of Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdribb, and Japan. Laputa, the Flying Island, is an allegory of the court and government of George I.

In Part IV “Voyage to Houyhnhnms”, Gulliver journeys to the land of the Houyhnhnms, rational horses, and the Yahoos, appallingly irrational humans. 

Monday, December 29, 2014

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 77

A Set of 26 Objective Questions &  Answers

1. Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment (Hero: Raskolnikov ) explores the psychological depths of man. It examines tragedy as represented through the existential beliefs of many philosophers. Existentialist theory expresses the idea that man can satisfy his own needs, regardless of social codes, if he has the energy and ambition to act. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    Raskolnikov has the ambition to act, but struggles internally with their actions, frightened of the consequences.  The story is very close to Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
2. Pecola is a character in: The Bluest Eye which is Toni Morrison's novel published in 1970.
3. Virginia Woolf was associated with the “Bloomsbury Group”( T. S. Eliot ,W. B. Yeats, T. E. Hulme  ). She is British novelist, essayist, and critic, who helped create the modern novel. Her writing often explores the concepts of time, memory, and people’s inner consciousness, and is remarkable for its humanity and depth of perception.

Saturday, December 20, 2014

Critical Appreciation of Ruskin Bond’s "The Eyes Have It" : Theme of Self conscience and Blindness

 "If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch."

King James Bible 

Matthew 15:14

The long-popular The Eyes Have It of Ruskin Bond is an engaging story told from the perspective of a blind person. The Eyes Have It's experiences lead him through a diverse series of encounters and bring him into contact with many inner characters within himself, including other blind people with stories of their own to tell. Bond uses The Eyes Have It's story to explore his theme of self conscience. He shows the positive results of kind treatment, while satirizing the escapist attitude in us. Bond believed that blind bonds were a societal problem that could not be ignored, a problem that was often caused by ignorance and curse, as well as intentional abuse. The lines between dream and reality are clearly drawn, and this fable is intended to leave the reader with a strong moral lesson that it is better to be a real person than an imagined one. The blinds are mistreated through no fault of their own by uncaring or insensitive people. Read More Short Stories In Bond's story the world is cruel because it is inhabited by corrupted people, who have the power to reform, if they wish.

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Analyses of Habib Tanvir’s play "Charandas Chor" as Thematic Complexity ( Paradox)

Habib Tanvir’s play Charandas Chor, is steeped in paradox simply because the title character Charandas in spite of being a thief   is really honest, sympathetic and truthful-  The very idea of the hero in the play is based on paradoxes and contradictions.   Read More Indian English   One could not conceive the play, Charandas Chor , in any other terms than seeing it as a putting together of truth and lie simultaneously in a man.  Read More Indian English Farther, there are liars, scoundrels, thieves, but they are men of principles as well. There are custodians of law, but they are breakers of it too. There are saints and sanyasis, but they run after money as well. There are men of intellect, but it is very easy to deceive them. There are rich, affluent people, but at heart, they are the poorest. Affluent people like the landlord are poor at heart. He cannot share a kilo with those who have nothing. There are paupers, but at heart, they are very rich. The paupers like the peasant are rich in heart. Thus, the theme of the entire play is embedded in a remarkable juxtaposition of opposites, one after another. In the play, as has been pointed out, truth and lie go hand in hand. Read More Indian English People who deceive and cheat others turn out to be humanitarian as well.  The theme and the characters of the play reveal and depict paradoxes and contradiction of the society and the human nature in the dramatic umbrela.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Ecocritical Appreciation of Gieve Patel’s "On Killing a Tree"

"In my childhood trees were green
And there were plenty to be seen. "
--Louis MacNeice 
The theme in Gieve Patel’s ecocritical poem  On Killing a Tree is the notion of a clash between two different attitudes, saving and cutting a tree. The focus for this is environmental degradation. The poem is very short. But it slashes out scar in our minds.  The ravages of modern industrial society are represented by the woodcutter. We think like of the cannibalizing its own guts and soon to destroy the living trees and home lives of our mother earth. Read More Indian English It was such a human story. A similar process is going on in the countries in the world which are being mined for profit. Patel launches into a tirade against the practice in his  On Killing a Tree but in a tone of total irony. 

Thursday, December 11, 2014

Teaching a Good Literature Class through Story Telling - Necessity of Introducing Stories in the Classroom

 "A tale should be judicious, clear, succinct;
The language plain, and incidents well link'd;
Tell not as new what ev'ry body knows;
And, new or old, still hasten to a close."
William Cowper (1731 - 1800)

Introduction: The ancient art of storytelling continues to flourish in modern class room, partly in response to widespread media. This age-old practice of telling stories is a highly developed and much appreciated art form. It is also one of the best ways of imparting literature classes. It is wide of range and can be exercised from elementary to university classes. The Story telling in the classroom can widen the scope of foreign literature bearing as well as great milieu of oration. Read More Short Stories It is very necessary to introduce stories in the classroom as stories are interesting, captivating and absorbing even for the college or university students. We all know, that the children like to listen to stories and they wait with rapt attention to know the end of the happening and it is same arresting for young adults.  So a teacher can arrest their attention and concentration all through the lesson and make them listen to the words and sentences for few minutes in the class. The use of stories (folklore) has become the thread that links the past with the present in our society. These stories concern all parts of our life and often teach traditional values, beliefs, and behaviors. They are also a major form of entertainment in literature.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 76

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1.      After Chaucer there was a decline in the poetry of England. Occleve, Lydgate, and Skelton were the only English poets writing poetry in imitation of Chaucer. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)   They are called English Chaucerians. Of these the first two are considered hopelessly dull, only Skelton showed some originality, but he, too, lacks the Renaissance spirit.

