AD's English Literature : 2017

Sunday, August 20, 2017

The Teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar: How the Caesar and the Brutus of Shakespeare Differed from the Caesar and the Brutus of History?


 Teachers of English should be on intimate terms with the masterpieces they are expected to teach. They ought to have a clear idea of the action of the play, and mental pictures of the various scenes and characters. They should be familiar with the fine lines; should be able to quote what is worthwhile; and should appreciate the diction, the wealth of allusion, and the various other literary qualities that combine to produce style. These things come through careful and loving study of a masterpiece and this is also true for the teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. In fact, since its first production, Julius Caesar has enjoyed immense and enduring popularity. The play forms part of the repertoire of most Shakespearean stock companies. A notable production, with the actors in modern dress, was directed by Orson Welles for the Work Projects Administration (WPA) in 1937. There have been several motion picture productions of Julius Caesar as well as a number of television presentations. Teaching of such a classic really needs a scholastic approach from a teacher’s perspective.

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Rasa School of Thought in Indian Poetics: Aphorism of Bharatamuni and Other Sages

 “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.”- 
Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra

 The principle of Rasa is the very kernel of Indian Poetics. Rasa is the essence of literature. The outlines of the nature of poetry appeared in Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra. Bharata says, “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.” Just as persons, mentally peaceful, while eating food mixed with various kinds of condiments taste and derive pleasure and the like, so also spectators with calm minds taste the Sthyibhãvas spiced with various kinds of emotions enacted and combined with verbal, physical and Sãttvika acting and derive pleasure. Bharata’s aphoristic statement “Vibhavanubhavayabhicarisamayogidrasanishpattih” has been discussed at length by good many scholars. Of these Bhattalollata, Srisankuta, Bhattanayaka and Abhinavagupta deserve special mention. They will be discussed separately in this short critical essay.

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Critical Appreciation of Robert Frost’s Poem “Birches”

The poem ‘Birches’ was first published in the Atlantic Monthly in August 1915. In this poem we come across the poet’s desire to withdraw from the world as also his love of the earth as symbolized by the boy’s game of swinging birches.

Better Understanding the English Classroom from Being a Student

 When students walk into classroom, they should feel that they have entered a place of and for learning; an English classroom specifically; classroom in particular. But the classroom is not only physical but also mental. Establish a clutter-free and organized room. Ensure that desks, tables and shelving are used, mainly, for one purpose. Exercise books, textbooks, novels, paper, pens, dictionaries and worksheets should have a specific place; preferably labeled. Class displays should be current and well presented. How is the English classroom different from others?

Nature of Acting in Classical Greek Theatre

 Acting in classical theatre was highly stylized. Speeches were rendered in a declamatory manner. This was essentially because theatre was an open door affair, and the audience was quite large in number. The nature of the performance environment placed considerable task on the voice. According to Oscar G. Brockett, the Greeks “judged actors above all by the beauty of vocal tone and ability to adapt to manner of speaking to mood and character”. Since voice projection was in high demand, adequate voice training and exercises were taken seriously. Acting departed from realism, and tended towards exaggeration because of the problem of visibility. There were too many people in the audience. Hence many realistic movements, gestures and mannerism might not reach them. Even the body and height of actors were enhanced by padding and wearing of high-heeled shoes and artificial hair do. Anthropologists and theater historians trace the origins of theater to myth and ritual found in dances and mimed performances by masked dancers during fertility rites and other ceremonies that marked important passages in life. Early societies acted out patterns of life, death, and rebirth associated with the welfare of village tribes. Imitation, costumes, masks, makeup, gesture, dance, music, and pantomime were some of the theatrical elements found in early rituals. At some unrecorded time, these ceremonies and rituals became formalized in dramatic festivals and spread west from Greece and east from India.

An Analysis of Keats’s ‘On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer’

Keats is one of the major poets of the Romantic Revival of the early 19th century. Along with Byron and Shelley he forms the trio of the younger romantic poets. Keats was greatly fascinated by classical literature comprising the poetry of Homer and Virgil. His emotional reacting to Homer’s poetry is conveyed in his early sonnet ‘On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer’. However, despite his love of Greek lore and his interest in classical literature, Keats is thoroughly a romantic poet. Keats developed his own romantic theory of poetry and expressed it in his poem ‘Sleep and Poetry’, just as Wordsworth and Coleridge had formulated their romantic theory of poetry in the preface to ‘Lyrical Ballads’ about two decades ago.

