AD's English Literature : June 2012

Saturday, June 30, 2012

Analysis of Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa, or The History of a Young Lady

Samuel Richardson’s second novel, Clarissa, or The History of a Young Lady, was published in 7 volumes, 1747-1748, eight years after the appearance of Pamela. This was the noble and tragic story of Clarissa. It explores and reexplores the same events from the points of view of several of the characters, is considered his best work. Like Pamela, it was praised for its lofty moral tone, sentimentality, and understanding of emotions and the feminine mind. However, it is far more mature than Pamela, and shows a deeper knowledge of the human heart. It reduced all Europe to tears, and had a great effect upon continental fiction. It should be noted that Richardson was enough of an artist (or moralist) to withstand the importunate petitions of his friends that this story should be given a happy ending. Its fame spread all over the continent, and it is interesting to note that the Abbe Prevost had to make in his translation certain omissions to suit the delicacy of French taste. Clarissa, which is also written in the form of letters, was intended as a companion –piece to Pamela, and was designed to show that virtue was not invariably rewarded in this world. The chief fault of this novel is its inordinate length.

Analysis of William Blake’s The Tyger and The Lamb from Song of Experience (1794) and Song of Innocence (1789)

“Blake’s poetry contained an honesty against which 
the whole world conspires because it is unpleasant.” 
- T. S. Eliot

William Blake was a mystic poet and this ‘Mystic movement of his mind required Metaphor, he saw no likeness but identities, so the images and symbols are found galore (plentiful) in his poems. The image of generally viewed as singles in dimension while the symbol as more complex. Legions and Cazamian remark that Blake’s poetry deals in the subtlest (illustrated) of symbolism with the skill that can not be matched. In the Song of Innocence (1789) his symbols are largely drawn from the Bible, but in the Song of Experience (1794) he often uses symbols of his own making, and his meaning is more elusive. 

Thursday, June 28, 2012

"The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling" by Henry Fielding: Common Questions for Competitive Examination Part II

Genre: Comic epic of the picaresque tradition
The main character: Tom Jones
Heroine: Sophia
Other characters: Captain Waters, Mrs. Waters, Thomas Allworthy, John Blifil, Mr. Fitzpatrick, ‘Black George’ Seagrim, Lady Bellaston, Nancy Miller, Mr. Partridge etc.

 What trait of Tom’s Character do you find from the Nancy-Nightingale episode?

When Tom learns from Nightingale that his father is making an alternative arrangement for his marriage in spite of the fact that Nancy Miller, his beloved, has attempted suicide, Tom is perturbed and tries to find a solution. He comes to the conclusion that if he presents the fait accomplish of marriage, as having been already Consummated, the father will be compelled to accept the marriage. Therefore, he gives the wrong information, and everything works according to plan. The three traits of Tom revealed in this episode are his innate good nature or benevolence, his fertile inventiveness, and his tendency to put the end over the means.

John Donne's "Canonization" : Ten Most Common Short Questions

"For God's sake hold your tongue and let me love."
John Donne (1572? - 1631)
1. What is the meaning of the word ‘canonization’?
The word ‘Canonization’ means formal recognition as a saint, an act by which the pope publicly proclaims the sanctity of a deceased person, by the Christian church. 
In Donne’s poem the ‘canonization’ for the lovers implies that the lovers are holy as the christen saints and that there love is worthy to be emulated. 

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Character of Tony Lumpkin in Oliver Goldsmith's "She stoops to Conquer": A Comedy of Intrigue

“Let schoolmasters puzzle their brain,
With grammar, and nonsense, and learning,
Good liquor, I stoutly maintain,
Gives genius a better discerning.” Tony At
The Three Pigeon

If Oliver Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer is a comedy of intrigue, it is so mainly for Tony Lumpkin, who seemingly a booby, turns out to be a ready-wit, a master of pranks. The play is set in motion with a trick that Tony plays on two town guys, Marlow and Hastings. How is it that he misdirects the two youths which had them to harassment? Tony does it for its own shake .It is his humour to make fun at the cost of others. Had Tony played no trick on Marlow and Hastings, there would have no comedy concerning ‘mistakes of a night.’ Hence the importance of Tony in the play can hardly be underrated.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 23 (Ben Jonson)

'Drink to me only with thine eyes.” 'To Celia' The Forest (1616)
Ben Jonson (1572 - 1637)
English playwright and poet.

