AD's English Literature : February 2013

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Journey of English Drama in late 18th century: From Emotional, Sentimental and Moralistic to Reality

The Time of Satire: Johnson's friend Oliver Goldsmith was a curious mixture of the old and the new. His novel The Vicar of Wakefield (1766) begins with dry humor but passes quickly into tearful calamity. His poem The Deserted Village (1770) is in form reminiscent of Pope, but in the tenderness of its sympathy for the lower classes it foreshadows the romantic age. In such plays as She Stoops to Conquer (1773) Goldsmith, like the younger Richard Sheridan in his School for Scandal (1777), demonstrated an older tradition of satirical quality and artistic adroitness that was to be anathema to a younger generation-a play about gossip, hypocrisy, and false sentimentality. 

Augustan “Mock-epic”: Form and Style Burlesquing the Serious Epic

Mock-epic – a work which employs manner, the high and serious tone and the supernatural machinery of epic to treat a trivial subject and theme in such a way as to make both subject and theme ridiculous – almost a case of breaking a butterfly upon a wheel. It is a type of epic derived from the serious epic, which satirizes contemporary ideas or conditions in a form and style burlesquing the serious epic.  By extension the epic mode is also mocked but this is a secondary consideration. Noted mock epics include The Rape of the Lock (1712) by the English poet Alexander Pope.

The acknowledged masterpiece in this genre is Pope’s The Rape of the Lock (1712, 1714), which he himself describes as a heroic-comical poem. His subject is the estrangement between two families resulting from Lord Petre’s snipping off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor’s hair. With faultless skill Pope minifies the epic in proportion to the triviality of his theme:
  What dire Offence from am’rous Causes springs,
What mighty Contests rise from trivial Things
I sing – This Verse to Caryll, Musel is due;
This, ev’n Belinda may vouchasafe to view:
   Slight is the subject; but not so the Praise,
 If She inspire, and He approve my Lays.
  Say what strange Motive, Goddessl cou’d compel
   A well-bred Lord t’assault a gentle Belle?

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Elements of Shakespearean Comedies: A Cinderella of the Muses

“All I need to make a comedy is a park, a policeman and a pretty girl.”- 
 Charlie Chaplin (1889 - 1977)
 British actor and director
 My Autobiography

Comedy, a universal form of expression and a major dramatic genre that is intended to amuse, has always been considered inferior to tragedy. She has remained a Cinderella of the Muses, as Gordon says. There has been an awakening of interest in comedy in the recent times. Meredith was of the view that comedy (High Comedy) appeals to the intelligence – “aims not at our ribs or armpits but at our heads”.

William Shakespeare’s Audience: “The Poets Lived to Please and They Must Please to Live.”

It was Jonson who said that the poets lived to please and they must please to live. There is no truer truism than this epigram. A dramatist particularly must either please or perish. He cannot wait like the novelist or other sorts of artists for the verdict of posterity. The present is his immediate concern and he must for his sheer survival as a playwright make his peace with the popular tastes and habits. Shakespeare was undoubtedly a popular playwright and a great entertainer of his spectators on whose patronage he and his company depended for their fortune and prosperity. 

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Shakespeare Attempts to Master the Problem of Time in His Sonnets ( Sonnet Sequence)



William Shakespeare confronted Time, which he called all – devouring with some trepidation as we all mortals do. Time is a great healer and it is a greater destroyer for it takes all in its eternal sway. The question is when the great bard of Avon faced his moment of truth, how did he think of tackling Time? Shakespeare’s first weapon in the battle against Time was the biological perpetuation through marriage as evidenced in the first 17 sonnets addressed to the fair friend. Read More William Shakespeare   His second was love of a transcendental variety and the third weapon consisted of his verse that was to be immortal and related to the running theme of compensation.

Monday, February 25, 2013

Elements of Shakespearean Tragedies: Greatest Achievements of Dramatic Artistry


"I hope you agree that, in studying a Shakespearian drama, we must...do our best to understand, exactly what Shakespeare's dramatic purposes are, before we even begin to explore how the play came to be constructed."-
Dover Wilson (1881 - 1969)
 

The Hero though they introduce a long list of dramatic personae, Shakespeare’s tragedies are ultimately concerned with only one character – the hero – whose fortunes are its real theme. Shakespeare’s heroes are among the most powerful studies of human nature in all literature and appropriately stand as the greatest achievements of his dramatic artistry. The other characters, though sufficiently interesting in themselves, serve only to provide the links in the story of his fate. 

