Showing posts from July, 2011

Sonnet- A Brief History of Its Journey

The Sonnet as a literary form, inferior to none in variety or extent, is superior to many in nobility of thought, in sanctity of spirit and in generality of comprehension. In beauty or prolixity, it can vie with any other literary genre ancient and modern. Despite of the various experimentation, internal and external, Sonnet had to encounter ever since the dawn of its birth, she has successfully held up to the world her archaic literary beauty.
Sonnet, derived from the Italian word ‘Sonneto’ meaning a little sound or strain, is a lyric poem of 14 lines with a formal rhyme scheme, expressing different aspects of a single thought, mood, or feeling, sometimes resolved or summed up in the last lines of the poem. Originally short poems accompanied by mandolin or lute music, sonnets are generally composed in the standard meter of the language in which they were written—for example, iambic pentameter in English, and the Alexandrine in French. Such outburst of lyricism in English l…

The Prologue To Canterbury Tales: A Picture Gallery of 14th Century

14th-century English poet Geoffrey Chaucer’s "Canterbury Tales" (probably written after 1387), the crowning achievement of Chaucer's life, is of perennial importance, invaluable alike to the student of poetry, to the historian who aspires to delineate the social life of the period, and to the philosopher. The Tales is a collection of stories set within a framing story of a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral, the shrine of Saint Thomas à Becket. The poet joins a band of pilgrims, who assemble at the Tabard Inn outside London for the journey to Canterbury. The Host of the inn proposes a storytelling contest to pass the time; each of the 30 or so pilgrims (the exact number is unclear) is to tell four tales on the round trip. Ranging in status from a Knight to a humble Plowman, they are a microcosm of 14th-century English society.  Chaucer completed less than a quarter of this plan. The work contains 22 verse tales (two unfinished) and two long prose tales; a few are thoug…

Analysis of Virginia Woolf's Essay "Modern Fiction"

Virginia Woolf in her Modern Fiction makes a fair attempt to discuss briefly the main trends in the modern novel or fiction. She begins her essay by mentioning the traditionalists like H. G. Wells, Arnold Bennett and Galsworthy, who, while they propound new ideas and open out new vistas to the human mind, still follow the Victorian tradition as far as the technique of the novel is concerned. Read More EssayThey believed that a great force on the individual was environment. However, they differed from one another in subject matter – in Arnold and Galsworthy the socialist point of view dominated and Wells, a brilliant writer of scientific romances. Read More EssayMrs. Woolf marks these three as ‘materialists’. While defining the term Woolf states that these writers as well as their writing is stuffed with unimportant things; they spend immense skill and dexterity in making the trivial and transitory a boost of truth of life. As life escapes, the worth of the literary piece in minimal. M…

A Critical Essay on the Use of Symbols in Coleridge's The Rime of The Ancient Mariner

The term ‘symbolism’ can be defined as the practice, system and art of representing ideas by means of symbols. The term ‘symbol’ although is a word, a phrase, an object, or a clause even, yet it always represents an abstraction. So the thing represented is an idea, quality, condition, or any other abstract thing.
Kinds of symbols
Coleridge has employed symbolism in The Rime of The Ancient Mariner, as E.E. Stolls sums up, in two artistic symbolic Categories – symbols of distance and symbols of life in middle ages.
            E.E.Stoll, opines that the symbols are based on the ‘principle of perspective’. The symbols of the art of story telling serves to heighten the illusion; credibly the marvels, provide an approach to them, a middle distance, which makes them appropriately more remote. There is also nearer distance. The Wedding Guest is a symbol of the middle distance. He stands between the Ancient Mariner and his voyage in a land of marvels. The marginal comment of the poet…

Stephen in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is the Search of an Artist in Exile.

Escape is the natural complement to the theme of Entrapment and Constraint. Joyce depicts escape metaphorically by the book's most important symbol and allusion: the mythical artificer Daedalus is not at all an Irish name; Joyce took the name from the mythical inventor who escaped from his island prison by constructing wings and flying to his freedom. Stephen, too, will eventually escape from the island prison of Ireland.

What are the specific objectives of teaching English as a second language at the secondary stage? How far is the current high school curriculum helpful in realizing the objectives?