A. Beginning: Every Man in His Humour was performed in 1598 by the Lord Chamberlain's Company with William Shakespeare in the cast. 

B. The Duel: Jonson killed a man in a duel and narrowly escaped execution.

C. Humour: Invented a kind of topical comedy involving eccentric characters, each of whom represented a temperament, or humor, of humanity. According to him there are four humours which he explains in the introduction to his play, Every Man in His Humour : The humour of blood makes a man excessively optimistic or sanguine even without the slightest chance of hope or success; Phlegm makes one excessively calm and docile; Choler makes one highly ill-tempered; Black bile makes one excessively melancholy and morbid.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Theme of Race-relationship and Colonial Encounter in E. M. Forster's "A Passage to India"

Part I—Mosque
Part II—Caves
Part III—Temple

Every novel deals with relationships-emotional, intellectual and spiritual-and Forster’s A Passage to India is no exception. Yet, it is unique, and its uniqueness lies in the fact that the novel is concerned less with individual relationship than with race-relationship, and that it subsumes the entire gamut of human interests, ranging from the political and the ethnic to the emotional, the intellectual and the spiritual. Sometimes it is also assumed as a clash between two fundamentally different cultures, those of East and West. Although Forster himself declared that ‘the book is not really about politics’ (three countries), leading many critics to opine that the book is about man trying to understand the universe, that is, a book on ontology and cosmogony, one must also bear in mind Forester’s later declaration that ‘the political side was an aspect I wanted to express’. Being himself a liberal who lived in India and was upset at the arrogant and patronizing attitude of the British bureaucracy in Indian colony, Forster decided to present through fiction a colonial encounter which would not merely be restricted to the strictly political but extend to the effective and the cerebral the sexual and spiritual.

The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (1749) by Henry Fielding: Short Questions for Competitive Examination

Genre: Comic epic of the picaresque tradition
The main character: Tom Jones
Heroine: Sophia
Other characters: Captain Waters, Mrs. Waters, Thomas Allworthy, John Blifil, Mr. Fitzpatrick, ‘Black George’ Seagrim, Lady Bellaston, Nancy Miller, Mr. Partridge etc.

Give the identity of Thomas Allworthy.

Thomas Allworthy is owner of one of the largest estates is Somersetshire. He is an agreeable, pleasant and benevolent man, ‘who might be deemed, as Fielding observes, the favourite of Nature and Fortune’. He is the elder brother of Bridget and the maternal uncle of the hero, Tom Jones. The only cause of his unhappiness is that his wife and three children have predeceased him.

Saturday, June 23, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 22

A. Three Father Figures: Poetry: Chaucer; Comedy: Aristophanes; Printing: Caxton

B. French writer and philosopher, Voltaire’s Real name is François Marie Arouet (1694-1778).

C. In 1980 Salman Rushdie published the novel Midnight’s Children which employed magic realism. The book is noted for its insights into issues of personal and national identity in India and Pakistan as postcolonial nations. 

D. A Suitable Boy (1993) by Vikram Seth traces the history of a family in a fictional town in post independence India.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

William Wordsworth: Nature’s Prophet and Priest

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) is regarded as the greatest and one of the most accomplished and influential of England's romantic nature poets in English literature. In fact, he is nature’s prophet and priest. No other English poet has given his heart and soul so deeply to the study and enjoyment of the beauties of nature. He not only sees and describes the beauty of the meadows, the woodlands, the hills, the streams, the sky and the seas, the cataracts etc. accurately but penetrates in-depth of all these things and finds a deep meaning in them. Concerning Wordsworth’s attitude to nature, the following seven points may be noted.