Self knowledge in William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night



Self knowledge is perhaps the most significant theme in so-called joyous comedy (begins with music and ends with a song) of William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night. At the start of the play only Feste, a singing fool and Viola, disguised as a page, for her master, the Duke Orsino have a reasonable degree of Self knowledge. Orsino believes that he is in love with Olivia, but the falsity of this belief is shown by the fact that when they finally do meet they are arguing within a few seconds. 

Orsino never goes to meet Olivia, but sends messages to her through others, and it is the idea of being in love that attracts him. His lack of Self knowledge means that he cannot come to a realistic appreciation of anyone else's characters. It takes most of the play for him to realize that he is really in love with Viola. Olivia believes her desire to withdraw from the world is a result of grief at the loss of her father and brother, whilst in reality it is fear of a cruel world and a desire to lock her away from danger that prompts her. She does not realize this about herself, and so is defenseless against the first person (Viola) who dares to challenge her and present her with a slice of the real world. It is a subsidiary theme of the play that those who do best in life are those who face it and live it to the full, not those who try to hide away. In a tragedy Olivia’s lack of judgment would lead to her death; as it is, she was to suffer, but is allowed to fall in love where that love can be met by someone who will prove a true husband to her.

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Best Guide for William SHAKESPEARE'S “JULIUS CAESAR”: Details of Facts- University Notes



Composition - Genre Source- Plot - Political Questions - Who is the Hero? - Verse and Prose


Composition: Written about 1599 & performed at the Globe Theatre by William Shakespeare’s acting company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men.

Genre: Julius Caesar is tragic play about political rivalries- full title is The Tragedy of Julius Caesar. This had been a red play; for it had been a tremendous struggle of forces.

Source: The play is based on translations of Plutarch’s Parallel Lives (1579), specifically from the passages on the lives of Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), Marcus Brutus (Brutus), and Julius Caesar, whose military and political exploits and subsequent assassination were subjects of considerable interest during the Renaissance. Although Caesar himself is not the hero of the play, he is the catalyst of the action and the person around whom the plot revolves.

Men That Keep Attention: Life and Contribution of Toru Dutt: First Indian English Poet Extensively to Use Indian Myths



Born in 1856 in a well-known westernized family in Kolkata, Toru Dutt has the advantage of good education and happy family environment. When Trou is six, the entire family embraces Christianity. Luckily, in Taru’s care, the conversion to Christianity is neither violent nor does it result in an automatic rejection to Hindu Culture. Read More Men That Keep Attention  Indeed, Toru may be reedited with being the first Indian English poet extensively to use Indian myths. Occasionally, her Christianity does surface in her renderings, but by and large, it is as a sympathetic insertion Indian Culture that she writes. Toru mainly writes in English and French. H.A.L Fisher writes,"this did of the green valley of the Ganges have by sheer force of native genius earned for herself the right to be enrolled in the great fellowship of English poets.”

Model English Note -5 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations



Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30

  1.How do you classify Ode to Autumn and Ode To The West Wind as an Ode?   
          
Ans- Keats' Ode To Autumn is Horatian, while Shelley's Ode To The West Wind is Pindaric in nature. In contrast to the passion, visionary boldness, and formal language of Ode To the West Wind, Keats Ode To The Autumn is calm, meditative and colloquial. In their stanza structure. Ode To Autumn contains shorter repeated stanza form than Ode To The West Wind.

2. Present in your own words the contrast of time In the   Wild Swans at cooled.  
                                     
Ans- Yeats has observed that during the interval of nineteen years, i.e. since the first visit to cooled park, the phenomena of swans with its variegated beauty has and delighting. But the impact of time might be a changing factor in his near future when he would feel hooded of such a sight. Thus time acts differently in nature and the poet.

