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Showing posts from 2012

Lytton Strachey : Biographer with Special Reference to Queen Victoria

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It is almost an axiomatic truth that biography is a very difficult from of art. A biographer, unlike a historian, has to collect all the relevant and necessary documents and facts. He should construct his biography in such a way that it ultimately assumes the status of an art-form. Johnson has very pertinently observed: “History can be formed from permanent monuments and records: but lives can only be written from personal knowledge, which is growing everyday less, and in short time is lost forever.”

Human Relationship in E.M. Forster's "A Passage to India"

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A Passage to Indiais indeed a great work which has encompassed several significant topics that had some bearing upon the society during theBritish rulein India. But Forster’s greatest contribution lies in the fact that in this novel he has raised the problem of human relationship and has discussed the pros and cons of the same at great length. The major fault or lacuna of the British Empire was that the polished and highly tutored dignitaries who were empowered by the British imperialist Government to rule over the Indians failed to realize the value of human relationship. But Forester has again and again sought to pinpoint this axiomatic truth that of a need a solid human- relationship, the most essential need at the time ofBritish-India.Forster wholeheartedly believed in the value of personal relation, ‘the holiness of the heart’s affection'. But he did not at all subscribe to the view upheld by Fielding that “the world is a globe of man who are trying to reach one another and c…

Salient Features of Georgian Poetry and Inter-war Poetry

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A Few Words: So many poets are writing today and such is the tremendous poetic output that it is impossible to give individual attention to them. Hence it is usual to divide modern poetry into two halves- (a) Georgian poetry i.e. poetry of the early decades, and (b) poetry of the interwar years i.e. poetry of middle decades. There is much overlapping, for the poetry that began writing much earlier continues to write though the interwar years. In literature there can be no water tight compartments and such divisions are merely for the convenience of study.


Georgian Poetry:Georgian poetry is the poetry of the early decades of 20th century when king George ruled England. It is an easily simple poetry, largely in the romantic vein, having certain marked characters like of its own. Says A.S. Collins, “The Georgians had, of course, Appositive aim, it was too treat natural thing in a clear, natural and beautiful way, neither too modern not too much like Tennyson. In their treatment of nature …

D. H.Lawrence’s Treatment of Nature in "Sons and Lovers"

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D. H. Lawrence has evinced his deep love for nature in Sons and Lovers. In the village, in the lush green bosom of nature, Lawrence spent his boyhood or early days. He had a close contact with nature and an intense longing for natural objects. Because of his close and intimate association with natural objects and surrounding, nature did hunt his imagination to a great extent and it does explain why Lawrence possessed almost a poetic sensibility with regard to his delineation of nature. It is admittedly true that the setting of the novel i.e. Bentwood is a mining town. Also it is indubitably true that own was very much close to the world of nature. The characters or people figuring in the novel are not immune from the world of nature. They, of course, live in an artificial set-up or environment of society. Industrialization or more precisely machination was indeed exerting its silting influences o the refined feelings and sentiments of the people. But nevertheless the characters of the…

Irish Politics is Reflected in Modern Drama

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Abbey Theatre is the most famous of Irish theatres, one of the most famous in the British Isles, if not in Europe. It is repertory-theater Company and the auditorium in which the company performs, in Dublin, Ireland.  It was the centre of the Irish Dramatic movement founded in 1899 by W.B. Yeats and Lady Gregory. Originally established to present Irish plays about Irish subjects, the company later expanded its repertory to include classical drama, including that of British playwright William Shakespeare, and contemporary works by dramatists of continental Europe.

The aim of the Irish Dramatic movement was to present Irish plays on Irish subjects preformed by Irish actors. It is a product of the Irish cultural revival that began late in the 19th century. The revival was initiated largely by the Irish poet and dramatist William Butler Yeats, who urged Irish writers to draw their inspiration directly from Irish life and traditions rather than from English and European sources.