Eugene O’Neill: One of Greatest Dramatists of America: Contribution and Achievement.

Introduction: Eugene O’Neill (1888-1953) is one of greatest dramatists of America, the creator of serious American drama. The bulk of his output is fairly large, sufficiently large to place him securely in the forefront of 20th century dramatist. There are many more which would stand high in any long last of plays of our time: Anna Christie, The Emperor Jones, The Hairy Ape, All God’s Chillum Got Wings, and A Touch of thepoet. He is the first name to be mentioned in any discussion of American theater today, and he is the only one of outplay wrights who has a wide international fame.

Monday, June 18, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 21

A. Where do you find the story of Kurtz? Comment on her character.

Main character of Joseph Conrad's famous novella Heart of Darkness (1902) is Kurtz, who is an English ivory trader living in Africa. Throughout the story, Kurtz's descent into cruelty and violence as a result of greed is shown to be, on an individual scale, what the imperialism of nations can be on a large scale.

B. Where do you find the story of Dorothea Brooke?

Dorothea Brooke is the heroine of George Eliot’s (was actually a woman named Mary Ann Evans) novel Middlemarch.

C. Where do you find the story of Schlegels and the Wilcoxes? How they differ from each other?

E. M.  Forster’s Howards End tells the story of two families:  the Schlegels and the Wilcoxes, whose perspectives on life are diametrically opposed. The Schlegels believe in the mind and are idealistic about the world around them, whereas the Wilcoxes are practical business people.

D. Where do you find the “Molly Bloom” soliloquy? What is the subject of its words?

We find the “Molly Bloom” soliloquy in Joyce’s novel Ulysses (1922). In her soliloquy Molly is her roams through her thoughts and memories. It reveals keen psychological insight through stream of consciousness.

E. Who was the first African writer to win the Nobel Prize for literature? What is his literary style?

Nigerian writer Wole Soyinka became the first African writer to win the Nobel Prize for literature in 1986. His most of the poetry and novels explore the tension between European values and customs and those of traditional West African society.

F. Who wrote Things Fall Apart? What are the things fallen apart?

 Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958) is set in eastern Nigeria under British colonial rule in the late 1800s. In the book we find an exiled tribal leader who returns to his village after seven years and finds that colonial laws and the Christian religion have weakened the identity of the tribe. The piece of identity of a native is fallen apart by colonial burden.

G. Who edited Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française? What is the meaning of the title?

Senegalese Léopold Sédar Senghor edited Anthologie de la nouvelle poésie nègre et malgache de langue française whose English rendering is Anthology of the New Black and Malagasy Poetry in the French Language. The book brought international attention to French-language African poetry and dignitary to African culture.

H. Who wrote Xala? Who is the hero of the novel?

Ousmane Sembène in 1973 published Xala, which is the drawn of Senegal's independence from France. El Hadji Kader Beye is the hero of the novel.

I. In which year Ben Okri won the Booker Prize?

The Nigerian author Ben Okri won the Booker Prize for his novel Famished Road in 1991. Notably, the book is narrated by a “spirit-child.” who dreams a better world of ‘inspired hope’.

J.  Who wrote The Great Stone Face and what is the theme of it?

American writer, Hawthorne wrote The Great Stone Face. It cloaks a great truth- the story builds upon the skeleton of an ethical problem or a moral truth.

K. In which book do you find businessman Gregor Samsa’s inexplicable metamorphosis?

Austrian-Czech novelist Franz Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis” begins with businessman Gregor Samsa’s inexplicable metamorphosis into a gigantic insect.