Objectives of teaching English at the Secondary school stage:
In order to make the programme of Teaching English effective, we should first of all identify our objectives we want to achieve. It will help the teacher to apply the correct methods and devices to achieve the particular object at any particular stage. So it is extremely necessary to fix up the objectives of teaching English in the beginning. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)

                With the change of the position of English in the new set up of India, the aims and objectives of teaching English has naturally undergone a change. We have accepted English as a second language. English is , therefore, taught now as a skill subject as opposed to literary subject. So the objectives of teaching English in schools will be the acquisition of linguistic or communicative skills.

How to Approach Coleridge's Masterpiece,The Rime of the Ancient Mariner

No ballad is so fun to read than Coleridge's masterpiece, The rime of the Ancient Mariner. Lowell, a renowned critic, Says ,"Coleridge has taken the old ballad measure and given to it, by an indefinable charm wholly his own, all the sweetness, all the melody and compass of a symphony and how picturesque it is in the proper sense of the word. I know nothing like it. Read More Romantic PeriodThere is not a description in it. It is all pictures." For a clear understanding, obsolete words must be discussed, figures must be explained, and pictures must be clearly dwelt upon. In studying this poem, we cannot help but feel the wonderful imagery weird, grotesque, and romantic; we recognize back of it a powerful allegory; we see the double setting of a story within a story; we thrill at the supernatural; we feel the music of rhyme and rhythm, the throb of the internal rhymes, and the fascination of alliteration; we project ourselves back into the emotions of the Middl…

An Account of the Diasporic Literature: Characteristic Features, Multicultural Identities, Hybridity, Historical Understanding

Introduction: Diaspora (Greek, “dispersion”), is a term used for large scale migration of people from the country of their origin to other countries, either voluntarily or due to economic or political compulsions. When we speak of the Indian Diaspora we mean Indians settled in England, America, Africa, and the Caribbean. Similarly one can discuss the Caribbean Diaspora to England, Canada and France. Diaspora studies also became an academic discipline. In literature too the text composed of such displacement constitutes the Diaspora Literature.

Analysis of S. T. Coleridge's Kubla Khan as a Dream Poem

Coleridge’s dream faculty is his strong point as a poet and he is a dreamer of dreams and his Kubla Khan(1798)  is not the product of his observation but has come out from mysterious dreams. Coleridge himself claimed that the poem “Kubla Khan” was the product of a hallucinatory dream experienced after he had taken opium “in consequence of a slight indisposition.” On awaking, he began to commit the experience to paper but was interrupted by “a person on business from Porlock.” On returning to his desk, he found that the intensity of his impressions had faded. The poem claims to be “scattered lines and images” from a longer, forgotten work. Whether the story is true or not, the poem takes the unrecapturable nature of such dreams as its theme. It opens with sumptuous images of a mythic land, in which a powerful ruler orders the construction of a fabulous palace. It is an edifice of dream, a fragment of pure romance and a product of a dream rooted in imagination.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is an ‘Aesthetic Autobiography’ of James Joyce

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Manis a semi-autobiographical novel about the education of a young Irishman, Stephen Dedalus, whose background has much in common with Joyce’s. However, in determining the genre of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man readers and critics both face a lengthy debate. In terms of its critical reception A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man has had its share of detractors and its admirers. As far as its autobiographical elements are concerned A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be seen both as a ‘Bildungsroman’ which describes the youthful development of the central character and as ‘aesthetic autobiography’ or ‘kunstlerroman’. We will now carryout our discussions on Joyce’s portrayal of Stephen and see how he keeps varying his distance from Stephen but never does so drastically.

Timeline of English Literature- Age of Chaucer (1350 – 1450)

Age of Chaucer (1350 – 1450)
History / Events Literature 1381 Peasants’ revolt
1429 Siege of Orleans
1431 Joan of Arc burned
1441 Kings’ College, Cambridge founded 1356. Mandeville's " Travels."
1362 Langland’s Piers the Plowman The full title of the poem is The Vision of Piers Plowman. Three distinct versions of it exist, the first c. 1362, the second c. 1377, and the third 1393 or 1398. It has been described as "a vision of Christ seen through the clouds of humanity." It is divided into nine dreams, and is in the unrhymed and alliterative.
1380 Wycliffe’s Bible
1380-83 Troylus and Cryseyde by Chaucer. 1382 The Parlement of Foules by Chaucer 1384 The House of Fame by Chaucer 1385 The Legende of Goode Women by Chaucer
1385-91 English poet Geoffrey Chaucer writes TheCanterbury Tales, a work which places him in the front rank of the narrative poets of the world. It contains about 18,000 lines of verse, besides some passages in prose, and was left inc…