A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 78

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1. Items in a published book appear in the following order: Copyright Page, Footnotes, Bibliography, and Index.

2. The books of Gulliver’s Travels are:

 Part I “Voyage to Lilliput”, Lemuel Gulliver describes the habits and politics of the people of Lilliput and the neighboring nation of Blefuscu.

 Part II “Voyage to Brobdingnag”, another voyage takes Gulliver to Brobdingnag, a land where every living being is twelve times larger than in England.

Part III “Voyage to Laputa”   Gulliver visits the islands of Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdribb, and Japan. Laputa, the Flying Island, is an allegory of the court and government of George I.

In Part IV “Voyage to Houyhnhnms”, Gulliver journeys to the land of the Houyhnhnms, rational horses, and the Yahoos, appallingly irrational humans. 

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 77

A Set of 26 Objective Questions &  Answers

1. Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment (Hero: Raskolnikov ) explores the psychological depths of man. It examines tragedy as represented through the existential beliefs of many philosophers. Existentialist theory expresses the idea that man can satisfy his own needs, regardless of social codes, if he has the energy and ambition to act. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    Raskolnikov has the ambition to act, but struggles internally with their actions, frightened of the consequences.  The story is very close to Shakespeare’s Macbeth.
2. Pecola is a character in: The Bluest Eye which is Toni Morrison's novel published in 1970.
3. Virginia Woolf was associated with the “Bloomsbury Group”( T. S. Eliot ,W. B. Yeats, T. E. Hulme  ). She is British novelist, essayist, and critic, who helped create the modern novel. Her writing often explores the concepts of time, memory, and people’s inner consciousness, and is remarkable for its humanity and depth of perception.

Critical Appreciation of Ruskin Bond’s "The Eyes Have It" : Theme of Self conscience and Blindness

 "If the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch."

King James Bible 

Matthew 15:14

The long-popular The Eyes Have It of Ruskin Bond is an engaging story told from the perspective of a blind person. The Eyes Have It's experiences lead him through a diverse series of encounters and bring him into contact with many inner characters within himself, including other blind people with stories of their own to tell. Bond uses The Eyes Have It's story to explore his theme of self conscience. He shows the positive results of kind treatment, while satirizing the escapist attitude in us. Bond believed that blind bonds were a societal problem that could not be ignored, a problem that was often caused by ignorance and curse, as well as intentional abuse. The lines between dream and reality are clearly drawn, and this fable is intended to leave the reader with a strong moral lesson that it is better to be a real person than an imagined one. The blinds are mistreated through no fault of their own by uncaring or insensitive people. Read More Short Stories In Bond's story the world is cruel because it is inhabited by corrupted people, who have the power to reform, if they wish.

Analyses of Habib Tanvir’s play "Charandas Chor" as Thematic Complexity ( Paradox)

Habib Tanvir’s play Charandas Chor, is steeped in paradox simply because the title character Charandas in spite of being a thief   is really honest, sympathetic and truthful-  The very idea of the hero in the play is based on paradoxes and contradictions.   Read More Indian English   One could not conceive the play, Charandas Chor , in any other terms than seeing it as a putting together of truth and lie simultaneously in a man.  Read More Indian English Farther, there are liars, scoundrels, thieves, but they are men of principles as well. There are custodians of law, but they are breakers of it too. There are saints and sanyasis, but they run after money as well. There are men of intellect, but it is very easy to deceive them. There are rich, affluent people, but at heart, they are the poorest. Affluent people like the landlord are poor at heart. He cannot share a kilo with those who have nothing. There are paupers, but at heart, they are very rich. The paupers like the peasant are rich in heart. Thus, the theme of the entire play is embedded in a remarkable juxtaposition of opposites, one after another. In the play, as has been pointed out, truth and lie go hand in hand. Read More Indian English People who deceive and cheat others turn out to be humanitarian as well.  The theme and the characters of the play reveal and depict paradoxes and contradiction of the society and the human nature in the dramatic umbrela.

Ecocritical Appreciation of Gieve Patel’s "On Killing a Tree"

"In my childhood trees were green
And there were plenty to be seen. "
--Louis MacNeice 
The theme in Gieve Patel’s ecocritical poem  On Killing a Tree is the notion of a clash between two different attitudes, saving and cutting a tree. The focus for this is environmental degradation. The poem is very short. But it slashes out scar in our minds.  The ravages of modern industrial society are represented by the woodcutter. We think like of the cannibalizing its own guts and soon to destroy the living trees and home lives of our mother earth. Read More Indian English It was such a human story. A similar process is going on in the countries in the world which are being mined for profit. Patel launches into a tirade against the practice in his  On Killing a Tree but in a tone of total irony. 