The buildi…

George Herbert’s Contribution to Poetry: Secular Ambitions

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George Herbert (1593 - 1633) is an English poet of the metaphysical school. A University of Cambridge graduate was unsuccessful in getting a play at court unemployed for eleven years (from 1619 to 1630). He devoted secular ambitions, however, and took holy orders in the Church of England in 1630. He spent the rest of his life as rector in Bemerton.
As a poet George Herbert was temperamentally and totally different from John Donne. His poems are characterized by a precision of language, a metrical versatility, and an ingenious use of imagery or conceits that was favored by the metaphysical school of poets such as John Donne. However, he was in two minds – whether to take to orders or not. He had spells of introspection regarding his motive becoming a priest.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 28

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A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
Two English lawyers, Norton and Sackville produced the first English tragedy on Seneca model in blank verse, Gorboduc.English prose first made its appearance in Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, even before the advent of King Alfred. The first Folio of Shakespeare was published in 1623. The two editors were Heminge and Condell. Four poets associated with the ‘Decadent Movement’ are Oscar Wilde, Lionel Johnson, Ernest Dowson and Arthur Symons.

John Donne as a Poet : Changing Sensibility

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We find in John Donne’s (1572-1631) poetry a mirror of the changing sensibility of his age. Ptelemic system of astronomy with earth as the centre of universe – geocentric - was in vogue until the period of John Donne. Copernican system – of heliocentric – theory which considered the sun as the cento around which the earth went round came into vogue during Donne’s period as exemplified in his statement ‘the new philosophy calls all in doubt’. Skepticism ruled the roost in the beginning of the 17th century. Scientific proof was anticipated for everything. Thus we find in Donne’s poems a strange ‘unpoetic’ kind of imagery: that of the telescope, of geometrical instruments, of mining machines and all other concomitants of the Renaissance laboratory. Even the declaration of a woman’s love cannot be taken as true as it hath me loves no empirical basic. After the espousal of the Church there was a renewal of poetic activity with religious bent of mind. He concentrated all his energy and pass…

Major Questions in William Shakespeare's KING LEAR

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***Is Lear a man more sinned against – than sinning?             This question relates to the whole issue and theme of justice, and its existence or otherwise in King Lear. On the one hand Lear gives in to flattery, makes a bad decision to split his kingdom, and when he does so splits it unfairly. He banishes cruelly the only daughter who loves him, and a nobleman who is devoted to his service. He attempts to live like a king with none of a king’s responsibilities of duties, and takes himself out into a storm when his followers are dismissed. On the other hand he is punished for his lack of self – knowledge his vanity, and his inability to distinguish the truth from falsehood by losing his wealth, his sanity, his daughter, and finally his life. He was certainly sinned, but only through common faults which under different circumstances might have gone unnoticed and unpunished.

Sonnets of William Shakespeare: Intricacies of Identity

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Sonnets of William Shakespeare, sequence of 154 sonnets by English poet and playwright William Shakespeare a majority of them were written between 1595 and 1599 after the Earl of Southampton became his patron. The sonnet genre was at its acme by that time. Shakespearean sonnet differed from those of other predecessors in that it had three decasyllabic quatrains each rhyming alter natively and a rhyming couplet at the end -rhyme scheme ababcdcdefefgg.

Thomas Thorpe registered them on May 20, 1609, with the title Shake-speares Sonnets. Neuer before Imprinted. Thorpe prefixed to the volume a cryptic dedication: “To the onlie begetter of these insuing sonnets Mr. W. H. all happinesse and that eternitie promised by our everliving poet wisheth the well-wishing adventurer in setting forth T. T.” Many attempts have been made to determine the identity of “Mr. W. H.” The two leading candidates are William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, and Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. We will, however, no…

Sir Philip Sidney as a Sonneteer

Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586), English poet, courtier, and soldier, is another reputed sonneteer of Renaissance period. During his tour of the continent for three years and stay at Venice he studied subjects like astronomy and music. The great Italian painters left an indelible impression on him. History, Italian literature, study of the poetry of Tasso interested him much. 