Friday, February 22, 2013

John Dryden's MacFlecknoe: University Notes

"All humane things are subject to decay,
And, when Fate summons, Monarchs must obey."
 MacFlecknoe: Study Circle
Satire-->Mock heroic --->poetic style As a poet--->Coronation--->speech --->Shadwell as a writer--->Description Scene.--->Character Of Shadwell -->Imagery--->Allusion
  
Shadwell as a writer: Although Shadwell has been satirized and reduced to a manikin , the fact that Shadwell was in realty a literary rival and competitive dramatist. Shadwell openly acknowledged his literary feud with the English poet John Dryden. His satire The Medal of John Bayes (1682) contains his strongest attack against Dryden, who counteracted with Mac Flecknoe, or a Satire on the True Blue Protestant Poet, T.S. (1682). Shadwell succeeded Dryden as poet laureate in 1688. In his own right made Dryden harp on what he deemed to line literary flaws or demerits. Such remarks regarding Shadwell’s lacuna are interspersed throughout the text of MacFlecknoe though they reach their concentrated essence, climactic perfection in the final coronation speech of Flecknoe.

Satan in Paradise Lost (BK-I): Perplexing and Ambiguous Study



There would be no difficulty if Satan were simply an Iago; the difficulty arises because he is a Macbeth. Satan is like the supreme villain Iago. the Satanic sins are pride, envy, and wart and Satan’s good qualities are inflexibility, determination, magnificent expression,  a vivid imagination, his capacity to bear  suffering, human contradictions.  So he is villainies' hero and heroic villain. Even the reader’s expression is equivocal.    
                                                                           
Satan is almost indubitably the most perplexing and ambiguous character in the annals of epic poetry. An angle with infinite talent and immense possibilities, he is yet an angel reduced to villainy by his immense ambition. The angel becomes a devil, the fairest of all becomes the most macabre of all, the seraphim turns in to serpent in (book-ix of) Paradise Lost. Milton was a child of the Renaissance as much as Bacon and Marlow, and it is perhaps inheritable that like all Renaissance heroes, the Miltonic Satan would be composite of the opposites. A Renaissance hero is necessarily a derided being, torn between his aspiration and his achievement, between the action and the fruition. 

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Jawaharlal Nehru's Literary Outputs Have an Ample Display of the Open-mindedness, Deep Insight and Prolific Scholarship

"At the stroke of the midnight hour, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the sound of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance."-Referring to Indian independence by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru
 
Introduction: Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) is not only a great political figure and a champion of liberty but also a keen observer of men and manners of India and of the world. His literary outputs have an ample display of the open-mindedness, deep insight and prolific scholarship. Before we take a close scrutiny of his literary works, the bare fiats about Nehru’s life can be told quickly. Nehru, born to rich Kashmiri parents, had an exclusive education both at home and abroad. At Harrow and Cambridge and the Inner Temple he received his higher education. Soon after his return from England he plunged into the nationalistic struggle, went to Gail a number of times, became president of the Indian National Congress, Took a leading part in the negotiations that culminated in the freedom of the country and heeded the Interim Government. He was prime Minister of free India from August 1947 till his death on 27 May 1964.

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

Chaucer as a Chronicler of His Time with Special Reference to ‘The Canterbury Tales’



"Wommen desiren to have sovereynetee
As wel over hir housbond as hir love."

Geoffrey Chaucer (1343? - 1400)
 
 The Canterbury Tales is Geoffrey Chaucer’s most mature work. It is a collection of tales with a lengthy prologue. In fact, the shrine of Canterbury was visited by a group of pilgrims and on there journey it had been planned that each one will tale four stories together. There were thirty pilgrims including the author. But instead of original plan of 120 tales, only 24 are finished, of which two are interrupted before the end and two broken off soon after they begin. The group of pilgrims include a wide cross- section of English society: a knight and a squire (his son), professional men like the doctor and the lawyer, a merchant, a ship-man, various representatives of the religious orders like the prioress, the make, the friar, the parson  several craftsmen, and so on.