Teaching a Good Literature Class through Story Telling - Necessity of Introducing Stories in the Classroom

 "A tale should be judicious, clear, succinct;
The language plain, and incidents well link'd;
Tell not as new what ev'ry body knows;
And, new or old, still hasten to a close."
William Cowper (1731 - 1800)

Introduction: The ancient art of storytelling continues to flourish in modern class room, partly in response to widespread media. This age-old practice of telling stories is a highly developed and much appreciated art form. It is also one of the best ways of imparting literature classes. It is wide of range and can be exercised from elementary to university classes. The Story telling in the classroom can widen the scope of foreign literature bearing as well as great milieu of oration. Read More Short Stories It is very necessary to introduce stories in the classroom as stories are interesting, captivating and absorbing even for the college or university students. We all know, that the children like to listen to stories and they wait with rapt attention to know the end of the happening and it is same arresting for young adults.  So a teacher can arrest their attention and concentration all through the lesson and make them listen to the words and sentences for few minutes in the class. The use of stories (folklore) has become the thread that links the past with the present in our society. These stories concern all parts of our life and often teach traditional values, beliefs, and behaviors. They are also a major form of entertainment in literature.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 76

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1.      After Chaucer there was a decline in the poetry of England. Occleve, Lydgate, and Skelton were the only English poets writing poetry in imitation of Chaucer. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)   They are called English Chaucerians. Of these the first two are considered hopelessly dull, only Skelton showed some originality, but he, too, lacks the Renaissance spirit.

2.      James I, Robert Henryson, Wiliam Dunbar, Gavin Douglas are the best known Scottish Chaucerians. The treatment of nature by the Scottish poets is the most remarkable feature in the poetry of the Scottish Chaucerians. In comparison to the English Chaucerians , the Scottish Chaucerians were better poets.

3.       Dr. Johnson was the first English writer who used the term ‘Metaphysical’ as applied to poetry. He had borrowed it from Dryden’s phrase about Donne- “He affects the metaphysics.” Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)   About the beginning of the seventeenth century appeared a race of writers that may be termed the Metaphysical poets--- The Metaphysical poets were men of learning, and to show their learning was their whole endeavour.” This is Dr. Johnson writing about the Metaphysical School of Poetry.

Theory and criticism: Aristotle on Imitation - Principle of Imitation which Unites Poetry with the other Fine Arts

"Plato is dear to me, but dearer still is truth."
Attributed to Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC)
Greek philosopher, 330? BC.

Plato first used the word ‘imitation’ in connection with poetry. But Aristotle breaded into it a new and definite meaning, so that poetic imitation is no longer considered as an act of mere servile coping, but is regarded as an act of imagination creation by which the poet, drawing his materials from the phenomenal world makes something new out of it. 
According to Aristotle, it is the principle of imitation which unites poetry with the other fine arts. (Fine arts are those arts in which mind and imagination are chiefly concerned.) Plato equates poetry with painting while Aristotle equates it with music. Read More Criticism  It no longer remains a mere servile coping of the surface or the representation of things, but in his theory, it deals with passion, emotions of men which are also imitated by music. Thus Aristotle has enlarged the scope the imitation. As the emotions are the objects of the imitations of music, so poetry has close affinities with music. It is a mistake to compare poetry with painting; it is more akin to the music. 

Be Confident! Face Old Habit Of Letter Writing Revived Through Digital Media Positively! Learning the Letter Writing

“His letters, say they, are weighty and powerful; but his bodily presence is weak, and his speech contemptible.”

King James Bible 

II Corinthians 10:10
In the modern day there is none with whom we cannot speak to persons who are away from us and are not on the phone. Even if there is any we surely drop a mail to his id. Earlier if we wanted to send them some message or information we had to write letters to them. However, still now the glory of letters and the postman are preserved as lost art. We the literary enthusiast must know the names like Mary Wortley Montagu and Richardson. Montagu wrote a series of witty and descriptive letters about her life in the Middle East; the letters were posthumously published in 1763. Read More Teaching English While as all of Richardson's novels are in epistolary form (a series of letters)—a structure that he refined and developed. Here in this article we will discuss the basics of letter writing. 