By the time he returned to England he had become an accomplished writer. In 1576, during his stay with his uncle Leicester at Kenilworth, he fell in love with Penelope, the twelve year old daughter of the Earl of Essex. Though the marriage did not materialize the attachment resulted in a series of sonnets addressed to the lady “Stella”- Sidney’s name for Penelope. Sonnets of Sidney were not published during his lifetime; many of “Stella” poems, however, circulated in manuscript.

Elizabethan Public Theatre: Designated for the Performance

Elizabethan Theatre is one of the most popular forms of entertainment, in which actors perform live for an audience on a stage or in another space designated for the performance.  In many ways the stage of the innyard helped to define the structure of the Elizabethan public theatre. Though various scholars have given different details about the structure, with the help of certain contemporary records, we can arrive at the main features. Apart from the picture of the Swan Theatre (1595) drawn by the Dutch traveler Johannes de Witt, another picture was found in the title page of the play Roxana (1630) by William Alabaster. The contemporary documents like the building contracts kept by Philip Henslowe (the first Englishman who made a fortune in theatre business) and the stage direction in the plays give a clear picture of a public theatre. 

The Tragic Hero (Hamartia, Hubris):Aristotle’s Concept in Poetics - Fundamental Insights

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The hero is of overwhelming importance in most literary works, but in no other form of literature is he as important as in tragedy. This is because while most literary forms such as the novel, the short story and comedy are concerned with a host of characters, in a tragedy the entire attention of the audience is focused upon a single character, the protagonist. This is also the reason why most tragedies are known by names of their protagonists Examples are Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, Euripides’ Hippolytus, Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus. Consequently, a discussion of the tragedy is tantamount to a discussion of the hero. Aristotle’s concept as laid down in the Poetics is of such fundamental insights, that it is of abiding importance ever in the 21st century.

Popular Songs and Ballads of the 14th Century

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Towards the later part of the 14th century popular song’s particularly traditional ballads had become an important source of popular entertainment. Regarding their origin there are much controversies. Their authorship has remained mostly anonymous, but whether the ballad was composed by minstrel or has the result of communal activity. It is essentially simple and popular.
·They deal with love, local legends and the feats of local heroes, supernatural happenings or religions stories.
·Its tone is impersonal and detached and there is title or none of the composer is personality to be felt.
·The ballad is written in a meter known as – ‘ballad meter’,(four fined stanza with Iambic tetra – meter and trimeter respectively)



Among them the most notable are – Robin Hood Ballad, Chevy Chace. Sir Patrick Spens, Nutbrown paid are worth to mention.

How To Learn William Shakespeare's "The Winter’s Tale" Better Than Anyone Else: Huge Diversity of Critical Responses

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The Winter’s Tale has, for some reason, attracted a huge diversity of critical response. Some early critics see the play as the product of Shakespeare’s ‘serene retirement’ in Stratford. In fact, Shakespeare was not so old when he wrote the play, and by definition was not ‘retired if he was still writing play’s we do not know if he was serene at that time in his life, and even if we did it is always dangerous to draw too close links between an another’s life and his writing.


Despite this, the view that the play was written by a man in the autumn of his years has some value. It point to the role of time in the play, and the belief that, given basic goodwill, all things can be resolved by time. There a desire for reconciliation and forgiveness above all things, and this could be side to be typical of the thought patterns of an older man. Another early critic saw the play as sowing Shakespeare bored with life, bored with drama, and bored with everything except poetry. Any view that oper…

Play – Within- Play in Hamlet: Dramatic Significance

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The play – within  occurs in HAMLET Act II, Scene III. This was a well – known dramatic device in Shakespeare’s days used to give an interesting turn to the plot and to further the theme. Kyd in his famous Spanish Tragedy had favoured such a device successfully and this might have prompted Shakespeare to introduce it in Hamlet, which had some elements of revenge tragedy in it. We should now see how this play – scene affects the course of play to be able to measure its real significance.

Parent – Children Relationship in King Lear

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William Shakespeare's King Lear symbolizes first and foremost vastness. It is not intricate like Hamlet or deep like Macbeth or intense like Othello. And because it is vast and expansive, it yields itself to be viewed from many angles, not the least of which is the domestic angle; for is not a domestic play like Othello or Hamlet involving as it does the age – old problem of parent – children relationship?

