AD's English Literature : 2013

Sunday, December 29, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 72

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1.  Which among the following statement is not logically bound by fact?

(I) Malory's Le morte d'Arthur was printed by William Caxton, as he was a friend of him.

(II) The growth of the middle class in the early 16th century, the continuing development of trade, the new character and thoroughness of education for laypeople and not only clergy, the centralization of power and of much intellectual life in the court of the Tudor and Stuart monarchs, and the widening horizons of exploration gave a fundamental new impetus and direction to literature.

Monday, December 23, 2013

General Understanding of Shakespeare's Women:Rosalind, Portia, Beatrice or Viola

There is Sanskrit adage to the effect that the character of women is unknown even to the gods, not to speak of mortal men. Read More about Drama   It is not so much to place the subject beyond the omniscience of the supreme god-head but to street the infinite complexities of feminist. The great creator, the one great god who created the gods as well as the female certainly knows all the intricacies of his created universe-and so does Shakespeare, the great manipulator of his puppet dramatic universe whether the living, throbbing dolls are male or female. Shakespeare, the marker, makes his women live according to the lights they receive from the magic lamp of their great creator.

Sunday, December 1, 2013

Platonism in Edmund Spenser’s Works: A Fashion of Renaissance Days

Platonism was the fashion of the Renaissance days. Spenser has caught the fashion along with others of the time. He certainly knew some of the Plato’s works at first hand and used them. Technical words of platonic philosophy frequently occur in his works, and the thought of the Greek philosopher, consciously, or unconsciously, moulds his own thoughts. Greek philosopher Plato founds the Academy in Athens. Read More about Elizabethan Literature  Plato, a student of Socrates, greatly influences Western philosophy; he believes that the ideal is more real than anything material. He is the author of the Republic, a dramatic dialogue on the nature of justice. Read More about Criticism  

Italian philosopher and theologian Marsilio Ficino translates the works of Plato into Latin, a language more commonly understood by Europeans. By doing so, he contributes to the rise of Renaissance humanism and the revival of Platonism. Read More about Criticism  

Edmund Spenser
Platonic temperament, the yearning mood, the vague desire for the faraway, or the half imagined beauty, attracted Spenser, as it attracted Spenser, as it attracted many of his contemporaries, Plato’s exaltation of beauty as something divine, as an object of worship and his spiritualization of love, all colour Spenser’s treatment of Love and Beauty.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 71

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1. Match the following:

I. Absurd Person Singular (1973)
Read More about UGC NET   

a. gender and economics
II. Serious Money (1987)
b. a bleak future of barbarism
III. Far Away (2000)
c. the downfall of playwright Oscar Wilde Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
IV. The Judas Kiss (1998)
d. farcical dramas about middle-class anxieties

     (I) (II) (III) (IV)

(A) (d) (b) (c) (a)

(B) (d) (a) (b) (c)

(C) (b) (c) (d) (a)

(D) (c) (a) (b) (d)

Friday, November 22, 2013

Differences Between Audio Lingual and Communicative Language Teaching Methods

The audio lingual method, or the Army method, or also the New key, is the mode of language instruction based on behaviourist ideology, which professes that certain traits of living things could be trained through a system of reinforcement. The instructor would present the correct model of a sentence and the students would have to repeat it. Read More about Philology   The teacher would then continue by presenting new words for the students to sample in the same structure. There is no explicit grammar instruction everything is simply memorized in form. The idea is for the students to practice the particular construction until they can use it spontaneously. In this manner, the lessons are built on static drills in which the students have little or no control on their own output. 

Critical Analysis of George Herbert’s Virtue as a Lyrical Poem due to its Music and Melody ; Simplicity of Language, Spontaneity and Intensity Religious Fevour

An Analysis on Precision of Language,  Metrical Versatility, and  Ingenious use of Imagery or Conceits 
George Herbert’s Virtue

Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright,
The bridal of the earth and sky,
The dew shall weep thy fall tonight;
For thou must die.