Things You Can Learn From Studying Theory And Criticism: Plato’s View Of Art- Theory Of Ideas

"The true lover of knowledge naturally strives for truth, and is not content with common opinion, but soars with undimmed and unwearied passion till he grasps the essential nature of things."
Plato (428? BC - 347? BC)


Plato’s view of art is estimably bound up with what he called the theory of ideas. Ideas are as expressed in the Republic the ultimate reality. The things are conceived as ideas before they take practical shape as things.  Therefore, a tree is nothing more than a concrete embodiment of its image idea. The idea of everything is its original pattern, the thing its copy. As the things are the imperfect of ideas from which they spring. Their productions in art must be imperfect. They take men away from reality rather than towards it. At best, they are but partial image of it and they help neither to mould character nor to primo. According to Plato, the artist imitates the things of the sensuous world as they appear to him. The world itself is imperfect in an ideal archetype. It is not real, reality exists in the idea which is absolute, one and unchanging. And thus the artist tries to present a distorted image of reality and tries to make an illusion of reality. Poetry, therefore, is thrice removed from reality. In Republic –III, Plato shows not only tragedy but epic too as a matter of the ‘imitation, or representation, of words and action. Indeed, from the literal sense of mimesis, Plato seems to draw a general distrust of the whole activity of imitating. However that may be epic and tragedy presented obvious dangers for Plato, for the words and actions they portrayed might so easily be immoral or emotional. 

Co-operative Language Teaching in the Classroom: Benefits of Learning Process

In any of the language teaching exercise, experimental co-operative program of Language teaching for students is fruitful. Cooperative language learning is the process of providing every possible assistance to the students to learn the target language i.e. English. It also refers to a systematic instructional method in which students work together in small groups to accomplish shared learning goals. 
The total percentage of teaching learning experience multiplies by this Language teaching exercise. Allocations during the classes of operation can reach interdisciplinary studies: philosophy, religion, music, languages and literature, the arts, the social sciences, and mathematics, biological and physical sciences. Read More TEFL In this process, the teacher should always be on his toes to cater necessary help to the students as and when necessary. The classroom should offer sufficient opportunities for children to internalize any new language that has been presented to them. Simply presenting a precise of language to the class and asking them is practice for a few minutes is not sufficient enough to allow them to learn the language. The data in a large amount of research shows, compared with competitive and individualistic efforts, cooperation has positive effects on a wider range of outcomes. Read More Teaching English People operating in a cooperative learning activity attain higher achievement level than those who function under competitive and individualistic learning structures. Although a few allocations have exceeded maximal, the co-operating teaching learning experience can contribute. Although  the importance of the enterprise was not to be appraised by teachers alone; it was rather to be estimated by the quickening of research and scholarship, and especially of teaching, upon the campuses of the individual institutions co-operating, and in the geographical area which they serve.

Literary Project Works: Aims and Objectives: Essential Guidelines to Students for Preparation and Understanding Literature Project

"When enthusiasm and commitment take root within a project, that project comes to life."
Robin Sieger 
 Project Works are a wonderful way to get excited about literature learning, but they require a lot of hard work. If you want the benefits of participating in a literature project, but don’t know where to start, this guide is for you. It will provide a brief overview of the most important aspects of a literature project and get you well on your way to having a display at your school and college work out. Read More Teaching English Though the information is most applicable for middle school students, it can be adapted for use with elementary students and can be a great resource for first-time college participants. This article attempts to provide essential guidelines to students for preparation of their Project Proposal for consideration of the ‘Project Board’ of the institute. As per the provisions of the academic regulations, a student after passing the Qualifying Examination has to submit a detailed outline of the proposed topic of project with the concurrence of the proposed supervisor to the Project Board.

Analysis of James Boswell’s "Life of Johnson" - Best Biography in the English Language

"The Life of Johnson is assuredly a great, a very great work. Homer is not more decidedly the first of heroic poets, Shakespeare is not more decidedly the first of dramatists, Demosthenes is not more decidedly the first of orators, than Boswell is the first of biographers."

Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800 - 1859)

James Boswell (1740-1795) is a Scottish writer who became a close friend and biographer of the writer Samuel Johnson. Boswell, whose father was a well-known advocate, was born in Edinburgh, and educated at Edinburgh High School, the universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Utrecht. Read More Criticism Boswell was admitted to both the Scottish and English bars and practiced law but devoted himself primarily to the pursuit of a literary career. His most important early works were An Account of Corsica, The Journal of a Tour to that Island, and Memoirs of Pascal Paoli, which won him some reputation as a writer. Notably, An Account of Corsica is a sympathetic study of the struggle for independence of that island, written after an extended tour of Europe.   The historical part of this book is commonplace, but the Journal is vivacious and attractive. He settled down, however, as much as his nature permitted him, to read for the Scottish Bar, diversifying his studies by writing verse and prose of would-be sprightliness, and by cultivating the society of the most eminent men in Edinburgh.

Analysis of Eugene O Neill’s "Mourning Becomes Electra" is an Aeschylean Model: Comparative Study on Trilogy- "Homecoming", "The Hunted" and "The Haunted"

Eugene O' Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra which is about a brother and sister trying to avenge their father’s murder is constructed as a trilogy- Homecoming, The Hunted and The Haunted -on a very large scale. Eugene O' Neill’s play is adapted from Aeschylus’s tragic trilogy called the Oresteia. The model is Aeschylus, and the pattern of Homecoming and The Hunted follows very closely the pattern of Oresteia. Though each play has a beginning, a logical development and convincing and, the three plays cannot be taken separately. The sequence of parts, exposition, complication, climax and resolution, is reflected in the trilogy as a whole. The complication and climax naturally begin with the murder of Ezra Mammon and end with Orin’s suicide. 

The Modern Rules Of Translating A Passage: Other Language Learning and Understanding the Culture

The works of modern poets throughout the world have been inspired by Dante. And it is imbued with Dantean imagery, especially that of Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot, Gabriele D’Annunzio, Paul Claudel, and Anna Akhmatova. Read More Teaching English Again, among the many notable translations into English are verse renditions by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and, in the 20th century, by the English writer Dorothy L. Sayers and the American poet and critic John Ciardi. In the other part of the world, the Persian poet Omar Khayyam is also made a place in our heart by the translation (published anonymously in 1859) of the Rubáiyát by Edward FitzGerald. But ware these possible if they have not been translated into other languages!!

Interrelationship between Faith and Poetry in Rabindranath Tagore’s ‘Gitanjali’: Universal and Timeless Appeal

Rabindranath Tagore’s Gitanjali one of the poet’s three collections of exclusively devotional poems, the other two being Gitimalya and Gitali .These religious poems naturally raise the question of the interrelationship between faith and poetry. It is often said that poetry which is based on a particular religious faith is necessarily limited in its appeal and Dr. Johnson declared categorically that “contemplative piety or the intercourse between god and the human soul can never be poetical”. Read More Poetry  Tagore’s religious poetry may at first sight appear to be severely limited in its appeal to western readers, because its faith is too Indian to have any universal significance. 

Earnest Hemingway’s "The Old Man and the Sea" Portrays a Man’s Fulfillment in Striving rather than in Success: Investigating Santiago's Consciousness

  'A man can be destroyed but not defeated.' _
Earnest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea

It has been rightly suggested that Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea portrays a man’s fulfillment in striving rather than in success. The book's simple plot contains some element of suspense, but above all, the book lives in its beautiful imagery, the poetic evocation of the sea, and the admirable character of an old man. Read More American literature The story of the novella is that of an old fisherman’s single-handed fight with a giant marlin and then with sharks is the Gulf Stream, north of Havana and it is unmistakably a parable on the theme of fighting the good fight. Hemingway focuses on Santiago's consciousness in this quest story. Read More American literature Very much in the way that a traditional soliloquy or an interior monologue serves to reveal character, this novella functions as one long exploration of the old man's character. Hemingway shows here that is human experience as a whole there are many forms of both marlin and sharks with which men love so fight like Santiago and in Hemingway’s code it is not the end that matters but the way man struggles against these forces. Like the other ‘code heroes’ of Hemingway, Santiago has the courage and endurance of a matador and like them, he reveals ‘grace under pressure’. Santiago is a ‘code hero’ also in the way he combines the matador figure with that of the crucified hero. The wounds he receives during his epic battle first with the marlin and then with the sharks not only equal him with Christ but also suggest that suffering is the inescapable lot of the Hemingway hero. Hemingway's symbolism suggests that Santiago is a Christ-figure. After the sharks attack his fish, for example, Santiago says, 'Ay'; Read More American literature Hemingway writes that 'there is no translation for this word and perhaps it is just a noise such as a man might make, involuntarily, feeling the nail go through his hands and into the wood.' 