The University Wits: John Lyly, Thomas Kyd, George Peele, Thomas Lodge, Robert Greene, Thomas Nash and Christopher Marlowe

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The Starting Words: The University Wits were all men of academic training. Saintsbury calls them the ‘mighty group of plannings who founded the English drama’. They had training at one of the two universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Read More History of English Literature (Essay)It was on account of their associations with the two universities that they were called University wits. They were fully undersea the influence of the Renaissance that was in its full bloom during their time. These keen students of and Literature had been brought in to personal touch with the new learning. They found drama most convened to their tastes and temperament: and favorably sited to their learning and training. The group of University with consist of john Lyly, Thomas kids George Peele , Thomas Lodge, Robot Greene, Thomas Nash and Christopher Marlowe. Now let us discus their contributions on English drama.

HAMLET: General Points; Corruption; Uncertainty; Deception and Political Intrigue; Madness; Appearance and reality

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General Points: ‘Hamlet was written in about 1600 / 1, at the height of Shakespeare’s creative power. It is arguable the most popular and famous play ever written, and its hero seems to have exerted a huge fascination over theatre audiences of every age, race, colour, creed, and time.

Importance of Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse Lies in its Feminine Sensibility

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Virginia Woolf comes after a long line of eminent Victorians of her own sex, who have joined the immortals of English literature- George Eliot, Jane Austen and the two Bronte’s. She was not of their stature but only against their background can her peculiar feminine contribution to English novel be fully assessed or appreciated.

Blinding of Gloucester in King Lear, Scene VII, Act III

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“The blinding of Gloucester on the stage has been condemned almost universally; and surely, with justice………... It is a blot upon King Lear as a stage play”. (A. C. Bradley)
The blinding of Gloucester by Cornwall takes place on the stage in Scene VII, Act III, King Lear. The old man’s offence was his contact with the invasion of Britain by France. Gloucester was betrayed by his bastard son, Edmund to whom he had confided (vide Scene III, Act III). This incurred the wrath of the wrath of the wicked sister and villainous Cornwell who finally blinded Gloucester aided by Regan in his own castle where they were guests and Gloucester played host. The barbarity of this blinding act is no doubt revolting. Shakespeare has come in for severe criticisms for showing such a barbarous act on the stage. Great critics like Bradley have consider this to be an artistic blunder and “a blot upon King Lear as a stage play”. To Dr. Johnson, the blinding scene seemed to have been beyond endurance. Even Coleri…

Various Interpretations of “Nature” in King Lear

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It is possible to look upon King Lear as a drama of ideas embodying forth “the meanings of the single word Nature”, being essentially preoccupied with Nature in all its vastness. It is not, however, a drama of ideas in the sense of the medieval Morality plays or modern Shavian plays; it is a peculiar creation of Shakespeare, his Novum Organum of Elizabethan thought and times.
The word Nature conveys several meaning including what is known as the Romantic Nature. To Elizabethans, however, it did stand for an order. Words again change meanings as does the word Nature with the passage of time and since words are living entities, they flesh forth ideas which may clash with each other bringing inquisition or martyrdom in its train. Thus we see it is highly probable to have a multiplicity of meanings for the same word current among a people who are animated by the idea or ideas behind the word for seeking an application in the field of action. Words thus not only reflect reality but become p…

Analysing Beowulf as an Epic of Old English Literature

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An epic is a long narrative poem dealing with some acts of heroism of heroic personalities. It is a short of heroic poetry essentially idealistic in concept and tone.The celebrated Beowulf, the most important work of Old English literature is characterized as the first great titanic epic. It is a non-Christian work of pre-Christian time. It is classed as an epic of growth-  tales clustered round some heroic character or characters.