Sweet rose, whose hue angry and brave
Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye,
Thy root is ever in its grave,
And thou must die.

Sweet spring, full of sweet days and roses,
A box where sweets compacted lie,
My music shows ye have your closes,
And all must die.

Only a sweet and virtuous soul,
Like seasoned timber, never gives;
But though the whole world turn to coal,
Then chiefly lives.

Virtue (The Temple: Sacred Poems and Private Ejaculations) is a didactic poem. It teaches us that virtue is supreme and super lasting. In this world of impermanence, beautiful thing and beauty itself are subject to decay but a truly virtuous soul remains unchanged through all eternally. Read More about Elizabethan Literature  The poem   is finest specimens of metaphysical that are present in the poem are – a blending of thought and feeling metaphysical concentration, unification of sensibility learnedness. Read More about Poetry  
  In Virtue Herbert speaks of the permanence of a virtuous soul. All the beautiful things of the world including a sweet day a sweet rose and the sweet spring are subject to decay but a virtuous soul remains unchanged. To assert his points Herbert uses three images in this poem. First he speaks of a sweet day which must comes to an end and be swallowed up by dark night. Secondly he refers to a sweet rose which in spite of its sweet color and fragrance is destined to wither. Read More about Poetry   Thirdly he speaks of a spring which, with its music and color is damaged to sink into oblivion.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 70

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
1. Which of the following is not a tragedy of blood and revenge?
a. The Spanish Tragedy of Thomas Kyd.
b. Shakespeare's Hamlet.
c. Marlowe's Edward II (it’s a chronicle tragedy)
 2. At the end of The Portrait of a Lady Isabel Archer
I. Goes back to the house from the Garden.
II. Accepts the proposal of Casper Goodwood.
III. Straight away refuses the offer of Goodwood.
IV. Probably goes back to Rome and Osmond.
Which are the correct combinations according to the code?
(A) I and II are correct.
(B) III and IV are correct.
(C) I and IV are correct.
(D) I and III are correct. Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
3. Consider the following statements of English Renaissance and choose the given options.
I. The poetry between 1580 and 1660 was the result of a remarkable outburst of energy- Renaissance awakening.
II. It is the drama of roughly the same period that stands highest in popular estimation. 
III. Renaissance drama reached for secular audiences, but the poetry remained the personal patronage.
IV.   Renaissance plays were written in an elaborate verse style and under the influence of classical examples, but the popular taste, to which drama was especially susceptible, required a flamboyance and sensationalism largely alien to the spirit of Greek and Roman literature.
A.    I is correct and IV is its proper explanation
B.     II is correct and III & IV are its proper explanation
C.     I is correct and II is its proper explanation
D.    I is correct and III is its proper explanation

Sunday, November 17, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 69

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1. (a)  1066- The year of the Norman-French conquest of England.

   (b)The Germanic tribes from Europe who overran England in the 5th century, after the Roman withdrawal, brought with them the Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, language, which is the basis of Modern English. Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)

  (c) The Germanic tribes brought also a specific poetic tradition, the formal character of which remained surprisingly constant until the termination of their rule by the Norman-French invaders six centuries later.

(d) The year 1066 is epoch- making in the history of England and English.

(A) only (a) and (b) are correct.

(B) only (d) is correct.

(C) (d) is correct and (a), (b), and (c) are the correct explanation of it.

(D) (a) and (c) are false.