How to Write a Good Essay? Key Methods and Techniques

An essay, a literary composition, is usually a number of related sentences dealing with one main idea or topic. Often brief in scope and informal in style, the essay differs from such formal expository forms as the thesis, dissertation, or treatise. Read More Essay The essay is more compact with ideas than data or vociferation. It is more a stream of ideas and logical assertions. And that idea may be stated in a topic sentence, which is often the first sentence in the essay. The sentences that follow may be related in two ways:

(a) Each sentence should help develop the topic.
(b) Each sentence should lead smoothly into the thought of the next.

How to Prepare a Good Book Summary? The essentials of Book Summaries

A good summary is a condensation that gives in a few words the main ideas what a writer or speaker has said. Book Summaries help the student understand books studied in schools, colleges and give them insights that make for great book reports. It also helps to gain a new perspective by reading about the author, and learn how settings, characters, and themes help make these books acclaimed works of literature. In such a case a scientific logical way is validated.

The essentials of   Book Summaries
(a) Content
  The salient points in the original passage are to be included in the summary and they should be written in their logical order,
(i) A summary should be written in one’s own words. It is not necessary to change the technical and scientific terms, names of persons, places, etc., but as far as practicable, words and expressions should not be borrowed from the original.
(ii) In making a summary of a passage containing conversation or speech, indirect mode of narration must be employed.
(iii) Proper care should be taken to use the pronoun forms: he, she, it, they, etc.
(iv) Above all, in making a good summary, what a student needs is to practice strict economy in the use of words, and for this purpose, he must know how to shorten sentences, how to use a single word for a group of words, and how to condense information.
(c) Length: A summary must be brief   and contain fewer lines than in the original passage.
(d) Yes/ No personal comment: In the summary the writer should not make any personal comment or criticism, as his function is only to summarize, not to add his own views. But in the final comment section, he/she can use it free logically.

Analysis of Tagore's The Home and the World as Socio-political Novel : Bimala- Nikhilesh- Sandip Tangle

Viewed purely as a social political novel, Tagore's The Home and the World seems to make a sharp distinction between two rival political impulses, Nikhilesh representing the pure passion for constructive work in swadeshi (nationalism), and Sandip its greed and destructive energy .Nikhilesh worships nothing but truth which is greater than the country, and which is alone all temporary crazes; for Sandip the success of the moment, no matter by whatever means it is the only thing that matters. For Nikhilesh, the Ideal is the principal ingredient in the real; for Sandip the Ideal is tolerable only when it is a means to the attainment of the Real. Bimala, the central character of the novel, who has been given a large number of autobiographical narratives than the other two principal characters, is torn between these two contending forces which exercise a powerful fascination over her mind. Nikhilesh’s passion for absolute truth reminds us of the sages of ancient India, and the dominating force in Sandip’s character is greed which is the lane of modern western nationalism. The novel has been regarded as an allegory, Bimala, standing for modern India, Nikhilesh for ancient India and Sandip for modern Europe.

Critical Study of “Songs of the Ganga” by A. K. Mehrotra

 Mehrotra is generally known for his surrealistic technique. His is the discovery of various modern, post-modernist and earlier avant-garde style and poetics. He likes to juxtapose bits and pieces of sensibility as represented by clichéd language, sentiments and situations. Surrealism, artistic and literary movement that explored and celebrated the realm of dreams and the unconscious mind through the creation of visual art, poetry, and motion pictures notably, the nostalgic moments and reminiscences of Allahabad can be seen in abundance in his poetry. Mehrotra`s increasing pre-occupation with personal and local realities particularly Allahabadism can be seen in Songs of the Ganga.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Poetry in English: Evaluation and Controversy in Reading Gitanjali (Song Offerings)

Some literary problems never seem to go away. In spite of various attempts to look at Rabindranath Tagore’s English translation critically, there persists certain blindness to the possibility that his early poems in English did not uniformly merit the great affection they received. For example , after taking note of some critics who said that Tagore’s poems were “too  thin and ethereal “ and that they “locked in intensity and passion”, Humayun Kabir ignored and begged the question by concluding , “Tagore’s standing as a poet is so unquestioned that it is not necessary even to discuss these aspersions of his critics.”  However, it cannot be denied that his Bengali works are much more effective in the original rather than being translated! 