D. H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers as a Psychological Novel

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Sons and Lovers belongs to the category of psychological fiction. The remarkable development of psychological novel is a notable phenomenon of the twentieth century literary scene. The psychology of the characters and the typical problems, emanating from a particular psychological pattern form the staple of a psychological novel. This psychological novel has been ushered in by Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. Read More NovelThe psycho-analytical novel, as the very name implies, lays stress on psycho-analysis. The novelist becomes a psychoanalyst and he brings into focus, the subtle and intricate psychological cross currents. The analysis of the psychology of the characters is what constitutes the motif of a psychoanalytical fiction. The novelist goes deeper and deeper into the innermost crevice of the psychology of his characters and he brings out or externalizes the subtle psychological framework of the characters. 

Men That Keep Attention: Life and Contribution of Mulk Raj Anand

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The pioneer of Indian English literature, Mulk Raj Anand was born in a Hindu Family of Kshatriyas on 12Dei, 1905 in Peshawar, the central city of Northeast Frontier province, now in Pakistan. His ‘mother’s gift of storytelling’ enriched him early from his life. He along with R.K. Narayana and Raja Rao established Indian novel in the gamut of Indian and world literature.Read More Indian English


Mulk Raj Anand was the master of storyteller of the downtrodden and of the touchable who suffer from the unending story of exploitation. He carves out epics from the real Indian life of the pre-Independence period. Read More Men That Keep AttentionHe looked Indian life fully in the face with unblinking and yielding eyes, challenged it, fought with the audacity and boldness of a true Indian. Read More Indian EnglishHe was sophisticated and cosmopolitan in his outlook and philosophy of life, but was impatient of transcendentalism and skeptical of religion. His realistic novels Angry at Injustice, S…

Old and Middle English Religious and Didactic Poetry

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1.Ormulum:-
*An Augustine monk named Orm, who lived in Marcia, writers this poem about 1200 A. D.
*This book is called Ormulum because Orm wrote it.
*This single fragment contains 10000 lines.
*The poem is basically the translation and paraphrases in verse of some 40 Gospels.
*It is written is north East midland dialect and free from foreign words.

2. The owl and the Nightingale:-
*Autorship- unknown
* written probably in the early 13th century.
*It is a poem of some 800 octosyllabic lines.
*The poem is attributed to Nicholas de Guildford who lived at Portesham in Dorset.
*The poem is written in the form of debate.
*It is a long debt between a nightingale and any owl. Each one bitterly criticizes the manner of living, habit of taking food. Power of singing physical feature of the other with equal wit and wisdom. Finally to judge who the winner is they agree to fly to one Nicholas de Guild ford.

Metaphysical Conceit: Examples from the Poems of Andrew Marvell

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Metaphysical is a term now generally applied to a group of 17th century poets; chiefly Donne, Carew, George Herbert, Crashaw, Henry Vaughan, Marvell, Cleveland and Cowley. It appears that one of the first to use the term was William Drummound of Hawthornden in a letter written to Arthue Johnston (c. 1630). In this Discourse of the Original and Progress of Satire (1692) Dryden said of Donne: “He affects the metaphysical not only in his satires, but also in his amorous verses, where nature only should reign, and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice speculations of philosophy’. Later Johnson, in his lives of the poets (1779-81), established the term more or less permanently metaphysical imagery, and referred to ‘heterogeneous ideas …. yoked by violence together’. 

“Mimesis” : Mode of Critical Literary Theory

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Mimesis has almost the same meaning as mime but the concept of imitation in this case has wider connotations.

Originally, Greek artists were the first to establish mimesis (imitation of nature) as a guiding principle for art, even as Greek philosophers debated the intellectual value of this approach.
The repeated depiction of the nude human figure in Greek art reflects Greek humanism—a belief that 'Man is the measure of all things,' in the words of Greek philosopher Protagoras. Architecture is another Greek legacy that the West has inherited, as Greece established many of the structural elements, decorative motifs, and building types still used in architecture today. Aristotle in poetics, states that tragedy is an imitation of an action, but the uses the term comprehensively to refer to the construction of a play and what is put into it. We should use mimesis to mean representation, which relates to verisimilitude. The outstanding work in this topic is Eric Auerbach’s Mimesis

Woman is Not Born but Made- View from Feminism

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When a girl child is born it is as good as a boy. But when she grows up, the society places on her certain inhabitations and formulates her role. Despite of the old practices ofmatriarchies—social orders with women in charge, gradually patriarchal cultures that worshiped male gods and in which men were political, religious, and military leaders took the gun and women were kept in subordination. So it is now that the woman feels the gender difference. It is right to say that a woman is not born but made.