L. Who wrote Anne of Green Gables and its sequels?

Anne of Green Gables (1908) and its sequels are written by L. M. Montgomery. This series of stories is set on Canada’s Prince Edward Island, focusing on the life of the vivacious heroine, Anne, the books are considered classics of children’s literature.

M. Who wrote 'Life of Pi'? Can you say the full name of Pi?

Yann Martel, a Canadian author pens this adventurous novel. The protagonist of the novel is Piscine Molitor Patel who is nicknamed as Pi.

N. What is J. K. Rowling's last book of the Harry Potter series?

'Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows' is J. K. Rowling's last book of the Harry Potter Series which was published in 2007.

O. Which of the critics appeal particularly by Donne’s poetry?

In the early twentieth century, Donne’s poems seem made to order for the close intellectual analysis called for by the so-called “New Critics,” who were trying to change the way literature was studied in universities. The complicated, puzzle-like Donne’s poems which can actually be “solved” by the application of thought and learning fascinate them more.

P. What is the significance of The Trail of Tears?

 Robert Lindneux’s painting The Trail of Tears depicts one of the most tragic Native American experiences—the forced migration of thousands of people from the eastern United States to the Indian Territory in Oklahoma during the 1830s and early 1840s. Many died on the long, hard journey.

Q. What is the core theme of Keri Hulme’s The Bone People?

Keri Hulme’s novel, The Bone People (1983) focuses on the relationship of a woman, a boy, and the boy’s adoptive father.

R. What is nouveau roman?

In the 1950s French writer Alain Robbe-Grillet experimented with a new type of novel, nouveau roman, meaning it anti novel or new novel, in which the author is transparent and does not intrude on the narrative. It is a work of fiction that lacks the features traditionally used in novel, e.g. consistent characters, a coherent plot, and a constant authorial perspective.

S. Who wrote The Stranger? What is the basic theme of it?

Albert Camus wrote The Stranger in 1942. The main character of The Stranger kills a man on a beach for no reason and accepts his arrest and punishment with dispassion. It is mainly an absurd play that considers the tragic inability of human beings to understand and transcend their intolerable conditions in the unreasonable world.

T. In which year Toni Morrison won the Nobel Prize for literature? Give a few names of his writing.

 American writer Toni Morrison won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1993. Her Beloved, Song of Solomon and Jazz are more discussed which primarily focus on the powerful cultural heritage of African Americans.

U. What is the theme of Amitav Ghosh's novel Sea of Poppies?

 Amitav Ghosh's novel Sea of Poppies is told against an epic historical canvas how ship Ibis is headed to Caribbean sugar plantations bringing together hired labour of north Indian women, Bengali Zamindars, black men, rural laborers and Chinese seamen.

V. Who are the main characters in Earnest Hemmingway’s The Old Man and the Sea?

Earnest Hemmingway’s The Old Man and the Sea consists of Santiago, the old fisherman, and Manolin, the boy who has fished with him for years.

W. What type of comedy is Harlan Ellison’s A Boy and His Dog?

American writer Harlan Ellison’s A Boy and His Dog is a black comedy of survival in the wake of a nuclear war. Here Vic, accompanied by his telepathic dog Blood, scavenges for food and sex. They encounter a group of people who live secretly beneath the earth and have succeeded in building a new society for themselves.

X. How do 'Maya' and ‘Gautama’ differ in Anita Desai's Cry,The Peacock?

Maya, the chief protagonist of Anita Desai's novel Cry, The Peacock, is much occupied in illusion, fantasy, self love and imagination while her husband Gautama stands for real and actual world.

Y. What is the full name of "MARK TWAIN”? Give a few names of his books.

American humorist SAMUEL LANGHORNE CLEMENS carries the penname of "MARK TWAIN”. A few popular sketches of him are The Jumping Frog (1867), Sketches New and Old (1873), Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Huckleberry Finn (1885), The American Claimant (1892), Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894) etc.