A River by A.K. Ramanujan: Multiple Layers of Meaning and is a Commentary on the Indifference

A River by A.K. Ramanujan is a tour de force of impressive potency and insightful philosophy and yet a poem characterized by its graceful lucidity and finely honed criticism. Through the poem the poet raises the question of an artist’s commitment to the society. A.K. Ramanujan develops the theme very well, with excellent pacing, through very solid use of imagery. This poem is a pretty melancholic but it's presented well, cohesive, thought provoking piece. The river, which is a symbol of life and fertility, becomes a destructive force. The poets, both old and new, are indifferent to the sufferings and havoc wrought by the river. The emotional sterility matches with the dryness and the river has water enough to be poetic once a year as a reporter witnesses the scene. The river mentioned is the Vaigai, famed in Tamil legends and puranas. A.k.Ramanujan in A River presents these ideas in an unsentimental manner.

Sincerity, Faithfulness and Generosity of Rudolf Rassendyl in Anthony Hope’s The Prisoner of Zenda

Key characters:

Rudolph Rassendyl, King Rudolf V,  Princess Flavia, Rupert of Hentzau, Antoinette De Mauban ,Colonel Zapt, Black Michael, Captain Fritz von Tarlenheim

Light novels of adventure, intrigue, and romance set in a mythical European kingdom are typical of the literature popular before World War I. The Prisoner of Zenda, a novel by Anthony Hope is about a man who poses as the heir to the throne in a small European country when the real heir falls into a coma. King Rudolf is in coma and his distant cousin Rudolph Rassendyl takes the king’s place during his illness. The false king has to fend off assassination attempts engineered by the real king’s brother and his cohort Rupert of Hentzau. He also must convince Princess Flavia that he is her fiancé, and in the process he falls in love with her.  Rudolph Rassendyl the foremost character of the novel is the best creation of Anthony Hope Hawkins. Anthony has presented him in such way that he has become immortal in the field of English literature. Anthony Hope has stolen all the sincerity, faithfulness and generosity of this earth to create the character of Rassendyl and make his character to all times to come, a dynamic, smart, handsome and bold hero of the novel, who captures the attention of the reader at the very outset. And as the novel moves our interest grows in his personality.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 106

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1.     ‘The Testament of Beauty’, is generally considered Robert Seymour Bridges’s masterpiece. In 1918 Bridges published a complete edition of the poetry of his friend from Oxford, Gerard Manley Hopkins, thus bringing it out of obscurity.
2.   English poet Geoffrey Chaucer writes ‘The Canterbury Tales’, a collection of stories told by pilgrims en route to Canterbury Cathedral. A literary classic, the work’s genius lies in the interaction between the tales and the framing story.
3.   English philosopher and statesman Thomas More pens Utopia1516 satirizing British life in a story of a mythical, perfect society. More’s moral beliefs later cost him his life; after failing to support King Henry VIII’s break from Rome, More is executed.

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Socio-Political Background of Shakespeare’s Times

Every man in a sense is the product of his age and since Shakespeare was a man, he must have represented his age. This is not to say that he did not exceed his age for that would be to strip him of his native genius, the indelible mark of which is impressed forever in the history of world literature. It is just to point out that such a remarkable man represented in his person and works a very remarkable age, Elizabethan England.

Thursday, July 6, 2017

Kafka's “The Metamorphosis”: Loneliness, Frustration, and Oppressive Guilt Seen through Existentialism and Surrealism

Kafka’s work, like all the best literature, is multidimensional can mean different things to different people. As such his Metamorphosis is so rich that we can find many deeper meanings. Aabye Kierkegaardian existentialism and surrealism- the realm of dreams and the unconscious mind shape the Kafka's Metamorphosis to put forth the loneliness, frustration, and oppressive guilt of an individual threatened by anonymous forces beyond his comprehension or control.

Friday, June 23, 2017

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 105

A Set of Objective Questions & Answers
Here is some kind of random stuff for the test with the sole purpose of time management. 

1. Match the List I with List II
List I
List II
1 Dr. Johnson says
A . “Life is not a series of gig lamps symmetrically arranged; life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us from the beginning of consciousness to the end.”