Elizabethan Sonnet Sequence Masters: Sir Thomas Wyatt, Earl of Surrey, Philip Sydney, Michael Drayton, Samuel Daniel, Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare

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Sonnet is considered by many a perfect flower in the garden of lyrical poetry. However, Sonnet in English literature is a foreign importation. The term sonnet has come from the Italian “Sonnetto” means a song. It originated in Italy. It is flourished in the master hands of Petrarch, Dante and Tasso. It is a short lyrical poem of fourteen lines, with a special arrangement for rhyme. It is complete in itself and expresses in condensed form one thing, one idea or one emotion. It is divided into two parts, the first eight lines form the octave with the rhyme scheme ‘abba’ , ‘abba’ , the last six lines from sestet , and they rhymed variously as ‘cdecde , cd , cd , cd , or cdedec’. The theme or emotion in most cases is love and its varied moods. And somewhere in the sonnet, mostly between octave and sestet, there remain a volta or jump of thought.

Anglo – Saxon Prose Writers: King Alfred, Aelfric, Wulfstan are So Famous? But Why?

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Until the 9th century literary prose did not develop in England. Before this Anglo – Saxon prose started in the form of some laws, and historical records. Basically with Alfred The Great Anglo – Saxon prose marks the true beginning. The three great prose writers of this period are King Alfred, Aelfric and Wulfstan.
King Alfred
He is known as the ‘father of English Prose’. He became the king of Wessex in 871 A. D. the successive raids of the Danes made the English miserable. The Danes burnt the books, destroyed the monasteries and ever destroyed the mental peace.
He translated the five great works.



(A) Gregory’s – ‘Pastoral Care’ :It is a religious works which discusses the essentials of Christianity. It is to be noted that in the preface of it Alfred said by the laity, to know the history of their country.

What Makes Anglo Saxon Lyrical And Elegiac Poem So Addictive That You Never Want To Miss One?

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An elegy means a poem of mourning or song of lamentation. We find them in origin both in Greek literature and in Latin. However, term 'elegy' was at first appeared to all kinds of poetry written in a particular metre, called  elegiac metre. The subject of an elegy as such could then be anything tragic, comic, serious, sad or sentimental. But subsequently the scope of elegy become confined and the name was applied to the specific kind of poem of moaning or the song of lamentation. An elegy is now supposed to have these features: - Reflective, pensiveness and subjectivity.
Anglo Saxon has either a heroic theme or of lyrical learning. But among these lyrical poems the exception is Widsith.

Alliterative Poems of Middle English Period: ‘Pearl’, ‘Purity’, ‘Patience’ and ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’

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After the Norman Conquest the French Influence rendered great impact on literature and rhymed verse gained ascendancy. It is after the victories of King Edward – III in France a national self consciousness as well as a new enthusiasm for the English tongue becomes prominent. In schools and colleges and law courts English started to displace the French. In 1362 parliament was opened in English language. As the result of all these old English verse form revives again in the Middle English period.Roughly between the year 1350 and 1400 there appears a number of poem which bring an unbroken development of old English all iterative verse.In colossians manuscript we get four remarkable poems written in west midland dialect. They are ‘Pearl’, ‘Purity’, ‘Patience’ and ‘Sir Gawain and the Green Knight’. It is supposed that these poems are written by the same poet.

The Anglo – Saxon Christian Poetry from Caedmon to Cynewulf

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In England two great school of Christian Influence put an end of the frightful war among the various Kingdom of the Anglo – Saxon. In 597 A. D under the leadership of St. Augustine who came from Rome Christianity was introduced in England especially in the South and center of England. The other the leadership of Aidan, came from Ireland which country had been for centuries a center of religion and education for Western Europe.