Z. “These are the days when birds come back,
A very few, a bird or two,
To take a backward look.
These are the days when skies put on
The old, old sophistries of June,--
A blue and gold mistake.”..…. Who is the poet of these famous lines? What does the poet say so here?

“These are the Days the Birds Come Back” is composed by Emily Dickinson. The poem is distinctive to using a comparison to ellipses. She created a voice that is to mimic the female speech pattern and how a female feels through a mysterious voice of the poem.

Ref: Wikipedia, Microsoft Student Encarta, Literary Timelines, History of English Literature- Albert

Saturday, June 16, 2012

Analysis of William Wordsworth's Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood

“Heaven lies about us in our infancy” 
William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850)
Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood

The poet William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850) believes that every human being is a sojourner in the mortal world, whereas his real home being heaven. In fact, the poet starts with the major premise that men descend form God. To Wordsworth, God was everywhere manifest in the harmony of nature, and he felt deeply the kinship between nature and the soul of humankind. Man has his soul which knows no decay and destruction. But as one is born, one begins to be confined within the flesh. The soul, bound in his body, can not liberate in his infancy. He trails the clouds of glory, the glory of heaven from which he emanates:
"Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting:
The Soul that rises with us, our life's Star,
Hath had elsewhere its setting,
And cometh from afar:
Not in entire forgetfulness,
And not in utter nakedness,
But trailing clouds of glory do we come
From God, who is our home."

Oliver Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer: Mr. Hardcastle and Mrs. Hardcastle - Comic Pair Contributing Fun and Laughter

“Nullum quod tetigit non ornavit” (He touched nothing that he did not adorn).
(A memorial to Oliver Goldsmith in Westminster Abbey) 
The inscription, written by Dr. Johnson 

Oliver Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer is a witty comedy and it has as usual, five youths- Marlow, Hastings, Kate, Constance and Tony Lumpkin- at the centre of it. But this is not to say that the two old figures are pushed to the back ground. Mr. Hardcastle and his wife Mrs. Hardcastle are no insignificant. Rather, they make a comic pair contributing largely to the fun and laughter of the play. While the two characters are haply related to each other, they have points of divergence, and may go to the extent of pointing out that Mr. Hardcastle is a foil to his wife.

Sir Thomas Wyatt’s “They Flee from Me”:Typical Elizabethan Love - lyric

Imbibed with the spirit of the renaissance Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey initiate the cult of writings sonnets and love – lyrics in England. They, particularly Wyatt, express their sense of ecstasy or agony caused by their requited or unrequited love in their songs and sonnets. In the light of this Renaissance background, let us examine Wyatt’s poem “They Flee from Me” (1557) which is the perplexed observations of a man whose romantic popularity has passed, perhaps because he was too kind and attentive to the woman who previously loved him. It also unfolds the poet’s mild satire and cynicism, directed against the practice of loveless lovemaking on the part of some women belonging to high society in the 15th century England.

Friday, June 15, 2012

Matthew Arnold’s 'Dover Beach': Specimen of Modernity, Meditation and Elegiac Tone

Matthew Arnold’s Dover Beach (1867) is a finest specimen of modernity,  meditation and elegiac tone. Arnold’s Dover Beach presents the ephemeral human feeling of sadness through the image of the sea. Though a dramatic monologue, Dover Beach presents Arnold’s philosophy of life. In his essay The Study of Poetry Arnold uses the two words ‘poetry’ and ‘criticism’. He boldly affirms that poetry should be a criticism of life. By the words ‘criticism of life’ Arnold means “the affairs of life”. And by the word ‘poetry’ he means ‘poetic beauty.’ So the expression ‘criticism of life’ means poetic beauty and poetic truth. In other words, every good poem, according to Arnold, must be a reflection of life diffusing the poetic beauty and poetic truth. In no way, poetry should be divorced form life. Arnold’s Dover Beach stands out as a glaring manifestation of this criticism of life in the form of poetry.