Monday, February 18, 2013

Model English Note -4 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations




Difficulty Level:  Post Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
 1. What is called symphony? What type of symphony do you find from ode to autumn?
Ans- Symphony means a long complex musical composition. 
  Ode To Autumn is superb in its musical effects. The first stanza of the lyric is a symphony of colour, the second a symphony of movement, the third a symphony of sound.
2. What is called shyness thesis? Give an example for eats’ ode To A Nightingale. 
                                                      
Ans- Synesthesia signifies the experience of two or more kinds of sensation when only one senses is being stimulated. For example, Keats in Ode To A Nightingale calls for a drought of wine, that in , he calls for a drink tasting of sight, colour, motion, sound, and heat.

Sunday, February 17, 2013

Critical Estimate of Sri Aurobindo Ghosh’s Contribution to Indian English Poetry




Introduction: Sri Aurobindo Ghosh (1872-1950), Indian nationalist and mystic philosopher, ranks among the greatest personalities of modern India. He is a multifaceted genius-a political revolutionary, social reformer, historian, educationist, philosopher, yogi and above all, man of letters. He is a journalist, editor, literary critic, linguist, translator, essayist, short story writer, dramatist and more than all of these, a great poet.
His Learning:  K.R. Srinivasa  says that ‘Aurobindo was not merely a writer who happened to write in English but really an English writer’. In fact, after spending his early days in England and then retuning to Baroda he reorients his western studies with the studies of Sanskrit and modern Indian Languages. By the process he gains contact with his Indian heritage through a program of rigorous scholarship. He gains a deep insight into Indian culture and civilization. This learning moulds his poetry and philosophy.

Saturday, February 16, 2013

Anthem for Doomed Youth – Wilfred Owen’s Attitude Towards War


"All the poet can do today is to warn. That is why the true Poets must be truthful."
Wilfred Owen (1893 - 1918)


Introduction: Wilfred Owen wrote in his Preface to his Volumes of War Poems published in 1819 “above all I am not concerned with poetry – my subject is war and the pity of war. The poetry is in the pity.” By stating that he is not concerned with poetry, Owen is obviously objecting to the aesthetic poetry which was written for poetry’s sake. Owen had a decided message through his poetry which is about the pity of war. It is in his message of the monstrosity of war where in lies poetic truth for him. Anthem for Doomed youth is one of Owen’s most famous war poems, written at Craiglockhart in October 1917. The title of the poem was suggested by another war poet Siegfried Sassoon and the word ‘another’ heralding the poem’s solemnity and the word ‘doomed’ addressing the millions dead or yet to die. Originally, entitled grief The Anthem, is indeed an elegiac lamentation for the young men slaughtered as cattle in the war.

The Greater Sinner – Arthur Dimmesdale or Roger Chillingworth in The Scarlet Letter ?


"A bodily disease, which we look upon as whole and entire within itself, may, after all, be but a symptom of some ailment in the spiritual part."
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 - 1864)

The novel The Scarlet Letter tells the story of Hester who is guilty of adultery and has to wear the letter ‘A’ in scarlet colour on her bosom. The adultery is over and done with before the book begins; it is a tangle after the event’, as Herbert Norman calls it. In the long run of Hester’s suffering with her daughter pearl, her husband Roger Chillingworth and her lover Arthur Dimmesdale, the guilty priest has considerable share of sin.

Model English Test -1 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations



Difficulty Level: Post Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
  1. Describe, in brief, the beauty of the poet’s friend as it is depicted in the sonnet ‘Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day’?
  2. “The night has been unruly.” – Why does the speaker think that ‘the night has been unruly”? Why do you think that the earth was unruly?
  3. Why does Louka say she is not ashamed of eavesdropping?
  4. What techniques have been adopted by Synge to create a supernatural atmosphere in ‘Rider to The Sea’?
  5. Conflict is the essence of drama. Do you find any conflict in Synge’s ‘Riders to The Sea’?
  6. How long was Christabel under the influence of Geraldine? What happened after the allotted time was over?
  7. “I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!