Character of Mrs. Meldon in John Ervine’s One- act Play “Progress”

 In John Ervine’s one- act play “Progress”, we get two opposite views on war. One is held by Henry and the other by his sister, Mrs. Meldon. The drama is based on the conflict of these two views on war. Henry holds that war is inevitable because human beings are too pugnacious. Read More Drama The horrors of war do not affect him in the least. To him the purpose of war is killing, and so it is no use being sentimental about death and destruction caused by war. He claims to have invented a far deadlier weapon than anything ever used in wars. And he is firm in his belief that his invention is the result of a great progress of human knowledge and skill. According to him, man’s progress consists in the invention of devastating weapons to shorten the duration of war.

The Rime of The Ancient Mariner by T. S. Coleridge - Story of Crime & Punishment? Students' Notes

There are several sub-themes in 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner,' relating to Christianity and the supernatural, and two primary themes. The first primary theme concerns the potential consequences of a single unthinking act. When the mariner shoots an albatross, he does it casually and without animosity. Yet this impulsive, destructive act is his undoing. Similar to other Romantics, Coleridge believed that the seeds of destruction and creation are contained each within the other. One cannot create something without destroying something else. Likewise, destruction leads to the creation of something new. The loss of the mariner's ship, shipmates, and his own former self ultimately leads to the regeneration of the mariner. The Ancient Mariner is a story of crime and punishment. It falls into seven sections, each telling of a new stage in the process. The first section tells of the actual crime. To us the shooting of the bird may seem a matter of little moment but Coleridge makes it significant in two ways: firstly, he does not say why the Mariner kills the albatross. There is essential irrationality of the Mariner crime. Secondly, the crime is against nature, against the sanctified relations of guest and host the bird which has been hailed in God’s name as if it had been a Christian soul, and is entirely friendly and helpful is wantonly and recklessly killed.

A Man of the People (1966): Position of Women in Post Colonial Nigerian Society

It is interesting to study how the women in A Man of the People ( Chinua Achebe) play an important role in Odili and Nanga’s strategies. Here we find two contrasting groups of people from a political and social aspect based in West Africa.  The groups are the old and the new generations of politics and two characters represent them.  Odili, the narrator, represents the new intellectual generation, while Chief Nanga, Odili’s former teacher, represents the old style of bush politicians.  The conflict between the old and new ways is portrayed through the two characters as they not only disagree and quarrel over political views but also women.  Achebe captures the inside reality of the lives of the contrasting characters as he demonstrates energy and brightness as well as violence and corruption. 

Analysis of Wilfred Owen's “The Send-off” as Anti-war Poem

"Above all I am not concerned with Poetry. My subject is War, and the pity of War. The Poetry is in the pity."
Wilfred Owen (1893 - 1918)

Wilfred Owen is a soldier-poet without any romantic enthusiasm for war. While Rupert Brooke glorifies war, Owen sings of the pathos and tragedy of war alike Siegfried Sassoon, a poet and novelist whose grim antiwar works were in harmony with Owen's concerns. Like his other war poems, The Send-off ” reveals the massacre of precious human lives that war involves. The poem “The Send-off” begins with a description of the coming of a band of soldiers to a railway station in the darkness of the evening. They were being sent to the battlefield. They came marching down narrow village paths. They were singing all the way, not in joy, but to keep their thoughts away from the impending death they were going to embrace in the battle-field. The train that was to carry the soldiers was waiting at the siding-shed. So the soldiers came to the siding-shed and stood in a row along the train to board it. Their faces looked grave, but cheerful. They were outwardly merry. This state of mind of theirs is nicely described in the opening lines:

 “Down the close, darkening lanes they sang their way
To the siding-shed,
And lined the train with faces grimly gay.”