Jaques in Shakespeare’s "As you like It" : Inconsistent and Choric

“I can suck melancholy out of a song,
as a weasel sucks eggs.”

William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616)
English poet and playwright.
As You Like It, Act 2, Scene 5

The chapter of Jaques is of abiding interest among the critics for his worldly wisdom, antiromantic stance, privileged criticism, melancholia and complex individualism. In fact, the introduction of Jaques is As You Like It adds nothing in the development of plot. Yet it carries a deep rooted design of motley-minded gentelmanliness, ripe observation, cynical pasturing and learned found. Now take a few sketchy details of the character to learn its diversity , Inconsistent and  Choric in As You like It.

Wednesday, June 13, 2012

Analysis of Nissim Ezekiel’s "Poet, Lover, Birdwatcher"

Nissim Ezekiel’s poems are as a rule lucid and are splendidly evocative and satisfyingly sensuous. His poetry reveals more careful craftsmanship, a more conscious intellectuality. His sensuous sketches as well as his serious efforts on behalf of the experience have won Ezekiel numerous appeals for both his young adult and adult writing. Read More Poetry In quality and integrity they are conversational directness and ease without losing himself in discursiveness.

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 20

 A Set of 26 Objective Questions and Answers

A. In which year The Faerie Queene was published? What metrical innovation the author used here?

The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser was published in 1590 Books I-III, Books IV-VI in 1596. Here Spenser invented a unique nine-line stanza, now known as the Spenserian stanza, for use in the poem.

B. What is the core subject of Milton’s Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained?

 Milton’s masterpiece Paradise Lost dramatizes the Biblical account of humanity’s banishment from Paradise and in Paradise Regained Jesus triumphantly resists Satan and regains the Paradise lost by Adam and Eve.

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Comedy ; Comic Pleasure; Nature of the Comic Pleasure

Etymologically the word comedy as Aristotle suggested in the Poetics might have originated either from komas meaning, ‘revel or merrymaking “, or from komae meaning the “hamlets “where the plays were staged. Aristotle jocularly hinted that the comedians strolled from hamlet to hamlet, lack of appreciation keeping them out of the city .such facetiousness apart; the Oxford English Dictionary defines comedy as a stage play of a light and amusing character with a happy conclusion to its plot. It is associated with humorous behavior, wordplay, pleasurable feeling, release of tension, and laughter. Comic entertainment frequently exposes incongruous, ridiculous, or grotesque aspects of human nature. It generally follows a fixed pattern of theatrical surprises that leads to a sense of exhilaration in the spectator. Many definition stress the sadistic on egoistic element in human beings primarily utilizing stinging ridicule and exaggeration to criticize or condemn humankind's foibles and faults, asserting that comedies were written chiefly to amuse the audience by appealing.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 19

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. Legouis says “Wordsworth saw Nature and Man with new eyes”. William Wordsworth exalts familiar reality through the strength of a reflective sensibility. One can distinguish in Wordsworth’s poetry a marked transition from the realm of pathos to that of ethos.  Wordsworth’s Philosophy of Nature is nothing more than a case of pathetic fallacy because he cannot shake off his egocentricity even when he tends to be philosophic.

b. The 19th century Romantic Movement has been variously interpreted as ‘the convalescence of the feeling of beauty’, ‘renaissance of wonder’, ‘split religion’ and ‘erotic nostalgia’.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 18

  A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. Hemingway’s ‘Old Man and the Sea’ is perhaps his most sustained attempt to unite the actual and symbolic under one continuous narrative roof.

 b. “Jane Austen’s view of life is the view of the eighteenth century civilization of which she was the last exquisite blossom. One might call it the moral realistic view. Jane Austen was profoundly moral.” (David Cecil).

c.  Pride andPrejudice: “Here is a limited world; but she interprets it with the penetrating insight of the creative artist”.