2 The Mistakes of a Night
B fictional biography
3 Oscar Wilde
C “There is no moral purpose in Shakespeare”
4 Cavalier poets
D   first used by Swift  in The Battle of the Books
5 Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus
E Geoffrey Chaucer 
6 The phrase ‘Sweetness and Light’
F sub-title of She Stoops to Conquer
7 Lord Peter’s forcibly cutting of a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor’s hair
G not a member of the ‘pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood’
8"Father of English Poetry" 
H an elegy written on the death of John Keats
9 Adonis
IThe Rape of the Lock
10 Modern Fiction, Virginia Woolf
J band of poets in 17th Century who supported Charles I.  They are Ben Jonson, Thomas Carew, Richard Lovelace, John Suckling, and Robert Herrick.

Ans: 1C, 2 F,3G,4J ,5B,6D,7I,8E,9H,10A

Tuesday, June 20, 2017

Major Functions of Creative Commercial Writing

What is Creative commercial writing?

In the broad perspective of language and the functions, what it performs, creative commercial writing is the very superior market genius in it. Look at the Ads in the publishing media or even in the domain of paid review or writing, millions are involved- they run after the money not for the name or fame of the Poetic Muse. Writing and creative commercial writing, though closely related, are not exactly the same. Both are art involving using the thought process to produce eligible words or sentences. While every normal human being writes, not every normal human being makes creative commercial writing always. Anything that proceeds out of the eligible words could be regarded as writing. Creative commercial writing goes beyond this, as it involves conveying a particular message to a particular reader at a given time in such a way that the said reader gets the message clearly. This is difficult to determine, since we do not have access to one another’s minds. However, the kind of feedback given during and after a creative commercial writing could be a gauge of this. Creative commercial writing could, therefore, be seen as a projected writing. This presupposes a writer giving out information to a reader that has bought specifically to read from him/her. Notice that a creative commercial writing could be both subjective and objective. Whichever the type, all creative commercial writings share some inalienable features, which we shall consider shortly. A good creative commercial writing requires a good creative commercial writer.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 104

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & AnswersUGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK 

1.  Pamela by Richardson: Novel as a popular genre began with Richardson's Pamela in 1740.

2.   But the journey of Novel began in 14’Th and 15’Th centuries in the process of formation in the form of romantic tales based upon adventures and romantic episodes. Malory's- Morte D'Arthur ; Chaucer’s- The Canterbury Tales ; Thomas More's- Utopia; Sidney's –Arcadia; Lodge's- Rosalynde; Greene's- Pandosto ; John Bunyan’s- The Pilgrim's Progress and  The Life and Death of Mr. Badman  (Other contributed: Lyly, More ,Bacon Delony, Dekker and Nashe)

Actability of William Shakespeare’s “King Lear”

To see Lear acted, to see an old man tottering about the stage with a walking stick, turned out of doors by his daughters in a rainy night, has nothing in it but what is painful and disgusting. We want to take him into shelter and relieve him. That is all the feeling which the acting of Lear ever produced in me. But the Lear of Shakespeare cannot be acted. ……………………Lear is essentially impossible to be represented on a stage.”- On the tragedies of Shakespeare by Charles Lamb from The Reflector 1810-1811

King Lear has been variously described as Shakespeare s greatest achievement, his finest specimen of deepest tragedy and sometimes even as the best of his plays. Few demur with the first two descriptions but with regard to the last, there is much debate and division among the critics and laity alike. The’ debate seems to formulate itself clearly from a criticism of Charles Lamb, which it is necessary to quote in some detail for a proper discussion of the question. It runs thus: “Lear is essentially impossible to be represented on a stage…… The greatness of Lear is not in its corporeal dimension, but in intellectual the explosions of his passion are terrible as a volcano: they are storms turning up and disclosing to the bottom that sea, his mind, with all its vast riches……on the stage we see nothing but corporeal infirmities and weaknesses, the impotence of rage; while we read it, we see not Lear, but we are Lear.” Lamb might have stated the extreme case against the actability of King Lear but he is not alone and there are facts to show that this great achievement of Shakespeare did not enjoy high popularity.

What is the Meaning of Children's Literature? Why is it Important that Children should Read Literature in School?