2. Match the following:

I. “The Wanderer” and “The Seafarer”
a. English history from the 10th to the 12th century
II. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
b. Old English epic poem.
III. “Dream of the Rood.”
c. A Christian poem by Cynewulf and his school
IV. Beowulf
d. Old English poems on the sadness of the human lot

      (I) (II) (III) (IV)

(A) (d) (a) (c) (b)

(B) (d) (b) (d) (a)

(C) (b) (a) (c) (d) Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)

(D) (a) (c) (d) (b)

3. The original Latin work of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People is

 (A)  Historica Ecclesiastica Gentes Anglorium

(B) Historica Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorium

(C)  Historica Ecclesiastica Gentes Anglorium

(D)  Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum

4. The following phrases from Shakespeare have become the titles of famous works. Identify the correctly matched group.

(I) Pale Fire
(a) Thomas Hardy
(II) The Sound and the Fury
(b) Somerset
(III) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead
(c) William Faulkner
(IV) Under the Greenwood Tree
(d) Tom Stoppard

(V) Of Cakes and Ale
(e) Vladimir Nabokov

     (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V)

(A) (e) (d) (c) (a) (b)

(B) (d) (e) (b) (c) (a)

(C) (e) (c) (d) (a) (b)

(D) (c) (d) (b) (e) (a)

4. Match the following:

I. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
a.  secular vision poem of   semiallegorical nature
II. The Parliament of Fowls
b. impassioned work in the form of dream visions Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
III. The Vision of William Concerning Piers the Plowman
c. a romance, or tale, of knightly adventure and love
IV. Le morte d'Arthur
d. Arthurian romance

     (I) (II) (III) (IV)
(A) (d) (b) (c) (a)
(B) (d) (a) (b) (c)
(C) (b) (c) (d) (a)
(D) (c) (a) (b) (d)

George Eliot's Middlemarch: Psychological Novel and Study of Provincial Life and Characters

"Middlemarch, the magnificent book which with all its imperfections is one of the few English novels for grown up people." -Virginia Woolf (1882 - 1941)

George Eliot’s Middlemarch which appeared in parts in 1871-72,   considered by many to have produced her greatest work, enchanted her public with a penetrating, psychological novel set in rural England during the early 19th century. Eliot carefully researched and meticulously detailed the social climate of the time, making the town of Middlemarch and its inhabitants seem true to life-A Study of Provincial Life.

George Eliot's masterpiece, Middlemarch  is an epic novel in every sense of the word. Dealing with English middle-class life in a provincial town, it is socially and politically relevant.  Eliot set the novel forty years earlier, in 1830 – just before the First Reform Bill was passed. Eliot believed that it takes time to understand historical events – it's impossible to understand all the consequences of something right after it takes place. The politics and societal changes were much more interesting in the book . We find ourselves imagining in the book  about medicine or building a railroad, Parliament and etc. It make   sensible to me as well to see it played out by words rather than just reading about it in social history book.

Monday, November 11, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 68

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1. Identify the correctly matched group of John Milton’s lines with their corresponding poem.
Corresponding poem
John Milton’s lines
(I) Samson Agonistes A to Z (Objective Questions)
(a) The childhood shows the man,
As morning shows the day. Be famous then
By wisdom; as thy empire must extend,
So let extend thy mind o'er all the world.
(II) Lycidas
(b) She fair, divinely fair, fit love for gods.
(III) Paradise Lost I
(c) At last he rose, and twitched his mantle blue:
Tomorrow to fresh woods, and pastures new.

(IV) Paradise Regained
(d) I may assert Eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to men.
(V) Paradise Lost II
(e) Love-quarrels oft in pleasing concord end.

     (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V)
(A) (e) (d) (c) (a) (b)
(B) (d) (e) (b) (c) (a)
(C) (e) (c) (d) (a) (b)
(D) (c) (d) (b) (e) (a)

Sunday, November 10, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 67

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1.Match the two columns:
Literary Works                   Author

The Rape of the Lock  -    epic poem by Pope

The Rape of the Lucrecee -      a long poem by Shakespeare

The way of the World  -     A comedy by William Congrave

The Way of All Flesh    -      a novel by Samuel Butler.

The Prelude    -                  A poem by William Wordsworth
Preludes    -                A poem by T. S. Eliot

Elizabethan Essays         -    Prose by T.  S. Eliot

Elizabeth and Essex  A to Z  -  prose by Lytton Stretchey

Everyman           -                  One of the best known morality plays.