Joseph Andrews by Henry Fielding: ‘Comic-epic in Prose’

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“Public schools are the nurseries of all vice and immorality.”
Henry Fielding’s Joseph Andrews is a ‘comic-epic in prose’ as he himself has argued in his Reface to Joseph Andrews.It parodies Richardson's other novel of virtue besieged, Pamela (1740).  Fielding’s theory of the novel being a ‘comic epic in prose’ is put into practice in Joseph Andrews. There are numerous inset- stories and episodes which are clearly linked up, with very few exceptions, with the central theme. The story of Joseph Andrews can be reduced to a few words. Amman Joseph after displeasing a lady, his superior in rack and power, tress to go home. He meets many miss fortress on the way, and when he reach home he finds that the lady and her relations are trying to make his efforts and is happily magpie to Fanny and leads comfortable life.  We should also note that Joseph Andrews is the hero of the novel. When the novel begins, we are told that he is the domestic servant and the only son of Gaffe and Ginner Andr…

Alexander Pope’s The Dunciad: Longest Satirical Work

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“A wit with dunces, and a dunce with wits.”

The Dunciad(1728; final version 1743) is Alexander Pope’s logiest satirical work. All his merit and defects as a satirist are to be found in this poem. It appeared anonymously in 1728 with Theo bald as hero, and again in 1742 with the addition of a fourth work and with the substitution of Colley Cibber (1671-1757) for the bald as hero. Disliked for Cibber’s extreme conceit, he was satirized by the poet Alexander Pope in The Dunciad (1743), in which he was the main character.

In The DunciadPope hurls the pointed shaft of his satire on contemporary poets, critics and furbishes who have incurred his wrath by just or unjust criticism of his writing, physical weakness, religion, tamely and has to. Pope’s satiric net even takes in the authors’ who were dead and who were yet to be born For he describes at length the reign of poets, past, present and future. The poet was inspired not only by Dryden’s Mac flecknoe but also from the literary influence o…

Samuel Beckett’s The Waiting for Godot: For a Savior Who Never Comes

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“Nothing happens, nobody comes, nobody goes, it's awful!”
En attendant Godot (1953; Waiting for Godot, 1954) composed by Samuel Beckett is a landmark in the realm of Modern English theatre. It is the first great success of the absurdist movement and probably the most known of all its plays. The drama has an ironic overtone compounded with a tragically slant.  It vitally reflects the pointlessness, the meaning lessens, boredom, ennui and Frustration of modern ex instance. Waiting for Godot is one of the best-known plays of the Irish-born writer Samuel Beckett. The tramps Vladimir and Estragon wait for Godot, who never arrives. Beckett’s play addresses the absurdity of, and man’s need for, hope. 

The theme of the play is all about a perpetual waiting of the two tramps Vladimir (Didi) and Estragon (Gogo). The two tramps of his play, Didi and Gogo, play pointless games to pass the time waiting for a savior who never comes. They have become two of the most familiar figures in modern thea…

D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers Examined the Oedipus complex or Mother- Fixation theory of Freud

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Sons and Lovers is the masterpiece of D.H. Lawrence which may be said the priest psychoanalytical novel in English. It is in it that for the first time a novelist has practically examined the Oedipus complex or mother fixation theory of Freud. The most striking feature of Lawrence’s characters is the resemblance they bear to their creator. Thus, the protagonist Paul morel in Sons and loves is cruelly a projection of Lawrence himself.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge: The Exponent of Romantic Poetry , Critic and Philosopher

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“How great a possibility; how small a realized result.” -Thomas Carlyle Referring to Samuel Taylor Coleridge.{Letter to Ralph Waldo Emerson}
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), , the exponent of Romantic poetry , critic and philosopher, was born in Devonshire on October 23, 1772 and educated in Christ’s Hospital school in London. The highly imaginative and vivid images of his poems along with their varied rhythms and strange settings evoke the mysterious atmosphere of a fairy tale or nightmare. In 1796, he published his first volume, poems on various subjects and poems in 1797. Twelve months later he met William Wordsworth which proved the beginning of a fruitful creative relationship. From is friendship resulted lyrical Ballads which opened with Coleridge’s Rime of the Ancient Mariner and ended with William Wordworth’s Tintern Abbey. These poems not only set a new style of using everyday language but also enable interpreted the beauties of the physical world in a more mysterious and …