 It is a matter of variable answer to the question of if a child in your class be his own judge of what to read on not. Teachers and parents differ on the issue. Some say that a child need help, guidance, censorship in choosing books to read. Children must be instructed that few books they have to read and some are to get out of them. In many ways literature have a part to play in developing reading skills among the pupil? And for that there are many steps that you will undergo to stimulate readiness and willingness for every student in the class to read literature.

Approaches to Teaching Writing: Process Writing

Process writing, as the name suggests, focuses on the process of writing rather than on the final product. This involves teaching students about the stages involved in writing; i.e. the process. The aim is to help students see each stage as being important and to dedicate time to each of them. The teacher’s role is to guide students through the stages one uses when writing. The stages are: Brainstorming and noting down any ideas connected to the topic. Deciding from the brainstormed list which ideas are the most relevant to the topic, task or title. Deciding which order to put those ideas in. This can be done in the form of a plan or a mind map. Preparation of the first draft; the focus at this stage is organization of the piece of writing. This doesn’t mean that grammar and accuracy are not important; it just means that they are not the focus at this stage.

Monday, June 19, 2017

English Fiction in the Seventeenth Century: Reflection on Daniel Defoe and Samuel Richardson

 In the seventeenth century the English readers of fiction were chiefly supplied with material for reading by France where there had arisen a school of writers who told at great length the stories of several half-historical heroes. But a notable contribution to the development of the modern English novel was John Bunyan’s book, The Pilgrim’s Progress, in which a common type of story was adapted to the religious life Bunyan’s pilgrim wanders through the world like the knight-errant or the Spanish rogue, meeting adventures. Like the knight the pilgrim has a high purpose. Like the rogue he mingles with people of every kind and reflects in his journey the sights and interests of English country life. An equally important work was Bunyan’s autobiography Grace Abounding. One of the chief elements of the novel is the study of character, and in this work by Bunyan the novelist has often found his most genuine material in the literature of confessions.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Key Elements to Consider in the Teaching of Writing

Writing is a productive skill and, as such, the way we treat it in class has some similarities with the teaching and learning of speaking. The focus of this post belongs to written assignments and creative writing; we will not cover written exercises that are designed to practice a language point.
The key elements to consider in the teaching of writing are:

Tuesday, May 30, 2017

Plot is the Soul of Tragedy: One of the Aristotelian Constituent Parts of Tragedy from "Poetics"

  Aristotle has enumerated six constituent parts of tragedy-Plot, Character, Thought, Diction, Song and Spectacle. The most important of these, is the Plot. The structure of the incidents, the arrangements of things done-that exactly, is what he means by Plot. Aristotle has subordinated character to plot, because he conceives of tragedy as an imitation, not of men, but of an action and of life, as life, consists in action. According to Aristotle, the plot is the underlying principle of a tragedy, as it were; the very soul of it, Plot gives meaning, vigour and vitality to the play.

Monday, May 29, 2017

Hamlet: Shakespeare’s Tragic Reading of Life, the Psychological Book of the Mental and Moral Nature of Man: Comparative and Correlated Analysis

An interrogation of the critical utterances that have accumulated during a century of eager Shakespearian study would doubtlessly place Hamlet upon a pinnacle as the extreme and most characteristic expression of the poet’s tragic mood. One need not be concerned to challenge the judgment, although it probably owes something to the consonance of the subject-matter o the play with the intellectual history of the century itself ; its spiritual upheaval, the paralysis of will that for a time inevitably proceeded from its blurred and uncertain vision of the ultimate tendency of things. It is not without consequence that the modern world has read Shakespeare through the spectacles of Coleridge. But, while criticism has lost its interest in the allocation of superlatives, it cannot allow Hamlet to be summed up as ‘characteristic’ of Shakespearian tragedy without a distinction.

Sunday, May 28, 2017

“A novel is in its broadest definition a persona, a direct impression of life.” -Henry James’s concept of “The Art of Fiction”

Henry James who dedicated his life to the writings of novels and short stories was formidable literary critic as well. He wrote much on the art of fiction and what he has written in his essays and prefaces is most illuminating to a student of novels. Among the critical essays that set forth the views of Henry James must be mentioned criticism and The Art of Fiction a controversy with H.G. Wells whom, in spite of their close friendship, Henry James differed of views on literature and art.