Friday, February 15, 2013

Remembrance: Henry Louis Vivian Derozio –An Overview of His Poetry (1809-1831)

  • Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, our first Indian English poet, is , paradoxically, remembered as a ‘Forgotten New Anglo Indian Poet’ which is the subtitle of the only available collection of his work, Poems of Henry Louis Vivian Derozio published by Oxford University Press. Derozio’s brief , but brilliant, career is a fascinating subjects of study. 
  • By birth Derozio was an Anglo-Indian, born of an Indo-Portuguese father and English mother. he received an English education at David Drummond’s Academy. 
  • By the early influence of his mother and teacher, establishing the experiences which went in to the Fauquier of Jungheera (1828), his long narrative poem. From his early age of 16, he contributed to the India Gazette. 

Anti- romantic Attitude in Major Barbara: As a playwright Shaw Refuse to Write a Single Line for the Sake of Art Alone


Here is no wicked side: life is all one.”-Major Barbara

As a playwright Shaw refuse to write a single line for the sake of art alone.

G. B. Shaw's plays are intended to expose the hollowness of all social institutions which have outlived utility. Bent on expelling the ‘heresy’ of romance from life and art alike, Shaw always maintains a rigidly anti-romantic stance.. As an iconoclast he dismantles all impractical idealism and combats silly sentimentality. In Major Barbara too Shaw reviews ideas like religious faith, corrupt money, crime and punishment bustard etc. from a realistic point.

Thursday, February 14, 2013

Model English Note -3 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations


Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr 
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
1.      What consolation does Shelley find at the end of the lyric Ode To A Skylark?
Ans- Ode To A Skylark is pervaded by a sense of disillusionment with life. The poet dares not hope for a state of things when men can live as happy as birds. But as a consolation, it he can capture the skylark’s fine, careless rapture in his poetry; he might touch celestial joy and happiness.Read More School Service Commission

2.      How does the west wind affects differently in nature?
Ans- It is the west wind that purifies the woods, so does the wind sweeten the sky, clarify the ocean, and make stronger and sounder the heart of man.Read More Teaching English (TEFL) 

3.      Why is Ulysses disenchanted with his present life? Does the word ‘idle’ suggest that he is self critical?
Ans- Ulysses is an indomitable quested animated by a Thirst for new knowledge and experience. Bu now confined in unexciting and boring Ithaca, he calls himself ‘idle king’ self civically with a sense of contempt and sheer. He hastened to unbind the present state of confinement in idleness to the realm of liberty of soul.  

The Entire Procession of Epic Heroes: Satan of Dauntless Courage and Inflexible Power of the Will


"The lower still I fall, only supreme
in misery; such joy ambition finds."

John Milton (1608 - 1674)



The entire procession of epic heroes ranging from  those of  Iliad, Odyssey ,Beowulf, Ramayana and Mahabharata as well as the later day ones like Faerie Queen, Hyperion, Divine Comedy and The Dynasts are unlikely to reveal themselves to be as perforating, intriguing, paradoxical and contradictory as Satan in Paradise Lost, the angel turned demon. 

Satan is  a proud of contradictions not only because of his transformation from a Seraphim to a villain, from a magnificently glorious appearance to a smoke-laden figure, lent also license even in hell, he is capable of evoking the most contraries responses from readers and critics alike. Although to many he is the apocalypse of evil, the personification of sin, the eternal heretic and desecration, to others he is quite the opposite, to Hazlitt, “Satan is not the principle of malignity or the abstract love of evil” to Shelly he is a “moral being” and to many others he embodies the justifiable rebellion and forthrightness which all men should afire to.

Experiencing the Journey To The Light House, The Journey, The Dinner Party, The Summer House


"I do not believe that she wrote one word of fiction which does not put out boundaries a little way; one book which does not break new ground and form part of the total experiment."

Susan Hill
        
The Journey to the Lighthouse(Not as Pleasant as the Children has Expected): The Journey to the island, where the lighthouse stood was not as pleasant as the children has expected. They had never really liked their father; he had taken too little time to understand them. He was short and sharp when they did things which looked foolish to him, through their actions were perfectly comprehensible to the son and the daughter. James especially exacted to the blamed caustically and pointlessly if the crossing were slow or not satisfactory in some other way for the he had been delegated to handle the sheets and the tiller of the boat.