Rereading of Chinua Achebe through Nigerian Sociopolitical and Cultural Aspects

African colonization by European settlers and the aftermath has wide, descriptive and analytical coverage in Chinua Achebe’s novels. Particularly there is an avid examination on the Nigerian sociopolitical and cultural aspects. More specifically, Achebe’s novels depict Igbo tribes either in south-East Nigeria or elsewhere in the world dating from pre-colonial era to the present. His novels cover the timeline of Nigerian history and like a prophet his writings are visionary of long desired Nigerian peace and prosperity. Reading thorough his novels it can also be determined how women is such a vital studies for lasting peace and prosperity in Nigeria. This research paper will interrogate, compare and contrast women’s different roles as they relate to Chinua Achebe’s fictionalization of female characters. It will examine women's roles in this fast changing tribal society as seen in Achebe’s novels illustrating specific examples from the same. Women in tribal societies were often forced to undergo several changes and these changes can be well traced in Achebe’s novels. The complex individual, social and tribal-political relations in pre-colonial and post- colonial Nigeria can be seen in the same. It will provide not merely the context for the search for Igbo women identity, but also to a large extent determine its intellectual conclusions. This paper will examine the societal disallowance to women. It will cover the journey of women from Igbo to Igbo Christianity and subsequent impact on it. In this regard it requires a logical argument for the historical journey of multicultural Igbo women through Nigerian society and researching cultural aspects of them in Achebe’s novels. It needs a thorough search for a more general understanding of issues of tribal womanhood.

English Teaching Objectives for the First Language (L1) and Second Language (L2): General Concept of Text Book

Even though the English teaching objectives for the L1and L2 groups are different, the gap is narrowing fast. And in the first quarter of 21st century any book, intended for the students of vernacular in Indian subcontinent, should contain passages for the study of English as First language (L1) as well as Second language (L2) in no water tight compartment. While compiling any anthology   a number of tentative teaching objectives and selective pieces that might be used in realizing them are need to be meticulously chosen.

Cleopatra: Complex Inscrutable, Indefinable Heroine

Shakespeare's Cleopatra embodies mystery. Shakespeare chose to keep her feminine mystique inexplicable. She is, in turn, vain, sensual, violent, cruel, bawdy, cowardly, beautiful, witty, vital, and intelligent, a strumpet, a gipsy, lass unparalleled, a triumphant lady, royal wench, a great fairy, a rare Egyptian. She is all these and more – a source of Perini fascination.

 She grows, starting as a courtesan-cum-enchantress. She presses her love through dramatizing (playacting) and dialogue. But inwardly she ultimately proves to be vulnerable. Her love for Antong intensifies into something more than sexual passion (her playacting in outwitting the astute Caesar).

George Orwell’s ‘‘Animal Farm’’ is the most Effective Political Satire

George Orwell’s ‘‘Animal Farm’’ is   an animal fable to present the evils of soviet political methods. The novel is a systematic satire on the Soviet Union during the Stalin Era. It is the mocking voice of a socialist at the expense of Soviet experience. It is a telling satire on the Stalinist period of Russian History. It is also a warning of what seems to Orwell the inevitable lot of mankind, in the certain conditions and ultimate object of power-seekers and demagogues of any country. Read More Novel It is a protest against totalitarianism. It is a satire upon dictatorship. It seems to be a socialist mockery. It tells the fate of all type of revolutions. It deals with the various virtues and ices of man. Modeled on a relatively simple premise, the novel begins as the animals of Manor Farm unite against farmer Jones to overthrow his tyrannical rule. Understandably ecstatic over their sudden and rather unexpected good fortune, the animals create a new order for the future based on equality and equity. The novel contains lucidity and simplicity of language. Its accurate language has led to clarity and effectiveness. Its style is candid and correct. It is fresh and appealing. It has sufficiency, exactness and accuracy. Read More Novel The novelist is careful in the choice of words and phrases. The paint is hardly dry on their barnyard manifesto, however, when the hated forces and attitudes that triggered their revolt begin to reemerge, eventually to destroy their dream of emancipation. Orwell undoubtedly passes judgement on the fate of revolution by comparing ideological promises with their practical application.  

Walter Pater as a Literary Critic -an innovator in aesthetics who celebrated the pleasurable effects of art on the viewer or reader

Walter Pater (1839-1894) is the eminent English essayist and critic both of art as well as literature. His first book—Studies in the History of Renaissance is a criticism of the art. Among his critical writings may be mentioned the volume known as Applications and Shakespearian Studies. “These essays are critical of art as well as of literature—and, essentially, Pater belongs to the history of criticism.” (Hugh Walker)

John Webster's The Duchess of Malfi: Analysing the Faults of Duchess

 "Ambition, madam, is a great man's madness."-
 John Webster (1578? - 1632?)

There was a group of dramatists writing plays for the London theater manager Philip Henslowe. The group included many gifted playwrights, among them Thomas Dekker, John Marston, and Thomas Heywood, with each of whom Webster collaborated occasionally. John Webster 's genius as a writer was first fully revealed in his great tragedies The White Devil, produced in 1612, and The Duchess of Malfi, staged about 1614. Both plays depict a world of extravagant passions, dark intrigue, and fratricidal violence. Both plays ensured Webster's long-lasting critical acclaim and both are still produced. Despite their melodramatic themes, Webster's plays are redeemed by his soaring poetic dialogue and his grasp of human psychology.