Everyman in His Humour    -      Satirical comedy by Ben Jonson.

The Book of The Duchesse   -   A poem by Chaucer

The Book of Martyrs      -          a story by John Foxe

The Pilgrim’s Progress    -              by John Bunyan

The Pilgrim’s of the Rhine     -       by Bulwer Lytton

The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gent – a novel by Sterne

Lyrical Ballads   - Collection poems by Coleridge & Wordsworth

Prefare to Lyrical Bullads      -     A prose by Wordsworth.

All for love   -                  A blank verse tragedy by Dryden

Love labour lost   -     A drama by Shakespeare

Thursday, October 31, 2013

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note -66

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

  Elizabethan Age  / Renaissance  (Reworking of learning)         
  1. Elizabethan ascended the throne of England in 1558 and ruled over the country till her death in 1603. Read More about Elizabethan Literature 
  2. During this period, the English national life took big strides. Recognizing the Elizabethan period as one of the most signified periods, in the literary and social history of England, Hudson has observed, “By Virtue of its wonderful fertility and car city, and splendor of its production, this period ranks as one of the greatest in the annals of word’s literature, and its greatness was the result of many operative forces.” Read More about A to Z (Objective Questions)
  3. The renaissance reached its full flowering during this period. Under the impact of renaissance Elizabethan people freed themselves from the church. They adopted a flexible secular code in their life and thought.Read More about Elizabethan Literature 
  4. A new cutler of humanism was born people began to take interest in this life and made efforts to make it better and happiness.

Sunday, October 13, 2013

PRE-ELIZABETHAN PERIOD: Noted for the Extensive Manuring for the Fruitful Soil of the Elizabethan Literature

(Sir Thomas More, William Tyndale, Sir Thomas Wyatt, Nicholas Udall, Thomas Sackville, Thomas Norton)

Extending from 1500 to 1558, this period is noted for the extensive manuring for the fruitful soil of the Elizabethan Literature.  The fifteenth century produced but one book that is read nowadays, the Morte d’Arthur; up to the birth of Shakespeare in 1564, the sixteenth century produced but one, the Utopia. Sir Thomas More was one of the young men who were fortunate enough to study under the greatest of that remarkable group of scholars who, in the closing years of the fifteenth century, made Oxford famous by their teaching of Latin and Greek. Read More about History of English Literature (Essay)  He too became a great scholar, early gained prominence as a lawyer, and was eventually made Lord Chancellor; finally, because he adhered courageously to high moral principles, he gave up his life at the executioner's block, a very common ending to a life-story in those days. The Utopia, a small volume compared to the bulky Morte d’Arthur, is a great statesman-philosopher's dream of what he thought England should be. It tells of an ideal commonwealth on an imaginary island vaguely located somewhere between the coasts of South America and Africa. The account is supposed to come from a traveler who has been there and who tells in detail how the country is governed and what are the customs of the inhabitants. Some of More's ideas are so impracticable that Utopian has come to mean visionary; yet not a few of his reforms have long. Since been carried out, and others of them begin to look less strange. 

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 65

History of English Literature: A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers :

The Pre-Raphaelite movement

  • he   little group with Dante Rossetti, William Morris, and Algernon Swinburne, known as the Pre-Raphaelites,   found their inspiration, as did earlier poets who shared in the Romantic Movement, in the Middle Ages.
    • The Pre-Raphaelite movement, which was initiated by Dante Gabriel Rossetti in the mid nineteenth century, was originally not a literary but an artistic movement. Rossetti , himself a painter  and a poet as well felt that contemporary painting had become a too formal academic and unrealistic . Also read the other set of A to Z (Objective Questions)
  •  He desired to see it taken back to the realism, sensuousness and devotion to detail which characterize the art of the Italian painters before Raphael. 
  • They reacted against Victorian materialism and the neoclassical conventions of academic art by producing earnest, quasi-religious works.

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