Shaping of a Critic, T. S. Eliot: the Weight of both the Western and Eastern Mysticism and Literature

“This is the way the world ends
Not with a bang but a whimper.”
T. S. Eliot (1888 - 1965)
U.S.-born British poet and playwright.
"The Hollow Men"

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965), American-born writer, who is regarded as one of the greatest poets of the 20th century, carries the weight of both the Western and Eastern mysticism and Literature. A propounder of the depersonalization theory Eliot may be taken as the most autobiographical poet of the twentieth century in any language.

His early family life has great significance in the making of the poet. The primary channel of transmission of culture is the family no man wholly escapes from the kind, or wholly surpasses the degree, of culture which he acquired from his early environment. At any rate some of the pessimism which flourished in Eliot’s early poetry may have derived from his closer contact with New England’s Life in his youth. The child Eliot was also irked by the austerity of Unitarianism which lacked the picturesque elements of most Christian creeds.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Delight and Utility in Literature

Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal.
T. S. Eliot (1888 - 1965)
U.S.-born British poet and playwright.
The Sacred Wood, "Philip Massinger"
Literature is valued in various ways. Some think of ‘pure’ literature or pure poetry. Horace analyses the function of poetry by the terms dulce et utile. (Delight and Utility). Longinus like Plato emphasizes the sublimity in poetry as conducing to the production of feelings of greatness and grandeur. Plato indicates the moral function of poetry. But no critic wants poetry to be homiletic or didactic. Aristotle wants purification of feelings through the structure of a poem or tragedy. Sidney following Scaliger indicates the function of poetry as delightful instruction. The philosopher teaches by precept, the historian by example, but the poet teaches through delight, through exciting the feelings and thrilling the senses. Poetry, according to Sidney conduces to virtue. Wordsworth says: “didacticism is my abhorrence”. But for him, the pleasure of poetry is of an exalted kind. He regards poetry as the most philosophical of all writings. “It is the breath and finer spirit of all knowledge, the impassioned expression that is in the countenance of all science”. Poetry divorced from morality is valueless. Poetry is highest music wedded to highest thoughts. Literature transmits feelings and ideas that exalt the mind, quicken the sensibility and widen the vision. Arnold characterizes poetry as criticism of life in terms of truth and beauty. Eliot who is the exponent of the theory of impersonality in poetry posits the moral function of poetry. “Poetry is not a substitute for philosophy or theology or religion, it has its own function. But as this function is not intellectual but emotional, it cannot be defined adequately in intellectual terms. We can say that it provided ‘consolation’, strange consolation, which is provided equally by writers so different as Dante and Shakespeare.” The Waste Land which is the most objective and impersonal of all writings suggests a message through the diagnosis of the decay and deadness of civilization.

Monday, May 1, 2017

Death of Cordelia in the Light of Poetic Justice in William Shakespeare’s "King Lear"

 Poetic justice is a sort of ideal justice, which the poets and critics are expected to impart in apportioning rewards and Punishments to the characters they create. It is an ideal world of justice where crime and punishment exist, bound more of less by a nexus of transcendental mathematics. As an idea, however, it is too bookish and fails to explain the wicked world in which men and women live and die. It thinks more of the world as it should be than the world as it is. The world of daily existence is a world where the wicked prosper and evil thrive while the good is wasted and ignored. Such a world provides stuff for tragedies of Shakespeare who accepts the world as it is and King Lear is no exception to it.

Sunday, February 26, 2017

An Introduction to Linguistics and Applied Linguistics: A, B, C

G. H. Lewes in The Study of Psychology says, “Just as birds have wings, man has language. The wings give the bird its peculiar attitude for aerial locomotion. Language enables man’s intelligence and passions of acquire their peculiar characters of intellect and sentiment.”

Whatever else people do when they come together—whether they play, flight, make automobiles, or makes love—they talk. We live in world of languages; we talk to our parents, friends, family- , friends, relatives, our teachers and our neighbours. We talk to ' rickshaw-pullers, strangers, bus drivers, co-passengers in trains. To talk face to face and over telephone and everyone responds with more talk. Television, radio and internet chat in computer further swell this torrent of Words. We talk to our pets and sometimes to ourselves. We are the only animal to do so—that talks or uses words appropriately.