Clara, the Osu, Caught in Taboo Igbo Cultural Traditions in No Longer at Ease

Chinua Achebe’s second novel No Longer At Ease, which is a study of post independent Nigeria and its expectations and failures, however, reveals Achebe’s increasing preoccupation with women studies. The heroine of the story, Clara’s position in the story is not luminary or peripheral. Her story is intricately interwoven into Obi Okonkwo’s experience and a relatively positive strength of character is revealed in her. One observes some measure of self-esteem, which is a preamble to self-definition in Clara who is an osu. Achebe also consider Igbo cultural traditions that make some groups of people, or some individuals, "taboo" because it's forbidden in Igbo culture to marry an osu, since the osu class is dedicated to a particular god because of religious, cultural, socioeconomic, racial, or other reasons. Now the question raised if is it a necessary part of human social systems or is it always wrong?
The reality that has been dealt in Achebe’s story is that Clara and her family is taboo. If Obi who is a British graduate marries her and has children, what will happen to those children, socially and culturally? Obi may feel that the time is ripe to end certain cultural customs, but he has failed to understand how some traditions are so important to people that they cannot change overnight. Clara is a practical girl, not to mention smart and hard working. Though she is Igbo, she is educated in the Western tradition and lives a modern lifestyle. Clara was right when she first told Obi that he didn't really love her and she would regret giving in to his flattery. Soon we discover she has a secret. Her secret is culturally specific – something only another Igbo would care about. She is an osu, part of a social caste forbidden to marry because one of her ancestors was dedicated to a god. They are considered taboo. As Isaac points out, marrying her would be like marrying a leper. Once Clara admits this to Obi, she tries to break up with him. She says it's not fair to keep the relationship going; she doesn't want to come between Obi and his family.

 Clara knows that Obi's parents will never accept her as a daughter-in-law, even though they are Christians and should, theoretically, disagree with a tradition like this. However, Clara seems to lack the disdain Obi has for traditional culture. Every fault Obi has, Clara counter-balances.  Clara's parents are Christians, too, but that hasn't changed their status as osus or the fact that they are outcasts, even in the church. Clara keeps trying to break up with Obi because of this fact, and Obi keeps stubbornly refusing to be broken up with, the relationship's demise is clear, at least to her. Clara understands what Obi isn't saying – that his parents will never accept their relationship. She breaks up with him. It was, however, discovered that she's pregnant. At the abortion doctor's office, the doctor asks Obi why he doesn't marry Clara. She's just sorry, in the end, that she didn't do something about it before she ended up pregnant. That is what makes her bitter. Clara says she has no interest in marrying Obi. Clara's abortion turns septic and she is hospitalized. Though Clara was educated in England, and probably wonders about the justice of her taboo status, she never voices those thoughts aloud. Instead, it's clear that she understands how deeply these traditions run. Clara sees the end is near. Achebe’s account of Clara makes a penchant voice against such practices of osu but at the same time trough deep contemplative moods.
On the other hand, No Longer At Ease, Achebe shows how in corrupt Nigeria women offer their bodies, in return for favors and services. It is evident in scholarship interview where a girl offers her body to earn the scholarship. 

 Ardhendu De

Arthur, Gakwandi, Shatto. Novel and Contemporary Experience in Africa. Holmes & Meier Publishers Inc, 1981.
E. Modupe Kolawole, Mary. “Mutiple Inscriptions and the Location of Women in China Achebe’s Novel”. Chinua Achebe An Anthology of Recent Criticism. Ed. Mala Pandurang, Pencraft International, Delhi, 2010.
Sircar, Rupali. “Masculinity, Femininity and Androgyny: Igbo Culture in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart”. Chinua Achebe An Anthology of Recent Criticism. Ed. Mala Pandurang, Pencraft International, Delhi, 2010.
Pandurang,   Mala. “Chinua Achebe and the ‘African Experience’: A Socio-Literary Perspective”. Chinua Achebe An Anthology of Recent Criticism. Ed. Mala Pandurang, Pencraft International, Delhi, 2010.
Booth,   James. Writers and Politics in Nigeria. Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1981.

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