Tuesday, February 12, 2013

Men That Keep Attention: Life and Contribution of R.K .Narayan: The of Harbinger Indian English Fiction


During the Gandhian Age (1920-1947) there has been a tremendous upheaval in the political, social and economic spheres. As there has been an unprecedented awakening among the every section of society, the major triumvirate of Indian English fiction- Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Naranayan and Raja Rao- start to revolutionize the writing by newer ideas and ideals. Ordinary men and women come alive in these pages. The sympathetic understanding of the middle class, seeking extraordinary in ordinary, their works comparable to the best in the genre. We will now sketch the picturesque beauty of Narayan’s work . Read More Men That Keep Attention
 
R.K. Narayan-as is the practice in south India, the two initials preceding Narayan stand respectively for the village from which Narayan’s family comes and the name of his father. R is for Rasipuram, a talucas in the district of Salem, to which Narayan’s ancestors belonged. By the time Narayan was born (10th oct, 1907), the family had moved to ,Madras. Soon after his birth, his father Krishnaswami Ayer got a job in Mysore as schoolmaster and moved there. Narayan knew only two languages- Tamil and English but having stayed so many year in Mysore could manage to understand Kannada. His early knowledge of the life and manners of South India.

Realist in Temperament and Artistic Purpose in Tom Jones: Society and Manners of 18th Century


Fielding who is a realist in temperament and artistic purpose has a deep interest in presenting the life of his time. He is concerned with the everyday of diverse state of society and he presents these in all their meanness and glory, vanity and sublimity. Rightly does cayami8na observe that ‘the quality of the realism in these novels assures them precious documentary value. Unlike Richardson whose haly - conscious aim was to evolve a superior and more refined world, fielding’s sole task was to depict the age as he saw it. Therefore he presents a vast panorama of English social life, declaring at the very outset that he was concerned with mores holmium multorum vidit or the manners of many men.

Monday, February 11, 2013

Alexander Pope Defined Man : Glorious, Ridiculous, Majestic, Pathetic, Wonder – Evoking and Contempt Provoking

"Created half to rise, and half to fall;
Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all;"

In these lines from Essay on Man, Alexander  Pope continues with the general tenor (main tune) of presenting man as an antonymic existence-comes to a resounding - climatic conclusion. He is at once glorious, ridiculous, majestic, pathetic, wonder – evoking and contempt provoking. At times though his inner nobility makes him advance towards divinity, him interim instinctive leads to bestiality. Caught between though and passion, inaction and action, stoicism and hedonism, he can neither progress nor he can recede

Sunday, February 10, 2013

‘He hangs between’ – Pope’s Summary Opinion of Man: Essay on Man

"With too much knowledge for the sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic’s pride,"

These lines belongs Pope continues to describe Man's contradictory nature through a sense of antithetical statements. ‘He hangs between’ – is pope’s summary opinion of man. Man would fain display himself as a skeptic, a pessimistic philosopher who believes that nothing can be known and yet his own knowledge of things militates against this. He would also derived to be a ‘stoic, a philosopher who believes that one must achieve a state of control and desire free existence indifferent to pain and pleasure, invariably eludes him.

The spirit may be willing, but the flesh proves weak and he succumbs to the temptation of the body. Even intellectually he is perpetually in a state of conflict, caught on the Horus of a dilemma as to whether activity is better than passivity, lab our better than slots he remains a creature perplexed in the extreme’ he ultimately begins to harbor doubts as to whether the epicurean chose of the body, The hedonistic enjoyment of the would though all our sensory faculties would be better. His also caught between the two extremes of considering himself a god and a beast. 

Saturday, February 9, 2013

SATAN in PARADISE LOST: Renaissance Hero, Paradoxical feature , Satan-Macbeth or Iago?


 The Renaissance is the rebirth of the human consciousness, the consciousness of being an individual aspiring for the infinite. The Renaissance was a breaking free from the restrained imposed by the feudal-ecclesiastical combine of the Middle Age THAT reduced human-beings to cogs in the social machinery, enforcing a struck hierarchically and  preventing upward mobility for the imaginative JOURNEY

The Renaissance was therefore the rebellion of the free mind which would seek to realize its infinite potentiality and man of  universalism. ‘Nothing less than the infinite can satisfy man’ declared Blake, the romantic imbued with the spirit of the Renaissance. Satan imbued with the same Renaissance ambition would rebel against God and thereby achieve infinite power as Troeltsch has pointed out, ‘the Renaissance spirit would exploit his circumstances, the Govt. as well as the religious machinery in order to ascend, socially, intellectually and spiritually."(The Renaissance and The Reformation) Satan too zeal outs the vulnerability and credulousness of the some of the angels to lead the astray, using all-the resources that he can- his elevated stature, his sonorous voice and his magnificent ability to lead angels into war- to regain, rediscover and for liberty.