d. Stock says of ‘The Second Coming’ that in this poem Yeats sets his own age in the perspective of eternity and condenses a whole philosophy of history into it so that it has the force of Prophecy’.

e. Swift is a misanthrope in his ‘Gulliver’S Travels’. Swifts’ Gulliver’s Travel is a ‘mock utopia’. Gulliver’s Travels as an entertaining political story, but it became very popular as a tale for young people. It also expresses despair or that its import is nihilistic, is radically to misread the book.

f. In ' 'Tess', Hardy has rebelled against tradional and orthodox views'. Hardy is here neither a feminist, nor a misogynist, but a realist.

g. Lawrence very closely describes the working life of the labourers in “Sons and Lovers”. In D. H. Lawrence’s work men and women of our times have found their own restlessness most accurately mirrored.

h. In spite of diverse material and frequent digressions, Byron’s Don Juan does have a strong principle of thematic unity exemplified by the recurring motif of appearance versus reality. It is a success because it is a satirical panorama of the ruling classes of his time.

i. Vijay Tendulkar is  known for his plays, Shantata! Court Chaule Ahe , Ghāshirām Kotwāl , and Sakhārām Binder . He has received awards including the Padma Bhushan, Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, Filmfare Award, Saraswati Samman, Kalidas Samman and Maharashtra Gaurav Puraskar.

j. Legouis says “Wordsworth saw Nature and Man with new eyes”.

k. The 19th century Romantic Movement has been variously interpreted as ‘the convalescence of the feeling of beauty’, ‘renaissance of wonder’, ‘split religion’ and ‘erotic nostalgia’.

L .‘Art for God's sake ‘  phrase best characterizes the late-nineteenth century aesthetic movement which widened the breach between artists and the reading public, sowing the seeds of modernism.

m. The early-twentieth-century thinker Sigmund Freud is associated with enormously influential perspective or practice psychoanalysis. He had a major impact on early-twentieth-century writers, leading them to reimagine human identity in radically new ways.

n. Robert Browning’s interest in psychological analysis of characters from different countries. Browning had a “robust optimism” unlike the other Victorian poets who were worriers and doubters.

o. Keats was a romantic poet who believed in the importance of sensation and its pleasures which included taste, touch and smell as well as hearing and sight.

p. Keats had himself dictated the epitaph he wanted carved on his headstone: “Here lies one whose name was writ in water.”


r. Pope’s Essay on Man EPISTLE I: bears the title Of the Nature and State of Man, With Respect to the Universe

s. Imagery or figurative language helps us to form a picture of what the author is trying to present.
t. John Dryden’s late seventeenth century mock-epic satire, Mac Flecknoe has a  stage like setting in the city.

u. Shelley’s weaknesses as a writer have always been evident; rhetorical abstraction; intellectual arrogance; and movements of intense self-pity. But in great poems like the "West Wind" or great prose works like "Defence", it is precisely these limitations that he transcends, and indeed explodes.

v. Mathew Arnold describes Shelley “a beautiful and ineffectual angel beating in the void his luminous wings in vain”.

w. “In Hamlet we see a great, an almost enormous intellectual activity and a proportionate aversion to real action consequent upon it.”  Coleridge.

x. Lamb seldom permitted his profounder views of life to appear above the humorous, pathetic and ironical surface of his writings. Above all Charles Lamb was a refined humanist whose smile could be both satirist and tender.’ Lambs’ essays are lyric poems in prose.’

y. ‘The Waste Landis both a public or private poem. T. S. Eliot claims universally for his (The Wasteland).

z. In Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot the pattern for waiting is an ingenious combination of expectations and let downs, of uncertainty and of gradual run down without end.

Ref: Wikipedia, Literary Timelines, History of English Literature- Albert

William Hazlitt , Critic and Essayist: Romantic than Analytical; Sketches and Essays, "Nicknames"

A nickname is the heaviest stone that the devil can throw at a man.