Mansions of ‘Quality’ in School Education : English Language Situation

English is needed as a supporting languages—the discussion about language teaching would remain incomplete if another thing remains uncluttered, i.e. learning of another language apart from mother language. Nowadays another supporting language is taught in the school besides the mother tongue all over the world. It is necessary to learn a second language in order to maintain a link not only in the international level but also in the interstate level.

An Analysis of H. W. Longfellow’s Daybreak: Fundamental Human Relationships with Nature and Their Consequences

'Daybreak' taken from Birds of Passage, a collection of his poems by H. W. Longfellow is basically a nature poem lyrical in tone. The activity of sea wind blowing cheerfully, making the components of the environment respond to its flow at dawn is described in the poem. Keeping in mind the flow of the wind, the poet applies a breezy style to the poem. Longfellow has personified the sea wind and presented the poem in form of a dialogue.

Sunday, February 5, 2017

The theme of ‘freedom’ and ‘providence’ in Shakespeare ‘The Tempest’

The Tempest which is certainly much more than spectacle or story of a magician’s supernatural dominance over human beings and spirits is one of the greatest plays of Shakespeare. It has considerable suspense. The conflict that makes drama can be seen in Prospero, and its resolution comes, not so much of physical, as of moral and mental suffering. The two functions of the rational soul, speculative and, ratical, at last fuse. The former has prepared ‘the mynde and (made) it apt to receive virtue’ the latter wills and acts virtuously. ‘Degree’ is preserved: reason, the distinctive attribute of man, triumphs over passion. When Ariel, who locks human sympathy but who recognizes suffering when he sees it, reports the sorrowful plight of Gonzalo, and the penitence and grief of Alonso, the ‘enemy...inveterate’, Prospero meets the challenge.”

Impression of the Traveler in Walter De La Mare’s “The Listeners”

The traveler in Walter De La Mare’s The Listeners has been presented as a representative from the world of men, who has come to the abode of spirits. But instead of giving full details about him, the poet has drawn him simply with a few suggestive touches, so that there is a lot of vagueness about this nocturnal traveler. He has undertaken a somewhat challenging journey to a lonely house in the midst of a forest at the dead of night, to keep his promise. This indicates that he is a man of word, who knows how to honour an appointment, and that he is a courageous and dauntless sort of person, not at all afraid of meeting unearthly creatures at unearthly hours, at a place far away from human habitation.

Sunday, January 22, 2017

Imagery in William Shakespeare’s Plays: “We should see each play as an extended metaphor”

 Imagery in a play has certain functions to fulfill mainly to compensate dramatic presentation for the heavy liabilities inherent in its form. This is more so in the case of poetic drama whether of ancient Aeschylus, Elizabethan Shakespeare or modern Synge. The poetic drama for its success must cultivate the virtue of intensity and compactness—a virtue which is very much dependent on functional imagery for its breadth and scope, for rousing in us an acute awareness of the broader perspective against the backdrop of which the dramatic events actually occur, Again, drama, while clinging to its ongoing motion can convey the charge carried by its imagery to achieve a more detailed exposition or fuller elaboration of a character or a theme ma short time, which is not possible in the case of reflective verse and prose with its leisurely pace and descriptive method. These functions of imagery in poetic drama are equally observable at all times and climes in the western world. According to Una Ellis-Fermor, these “may be seen at work in the Greek drama as in that of the Elizabethans, at intervals in the drama of the con-tinent down to the present day and in England again since the revival of the poetic drama in the twentieth century.” (The Frontiers of Drama).

“Character is Destiny.”- Is this a Completely Satisfying Description of the Tragic Vision of Life in the Tragedies of William Shakespeare? (The Role of Fate)

 As flies to wanton boys, are we to the gods.
 They kill us for their sport.” King Lear: Act 4, Scene 1

The supernatural even when treated by a genius like Shakespeare sometimes appears to offer a crude method in tragedy for achieving that universality which remains the main tragic concern of a dramatist. The appearance of witches and ghosts as in Macbeth and Hamlet may not fully satisfy the modern audience, somewhat free of primeval impulses. Perhaps a better method employed to secure this universal effect lies in the sense of fate which is represented in a number of tragedies, both ancient and modern. In Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus, we feel the presence of some force constantly baffling human effort. This sense of fate again appears in Shakespeare in a different, modified and perhaps refined form.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

"Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar & Literature. I write this blog to instill that passion in you."