Model English Note -2 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations




Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
 
1.What is the theme of Ode to a Skylark by Shelley?
Ans- The theme of Shelly’s lyric about the skylark is the contrast between human lives- Particularly, the life of a poet and the life of the skylark. And reflection on this contrast is prompted by the pure unalloyed happiness is the song of the bird.
2. How do you contrast the two lines from the ode to the west wind- ‘o lift two me as a wave, a leaf a ‘loud’ and ‘o wind; / It winter comes, can spring be far behind?’
Ans- As in the visible world so in poet’s soul, the wind is both destroyer and preserver. The poet wishes to be creative writer of the mass. In the last time he passes to the universal. The world old must go, a new world must come with the spring, laden with fresh sweet promises for suffering human.
3. How is Ulysses associated with the death of Tennyson’s friend Hallam?
Ans- Ulysses which was written shortly after Harlan’s death, gives Tennyson’s his felling about the keen of going forward, and bringing the struggle of life to recover the strength of mind lost owing to the poignancies of the grief for untimely death of the friend.

Thursday, February 7, 2013

Model English Note -9 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  

 

 1.What is the musical affect in Autumn
                                                                                                        
Ans- There is symphony of nature sounds in the third stanza. The songs of robins mourning sound of gnats, bleating of lamb, twittering of swallows together present the songs of autumn.
2. Why does Keats mention Lethe in Nightingale?      
                                                                                          
Ans- Lethe is one of the rivers of hell. According to Greek my theology it is known as the river of forgetfulness obscene the departed souls from the earth are dipped into the water of the Lethe in order to make them forget all the memories of their life. To forget the mundane world or to enter in to the world of Nightingale Keats wisher to sink into it.
3. How is Lucy compared to the violet?                                
                                                                                     
Ans-Lucy was, from the viewpoint of the great world, unnoticed, shy, modest, and half hidden from the eye alike the violet grown on graveyard. The violet beautiful but almost unnoticed, already half hidden in Lay’s grave, with none but the poet to grieve for the loses rightly compared.

The Canonization by John Donne: Love Poem Which Achieves its Emotional Effect Through Intellectual Predominance

TheConnotation by John Donne reveals an intellectual predominance and it is intensely personal. Through a complex network of contrasts and paradoxes, images and religious fables here in this poem the poet seeks to declare the sanctity of his love.
The composition of Donne’s poem, The Canonization is after his marriage with Anne More. It is because he in his this poem at the very outset speaks of his ruined fortune and he ascribe the blight upon his fortune to his marriage. Though he feels quite undone, he does not know any abatement in the intensity of his love for Anne. He is so lost in his amour that he does not care a hang for the cursing tongue of others and the opening line appears to be bursting with loving impulses laced with impatience and defiance: “For Gods shake hold your tongue, and let me love.” The ruling passion of his life is love and he has no regard for the riches of the world. He does not for every person who amass fortune by currying favors with the royally. In availed lone of disdain he speaks of their craving for earthly gains and forbids them to interfere with his love making:
"With wealth your mind with arts improve, 
 Take you a course, get you a place,  Or the king real, or his stamped face"

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

Riders to the Sea: Dramatic Significance of Two Sisters : Chorus in the Play?




