Dr. Johnson’s Friends and Contemporaries: Goldsmith, Boswell and Gibbon


Johnson ; Goldsmith ; Burke ; Boswell ; Junius ; Hume ; Robertson ; Gibbon

1735. Johnson's translation of Lobo's "Voyage to Abyssinia."

1 738. Hurrre's " Treatise of Human Nature."

1738. Johnson's" London."

1742. Hume's "Essays."

1744. Johnson's" Life of Savage."

1749. Johnson's "Vanity of Human Wishes."

1749. Johnson's "Irene."

1750-52. Johnson's" Rambler."

1752. Hume's "Political Discourses."

1754-61. Hume's "History England."

1755. Johnson's Dictionary. English writer and lexicographer Samuel Johnson publishes his Dictionary of the English Language. Standardized spelling of English words is one of the benefits that result.

1756. Burke on the "Sublime and Beautiful."

1758-60. Johnson's "Idler."

1758. Robertson's "History of Scotland."

I 759- Johnson's" Russelas."

1759. Goldsmith's "Enquiry into the State of Literature."

1764. Goldsmith's "Traveller."

1766. Goldsmith's "Vicar of Wakefield."

1768. Goldsmith's " Good-Natured Man."

1769. Robertson's "Charles V."

1769-72. "Letters of Junius."

1770. Goldsmith's "Deserted Village."

1770. Burke's "Thoughts on Present Discontents."

1773. Goldsmith's "She Stoops to Conquer."

1775. Johnson's "Tour to the Western Isles."

1776. Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations."

1776. Campbell's "Philosophy of Rhetoric."

1776-88. Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." British historian Edward Gibbon publishes the first book of his three-volume The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. This work, considered a masterpiece of historical writing, is admired for its eloquence and flashes of wit.

1777. Robertson's "History of America."

1779-81. Johnson's" Lives of the Poets."

1785. Burke's speech on the " Nabob of Arcot's Debts."

1786. Burke's speech on the Impeachment of Warren Hastings.

1790. Burke's " Reflections on the French Revolution."

1 791 . Robertson's ' 'Disquisition on Ancient India.'

1791. Boswell's “Life of Johnson."

While we are talking about Dr. Johnson’s friends and contemporaries, Goldsmith, Boswell and Gibbon names come to our mind. They are brilliant in all lines of activity and ever alive. Their writings show Manners and foibles of the age, amusements, literary characteristics, and will aid in visualizing one of the most interesting epochs in English life.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 85

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers



a. Macaulay in his Minute on Education (English Education Act 1835) advocated the introduction of the study of English in India. It was the study of English language and literature that opened the Indians the window to western culture and galvanized them with the progressive ideals that prevailed in Europe at the time. It led to the upsurge of nationalism and the Indian Renaissance of the 19th century. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)

b. Henry Derozio published his poems in 1823 and Kashiprosad Ghose published The Shair and the Other Poems in 1830. They were not eminent poets but they are historically important, because they wrote in English much before Macaulay. 

c. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was the first Indian writer of a novel in English- Rajmahan’s Wife published in 1864. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)

d. Toru Dutta wrote Bianca and The Young Spanish Maiden   published posthumously. Dutta was the first to write to capture the Indian ethos. She began her poetic career with A Sheaf gleaned in French Fields written when she was only nineteen years of age. It is a collection of translations of about 200 French poems. Here she shows much virtuosity in expressions and versification. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions) But her finest achievement her verse Ancient Ballads and Legends of Hindusthan (1883) which includes the stories of Savitri, Sita, Prahlad, Dhruva etc. For the first time we come across Indian themes and Indian background in English poetry written by an Indian.

Plot of Euripides’ Medea is Steadily Developed from Prologue to Devastating Climax

"I depict men as they ought to be, but Euripides portrays them as they are."

Sophocles (496? - 406 BC)
Euripides wrote about ninety tragic plays of which eighteen are extant. We should also include Rhesus and one satyric play, which have been transmitted to us. The surviving plays are Alcestis (438 B. C., Medea (431 B. C.), Hippolytus (428 B. C.), Trojan Women (415 B. C.), Helen (412 B. C.), Orestes (408 B. C.), Iphigenia at Aulis (405 B. C.), Bacchae (405 B. C.), Andromache, Children of Heracles, Hecuba, Suppliants, Electra, Madness of Heracles, Iphigenia in Tauris, Ion, Phoenissae, Cyclops, and Rhesus.

What English Do I need to Study? : A Comparative Study between English for Special Purpose (ESP) and General English

"If the English language had been properly organized...then there would be a word which meant both 'he' and 'she', and I could write, 'If John or Mary comes heesh will want to play tennis,' which would save a lot of trouble."

A. A. Milne (1882 - 1956)

English for Special Purpose (ESP) and General English have some fundamental differences. This is because people talk differently depending on whom they are talking to and on the circumstances of the conversation. For instance, people who work together in different kinds of jobs have special words for their jobs: lawyers know legal language, doctors know medical terms, and factory workers know the right terms to describe the products they make and the processes used to make them. Such job-related language not only has special purposes, it also identifies the user as somebody who knows the job. For example, someone who cannot use legal language convincingly is probably not a lawyer. Language for particular needs and for identification occurs in connection not only with jobs but also with social groups—groups formed by region, gender, ethnic affiliation, age, or other criteria.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 84

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


a. An epic has been generally described as a long narrative poem, on a grand scale about the deeds of warriors and heroes, kings and gods. It is a polygonal heroic story incorporating myth, legend, folktale and history. Epics are mostly of national significance, since that they embody the history and aspirations of nations in a lofty or grandeur manner. An epic is a culture mirror with a fixed ideological stance, often reflecting the best noblest principles of nation’s ethos.

b. T.S. Eliot in The Wasteland and Thomas Mauve in The Magic Mountain have both told the death knell of heroism, divinity, love and all nobler virtues in the post war modern world which portrayed, rightly enough, as a fragmented, hellish insubstantial circle of spiritual vacuity and ideals . Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    

 c. Old and Middle English alliterative poems are commonly written in form of four-stress lines. Of these poems, William Langland’s The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman, better known as Piers Plowman, is the most significant.

English as a Second Language in India: Analyzing Its Functions Taking Some of the Key Aspects of Our Educational System in India

  While thinking of some of the key aspects of our educational system in India we readily conclude that it demands the use of English. Indian youths in the age of 3G – 4G use English as a major means of communication and even college or university campus also adopt English as their major means of communication. The other day, in popular T. V. serial C. I. D. a letter in Hindi is written in English words, I am just wondering if the script writer is a hybrid product of this linguistic generation. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)  

Taking this into account, after the formal introduction and induction of English 250 years ago, the major functions which English performs in India in 2015 is astonishingly variety. The language is used as a medium of instruction in schools; it is the language of administration; it is the language of commerce and industry; it is the language of national unity; it is the language of international diplomacy; it is also a medium of creative writing. For a long time to come, English will continue to play these roles in the country. Engregii is, indeed, an important legacy inherited from Britain (its formal colonial master).

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