Sketches and Essays, "Nicknames"

One of the triumvirate of eminent romantic essayists – Lamb, De Quincy and Hazlitt – Hazlitt is the least mannered or rather eccentric. While in Lamb’s and De Quincy emotion and imagination relegated the fast and the analytical to the insignificant, Hazlitt’s is a futile blend of emotion and thought, passion and logic imagination and analysis, the real and the romantic. However, he is famous for the lucidity and brilliance, in both style and content, of his many essays. Fully endowed with the ability of soaring in an imaginative flight, as in his essays On the Picturesque and Ideal and On a Sundial, his dominating bias was however for a union of romantic temperament and classical vigour. The resulting essays, including Common Sense on Fashion, On the want of Money and On Nicknames have the fine-wrought grace of the golden mean. His prose displays the same discrimination between the vulgar and the otiose, for he had a Wordsworthian faith in the simple and the sincere.

Monday, June 4, 2012

Humanism: The Truth of Human Condition Reading the Literary Text

Any level of discourse to a moral essay on Humanism must represent the truth of the human condition. There is hardly any doubt that Humanists’ social and political thought must gone through the crosscurrents of major European intellectual thought, especially socialism, religiosity and Humanism. Here we will try to peep through their intelligentsia.

Humanism broadly defined as an attitude that emphasizes the dignity and worth of the individual was, in fact, the ‘Renaissance’ of classical literature and thought. The word “Humanism” is here used in a very wide sense, and this gives rise to considerable difficulty in drawing the line of exclusion. As a literary and cultural movement that spread through Western Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries has an interesting historical background.

Sunday, June 3, 2012

Wit, Witty and Foolish Wit: Classified Examples of Wits in English Literature

'Better a witty fool, than a foolish wit.'
 Twelfth Night -- William Shakespeare

The old English ‘witan’ and the Old High German ‘wizzan’ which means ‘to know’ is the origin of 'wit'.  The meaning of 'wit' farther evaluated and asserts meaning to ‘quickness of mind’ and then to the power of joining ideas in an unusual and humorous way or a  speech or writing that shows an apt, clever, and often humorous association of words. It is further associated with mental acumen, intelligence, or reasoning power. Thus it is consisting of observations meant to disparage or attack, expressed in clever comparisons or contrasts and making heavy use of word-play. Satire, puns and epigrams are examples of wit.

"Ivanhoe" by SIR WALTER SCOTT: The Twelfth Century Fascinating Struggle Between the Normans and the Saxons

The twelfth century fascinating struggle between the Normans and the Saxons is depicted in Scott’s Ivanhoe (Published 1819). It is one of the best of Scott’s Waverley novels. "This historical novels," says Carlyle, "has taught all men this truth, which looks like a truism, and yet was as good as unknown to writers of history and others till so taught: that the by-gone ages of the world were actually filled by living men, not protocols, state papers, controversies, and abstractions of men.” Here is history made alive and simply, Scott had changed people's very awareness of history.

Friday, June 1, 2012

SCOTT, SIR WALTER (1771-1832): Few Important Notes on Historical Novel

SCOTT, SIR WALTER (1771-1832)

An Accident: An early childhood fever affects a permanent lameness.

Aspects of Writing:  Rapidity of literary productions. 

Major Writings:
1.      Edition of ballads- The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border- in 1802-1803.
2.      His first romantic narrative poems- The Lay of the Last Minstrel (1805), Marmion (1808), The Lady of the Lake (1810), The Bridal of Triermain (1813), and The Lord of the Isles (1815).
3.      Turn to the Historical Novel: Waverley (1814) ,Guy Mannering (1815), Old Mortality (1816), The Heart of Midlothian (1818), Rob Roy (1818), The Bride of Lammermoor (1819), Ivanhoe (1819), Kenilworth (1821), Quentin Durward (1823), and The Fair Maid of Perth (1828). Life of Napoleon Buonaparte (1827) 

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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