Samuel Richardson’s Pamela: Glaring Example of Epistolary Novel

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Samuel Richardson is the father of the first modern English novel. And hisPamelaor, Virtue Rewarded (1740) is the frost regular novel in the literature. It is the first novel in which character is more important than situation. Again Richardson’s Pamelais a glaring example of epistolary novel, a novel based on a series of exchanging letters by way of unfolding the plot of the novel and the psychology of the protagonists. The novel describes Pamela’s experience as a maid servant, how she resists the immoral advances of his master’s son against all treats and temptations, till in the end when he wins her heart by being reformed and marries her. The novel was written as a series of letters exchanged by the characters. Here we can find a sample of her letter:
Letter XXIPamela writes to her parents about Mr. B., the master of the house and Mrs. Jervis , the housekeeper

Analyzing William Blake’s Songs of Innocence (1789) and Songs of Experience (1794)

“An honesty against which the whole world conspires because it is unpleasant.” -T. S. Eliot
William Blake was hardly known in his life time though he was most original, strongly individualistic, and mostly a solitary figure. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, through his edition of Blake’s poems, brought him to public attention. In fact, Blake was a genius who distinguished himself in poetry, engraving and painting. He lived in London unlike many other poets who lived in the countryside. He had little formal education, but he taught himself. He was teepee in the Bible, Elizabethan literature and Milton. He knew many language including Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French and Italian.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 40

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A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers: The Rise and Journey of Periodical Essay
Periodical publications released on a regular basis may include news, feature articles, poems, fictional stories, or other types of writing. It is a magazine or journal published at regular intervals: monthly, quarterly, etc. The periodical, as we understand it today, dates from the middle of the 17th century. Little Magazine, a form of periodical, devoted to publishing specialized, avant-garde writing and criticism. Because of limited circulation and marginal financial backing, the so-called little magazines are generally short-lived.Historically, most periodicals have differed from newspapers in their format, publication schedule, and content. The exclusively literary periodical is more recent.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 39

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Short notes on History of English Literature: Arcadia and Utopia
A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers 1.Arcadia by Philip Sidney, written to amuse his sister, the Countess of Pem-broke, is a prose romance interspersed with verse, in which he gives a full play of his fantastic invention.
2.Arcadia (1590), a pastoral romance in verse linked by prose passages; the first considerable work in English in this form, it became a model for later pastoral poetry.
3.It is a pastoral romance; its action being held in the ideal Arcadia.
4.Here king Basilius retired and here he brings up his daughters as shepherdesses.
5.Sidney’s pastoral romance Arcadia was famous in its day.
6.Here is  occasional good passage, such as the prayer to a heathen god, ”O All-seeing Light,”–a prayer that became historic and deeply pathetic when King Charles repeated it, facing death on the scaffold. That was in 1649, more than half a century after Arcadia was written.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 38

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Short notes on:Poetic Term /Rhetoric/ Figure of Speech
A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1. Ballad:  The Ballad has been defined in the Reader's companion to world Literature as “a narrative song - poem usually relating a single, dramatic incident, in a form suitable for singing or rhythmical chanting ". Ballads are of two kinds -- the folk ballads and the literary ballads. The authors of the former are unknown; the authors of latter are known literary figures. Ballads and more especially folk ballads are characterized by simplicity of language, terseness of expression, directness of narration, the use of archaic words and repletion of phrases and lines to achieve a cumulative effect. They are usually objective and impersonal, and devote little attention to character portraiture or setting.
Bishop’s Reliques of English poetry contain some of the best ballads in English.
2. Blank Verse:  Each line of Blank verse contains ten syllables. The pre - dominant beat is iambic…

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