J.M. Synge's Riders to the Sea is a short drama. Quite naturally, because of its short compass, the play does not accommodate a large number of characters. Synge, therefore, confines the number of his dramatic personae to just four. Maurya is acknowledged the central figure of the play, and next to her stands Bartley whose death marks the final catastrophe of the tragedy. The other two characters are Cathleen and Nora who despite being minor characters are of considerable dramatic significance. They are two sisters, Maurya being their mother,Bartley is their brother, the last of their six brothers. The play is concerned with the affair of a single family, consisting of four members Maurya, her two daughters and her youngest son. Nevertheless, the effect of the play is not merely one of a domestic tragedies; instead it breathes the universality that one finds in the classical tragedy, tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. Anyway, what concerns us here is neither Maurya nor Bartley. The two sisters are the centre of our attention, and we should do well to examine the dramatic significance of these two characters as the chorus in Rider to the Sea.

Isthmus of a Middle State:Man is a Mingled Creation Comprising the Poles Opposites




    "Plac’d on this isthmus of a middle state,
  A being darkly wise, and rudely great:
 With too much knowledge for the sceptic side,
  With too much weakness for the Stoic’s pride,"

These lines form Pope’s Essay On Man (Epistle - II), his most didactic poem written in the antithetical mode, and presenting man’s position in the universal scheme of things, distils the essence of Pope’s belief that man is a mingled creation comprising the poles opposites.
Since Pope had declared in the informatory lines that man should study himself, lines that man should study himself, here he proceeds to do so. When one begins to examine man one realizes that man resembles the geographical and topographical concept of the isthmus. What Pope implies is that man is the connecting link, the vacuum between the lowest and highest forms of beings. He hovers between the opposite extremes, of divinity and bestiality, between lust-fulness and spirituality, between passion and reality.

Tuesday, February 5, 2013

Model English Note -10 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: 30  
1.How is Lucy compared to star?      
                                                                                                             
Ans- From the stand point Lucy’s lover,. She is the single star; completely do mining that world, not arrogantly like the sun, but sweetly and modestly, like the star. To the poet she is the solitary star, has no rival, nor would the idea of rivalry, in her unselfconscious simply, occur to her.
2. Write a note of escapism from Keats.                                                                                                                         
 Ans- In Ode To A Nightingale poet’s secret melancholy is ass coated with the note of escapism the poet refers to  his feeling to that of a person who has drunk an opiate or a draught of vintage so that he may fade away, leaving than strafing world unscsn. Farther he thinks how happily it will be to die to the world of nightingale’s immortality.
3. What Owens’s purpose of writing Strange Meetings?                                                                                        
Ans-With a frank realism, Owen set out to present the whole reality of war the boredom, the hopelessness, the futility, the horror and above all the pity of it. With his sharp sativa here we meet the hard realities of war through the meeting of two dead soldiers.
4. Describe after Hardy the winter landscape of The Darkling Through.                          
                                     
Ans- Hardy in his poem has delineated a sharp feature of the winter landscape. At the evening time the frozen frost is everywhere. The makings are seeking household force to best the cold winter outside. As shill wind Howling, cloudy is the lands cape which has no sign of vitality everywhere.

Great Masters of National Literature



(At Classes we reach out to our students to help them with placement and customization of their knowledge so that they can not only earn the most rewards possible from their studies, but also raise their overall knowledge base. Most of our students happily display learning and utilization on their term papers, and as a result earn a combined higher career opportunity. This is great news for us; however, sometimes the improper use of our energy can really decrease our results. In this article you will see how we can take the time to strategically place and customize the time for a successful steady knowledge base in literature.)



Introduction: Each country of note has produced its national literature-Homer, Herodotus, Xenophon, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes, think what these have done to stamp upon civilization Greek life and ideals, as shown in epic, history, drama, and oration. Virgil, Horace, Plautus, Terence, Livy, Cicero the tram of Latin writers achieved the same for Rome. And how quickly we associate such names as Kalidas, Goethe, Schiller, Voltaire, Tolstoy, Andersen, Shakespeare, and Ibsen, each with the nationality that produced it! The study of a single national literature might well consume a lifetime, so great and wonderful is the output.



Homer: Homer, the name traditionally assigned to the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, the two major epics that have survived from Greek antiquity. Nothing is known of Homer as an individual, and in fact it is a matter of controversy whether a single person can be said to have created both the Iliad and the Odyssey. Linguistic and historical evidence, however, suggests that the poems were composed in the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor sometime in the 8th century bc.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

"Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar & Literature. I write this blog to instill that passion in you."