2.      James I, Robert Henryson, Wiliam Dunbar, Gavin Douglas are the best known Scottish Chaucerians. The treatment of nature by the Scottish poets is the most remarkable feature in the poetry of the Scottish Chaucerians. In comparison to the English Chaucerians , the Scottish Chaucerians were better poets.

3.       Dr. Johnson was the first English writer who used the term ‘Metaphysical’ as applied to poetry. He had borrowed it from Dryden’s phrase about Donne- “He affects the metaphysics.” Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)   About the beginning of the seventeenth century appeared a race of writers that may be termed the Metaphysical poets--- The Metaphysical poets were men of learning, and to show their learning was their whole endeavour.” This is Dr. Johnson writing about the Metaphysical School of Poetry.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Theory and criticism: Aristotle on Imitation - Principle of Imitation which Unites Poetry with the other Fine Arts

"Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is truth."
Attributed to Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC)
Greek philosopher, 330? BC.

Plato first used the word ‘imitation’ in connection with poetry. But Aristotle breaded into it a new and definite meaning, so that poetic imitation is no longer considered as an act of mere servile coping, but is regarded as an act of imagination creation by which the poet, drawing his materials from the phenomenal world makes something new out of it. 
According to Aristotle, it is the principle of imitation which unites poetry with the other fine arts. (Fine arts are those arts in which mind and imagination are chiefly concerned.) Plato equates poetry with painting while Aristotle equates it with music. Read More Criticism  It no longer remains a mere servile coping of the surface or the representation of things, but in his theory, it deals with passion, emotions of men which are also imitated by music. Thus Aristotle has enlarged the scope the imitation. As the emotions are the objects of the imitations of music, so poetry has close affinities with music. It is a mistake to compare poetry with painting; it is more akin to the music. 

Be Confident! Face Old Habit Of Letter Writing Revived Through Digital Media Positively! Learning the Letter Writing

“His letters, say they, are weighty and powerful; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible.”

King James Bible 

II Corinthians 10:10
In the modern day there is none with whom we cannot speak to persons who are away from us and are not on the phone. Even if there is any we surely drop a mail to his id. Earlier if we wanted to send them some message or information we had to write letters to them. However, still now the glory of letters and the postman are preserved as lost art. We the literary enthusiast must know the names like Mary Wortley Montagu and Richardson. Montagu wrote a series of witty and descriptive letters about her life in the Middle East; the letters were posthumously published in 1763. Read More Teaching English While as all of Richardson's novels are in epistolary form (a series of letters)—a structure that he refined and developed. Here in this article we will discuss the basics of letter writing. 

Thursday, December 4, 2014

Things You Can Learn From Studying Theory And Criticism: Plato’s View Of Art- Theory Of Ideas

"The true lover of knowledge naturally strives for truth, and is not content with common opinion, but soars with undimmed and unwearied passion till he grasps the essential nature of things."
Plato (428? BC - 347? BC)


Plato’s view of art is estimably bound up with what he called the theory of ideas. Ideas are as expressed in the Republic the ultimate reality. The things are conceived as ideas before they take practical shape as things.  Therefore, a tree is nothing more than a concrete embodiment of its image idea. The idea of everything is its original pattern, the thing its copy. As the things are the imperfect of ideas from which they spring. Their productions in art must be imperfect. They take men away from reality rather than towards it. At best, they are but partial image of it and they help neither to mould character nor to primo. According to Plato, the artist imitates the things of the sensuous world as they appear to him. The world itself is imperfect in an ideal archetype. It is not real, reality exists in the idea which is absolute, one and unchanging. And thus the artist tries to present a distorted image of reality and tries to make an illusion of reality. Poetry, therefore, is thrice removed from reality. In Republic –III, Plato shows not only tragedy but epic too as a matter of the ‘imitation, or representation, of words and action. Indeed, from the literal sense of mimesis, Plato seems to draw a general distrust of the whole activity of imitating. However that may be epic and tragedy presented obvious dangers for Plato, for the words and actions they portrayed might so easily be immoral or emotional. 

Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Co-operative Language Teaching in the Classroom: Benefits of Learning Process

In any of the language teaching exercise, experimental co-operative program of Language teaching for students is fruitful. Cooperative language learning is the process of providing every possible assistance to the students to learn the target language i.e. English. It also refers to a systematic instructional method in which students work together in small groups to accomplish shared learning goals. 
The total percentage of teaching learning experience multiplies by this Language teaching exercise. Allocations during the classes of operation can reach interdisciplinary studies: philosophy, religion, music, languages and literature, the arts, the social sciences, and mathematics, biological and physical sciences. Read More TEFL In this process, the teacher should always be on his toes to cater necessary help to the students as and when necessary. The classroom should offer sufficient opportunities for children to internalize any new language that has been presented to them. Simply presenting a precise of language to the class and asking them is practice for a few minutes is not sufficient enough to allow them to learn the language. The data in a large amount of research shows, compared with competitive and individualistic efforts, cooperation has positive effects on a wider range of outcomes. Read More Teaching English People operating in a cooperative learning activity attain higher achievement level than those who function under competitive and individualistic learning structures. Although a few allocations have exceeded maximal, the co-operating teaching learning experience can contribute. Although  the importance of the enterprise was not to be appraised by teachers alone; it was rather to be estimated by the quickening of research and scholarship, and especially of teaching, upon the campuses of the individual institutions co-operating, and in the geographical area which they serve.

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