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Wordsworth Not Only Democratized But Revolutionized English Poetry: Critical Overview of Preface to Lyrical Ballads

"Every great and original writer, in proportion as he is great and original, must himself create the taste by which he is to be relished." William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850) British poet. Lyrical Ballads (2nd ed.)
Wordsworth was the chief spokesman of the Romantic Movement. HisPreface to Lyrical Balladssays M.H. Abraham has been one of the most discussed and influential of all critical essays. “In the preface Wordsworth tried to overflow the basic theory, as well as the practice of non-classical poetry and also sought to defend and justify the new kind of poetry that he himself and Coleridge were writing.”
In the PrefaceWordsworth says that his principle object in the Preface is to choose incidents and situations from common life and to relate or describe them throughout as far as was possible in a selection really used by man, and at the same time to throw over theory a certain colouring of imagination. Where by ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspec…

Post Chaucerian Barrenness in English Literature

The literature of the fifteenth century is comparatively barren in production, and there are no any poets or prose-writer in consequence. There is a steep decline in poetry even in the hands of the English and Scottish Chaucereans. By that time that freshness of Chaucer, in the fields of characterization; narration and versification was come to an end. Chaucer’s great name and fame disciples like Lydgate, Langland, Dunbar, Skelton, Occleve, Barclay, Hawes etc. were also unable to keep the freshness of poetry   of their master. There is a marked decadence in style. In Chaucer’s great disciples the spirit of poetic imagination and phrasings always lacked. Their metres were merely decrial: Compared with master, their works seemed sheer childish. In the sphere of prose there is a little progress, though the prose of the fifteenth century is better man the prose of the preceding age. Several factors are responsible for the barrenness of literary production in this age. The War of Roses:The…

William Shakespeare’s “Measure For Measure” as a Dark Comedy With The Deus Ex Machina Dramatic Functionary Of Duke

Measure for Measure is one of the dark comedies or problem plays of Shakespeare. In this group of plays, we find Shakespeare confronted with some practical problems of life— generally with the problem of evil in daily life—and we find him also trying for a comic solution but net often getting it. As a result, the comedy gets rather dark and an atmosphere of cynicism seems to emerge. In the present play, the thesis seems to build up round the problem of combining authority with mercy and justice for the purpose of eradicating the evils of a corrupt society.

Despite of Learning Mother Tongue Prioritized In the System of Education, English L2 Occupy the Most Important Place in the Learning System

“There are many who understand Greek and Latin, and yet are ignorant of their Mother Tongue.” John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic. Sylvae (translation of Horace's Odes)
The system of learning English or any other foreign language after learning the mother tongue is justified or not is much debated.  The controversial subject needs to be cleared on the sequence of learning mother tongue and foreign language in more psychological analysis.  Although many century linguists strove to make their own mother dialects the basis for a standard language, attempts were also made to work out a general   tongue. Literature, however, languished in dominant language until the late   century, when signs of a marginalized language literary revival developed—in reaction to the dominant language, which had become rivaling, control over other languages.

Musical and Lyrical Elements in Rabindranath Tagore’s “Gitanjali” (Song Offerings)

Rabindranath Tagore once declared that his own country would best remember him for his songs, and indeed he is seen by an over whelming majority of his countryman not merely as a poet  but doubled with a singer. The essentially musical charter of the lyrics in Gitanjali was clearly indicated by the title which Tagore gave to the English version Songs Offerings. The pieces included in it were prose renderings of a selection of poems from the Bengali Gitanjali, Naividya, kheya, Gitimalya –all titles which reveal the song –like character of the poems. The accent in all these anthologies is as much on the music as on the poetry. As K.R.S Iyengar says; “the stillness is suddenly disturbed by a dance of rhythm; the ear is charmed and enraptured, there is a quick passage through the doors of sensibility and the chords reach the soul’s sanctuary at last.” This is evident even is the translation, though many feel that Tagore defies translation into English even when the attempt is made by the …

Rustic Characters of Thomas Hardy are the Son of Soils and Full of Life in The Return of the Native as if Descendants of Shakespeare’s Rustic Characters

The peasants in the novels of Hardy may be regarded as the chorus. We meet these rustic characters in The Return of the Native (Fairway, Christian, Grandfer Cantle, and the rest), Far from the Madding Crowd(Joseph Poorgrass, Henry Fray, Billy Smalibury, Jan Coggan), and so on. They cannot be compared with the central figures in the drama, because they are placed in the story to provide a chorus. They always appear in a group, seldom separately. They are not full-length portraits. Moreover, they are drawn in a different convention. Here Hardy is in the straight tradition from Shakespeare. These rustic characters are the direct descendants of Bottom and Dogberry and the rustics who gather in response to Falstaff’s call to arms at the house of Justice Shallow, and are made up of a few strongly marked, deliberately caricatured personal idiosyncrasies. Rich fragments of rusticity, they are as entertaining as any of the classic comic characters of Fielding or Goldsmith. But, unlike theirs a…

Response to the Military Heroism in G. B. Shaw’s “Arms and the Man”

Military Heroism regards a soldier as a superhuman being above the ordinary weaknesses, moved entirely by noble impulses Patriotism and self sacrifice, utter disregard of life, and strive for honour and honour only—these are the traits of Military Heroism. Military Heroism is the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in literary works such as great epics or poems. Survival in the Face of Mass Destruction of War is in fact the goal in being a soldier and that there is s no such unified political or national response to the Military Heroism.

The Teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar: How the Caesar and the Brutus of Shakespeare Differed from the Caesar and the Brutus of History?

 Teachers of English should be on intimate terms with the masterpieces they are expected to teach. They ought to have a clear idea of the action of the play, and mental pictures of the various scenes and characters. They should be familiar with the fine lines; should be able to quote what is worthwhile; and should appreciate the diction, the wealth of allusion, and the various other literary qualities that combine to produce style. These things come through careful and loving study of a masterpiece and this is also true for the teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. In fact, since its first production, Julius Caesar has enjoyed immense and enduring popularity. The play forms part of the repertoire of most Shakespearean stock companies. A notable production, with the actors in modern dress, was directed by Orson Welles for the Work Projects Administration (WPA) in 1937. There have been several motion picture productions of Julius Caesar as well as a number of tel…

Rasa School of Thought in Indian Poetics: Aphorism of Bharatamuni and Other Sages

 “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.”-  Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra
The principle of Rasa is the very kernel of Indian Poetics. Rasa is the essence of literature. The outlines of the nature of poetry appeared in Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra. Bharata says, “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.” Just as persons, mentally peaceful, while eating food mixed with various kinds of condiments taste and derive pleasure and the like, so also spectators with calm minds taste the Sthyibhãvas spiced with various kinds of emotions enacted and combined with verbal, physical and Sãttvika acting and derive pleasure. Bharata’s aphoristic statement “Vibhavanubhavayabhicarisamayogidrasanishpattih” has been discussed at length by good many scholars. Of these Bhattalollata, Srisankuta, Bhattanayaka and Abhinavagupta deserve special mention. They will be discussed separately in this short critical essay.

How Does Divine Human Form Relate To The Theme Of Blake's The Divine Image?

William Blake was one of the greatest poets of the Romantic age and a protest against oppression which also becomes an aspect of Blake’s religious faith. His The Divine Image   glorifies the innocence of human being as in the grand design of God.
The poem The Divine Image   is from Songs of Innocence and is written in the ballad metre. It expresses Blake’s faith in man as being an embodiment of all the divine qualities. This being so, the poet feels that man must love his fellow-beings just as he loves God, Love for man alone, believed Blake  could bring man closer to God and create paradise on earth.

Critical Appreciation of Robert Frost’s Poem “Birches”

The poem ‘Birches’ was first published in the Atlantic Monthly in August 1915. In this poem we come across the poet’s desire to withdraw from the world as also his love of the earth as symbolized by the boy’s game of swinging birches.

Better Understanding the English Classroom from Being a Student

When students walk into classroom, they should feel that they have entered a place of and for learning; an English classroom specifically; classroomin particular. But the classroom is not only physical but also mental. Establish a clutter-free and organized room. Ensure that desks, tables and shelving are used, mainly, for one purpose. Exercise books, textbooks, novels, paper, pens, dictionaries and worksheets should have a specific place; preferably labeled. Class displays should be current and well presented. How is the English classroom different from others?

Nature of Acting in Classical Greek Theatre

Acting in classical theatre was highly stylized. Speeches were rendered in a declamatory manner. This was essentially because theatre was an open door affair, and the audience was quite large in number. The nature of the performance environment placed considerable task on the voice. According to Oscar G. Brockett, the Greeks “judged actors above all by the beauty of vocal tone and ability to adapt to manner of speaking to mood and character”. Since voice projection was in high demand, adequate voice training and exercises were taken seriously. Acting departed from realism, and tended towards exaggeration because of the problem of visibility. There were too many people in the audience. Hence many realistic movements, gestures and mannerism might not reach them. Even the body and height of actors were enhanced by padding and wearing of high-heeled shoes and artificial hair do.Anthropologists and theater historians trace the origins of theater to myth and ritual found in dances and mimed…

An Analysis of Keats’s ‘On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer’

Keats is one of the major poets of the Romantic Revival of the early 19th century. Along with Byron and Shelley he forms the trio of the younger romantic poets. Keats was greatly fascinated by classical literature comprising the poetry of Homer and Virgil. His emotional reacting to Homer’s poetry is conveyed in his early sonnet ‘On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer’. However, despite his love of Greek lore and his interest in classical literature, Keats is thoroughly a romantic poet. Keats developed his own romantic theory of poetry and expressed it in his poem ‘Sleep and Poetry’, just as Wordsworth and Coleridge had formulated their romantic theory of poetry in the preface to ‘Lyrical Ballads’ about two decades ago.

A River by A.K. Ramanujan: Multiple Layers of Meaning and is a Commentary on the Indifference

A River by A.K. Ramanujan is a tour de force of impressive potency and insightful philosophy and yet a poem characterized by its graceful lucidity and finely honed criticism. Through the poem the poet raises the question of an artist’s commitment to the society. A.K. Ramanujan develops the theme very well, with excellent pacing, through very solid use of imagery. This poem is a pretty melancholic but it's presented well, cohesive, thought provoking piece. The river, which is a symbol of life and fertility, becomes a destructive force. The poets, both old and new, are indifferent to the sufferings and havoc wrought by the river. The emotional sterility matches with the dryness and the river has water enough to be poetic once a year as a reporter witnesses the scene. The river mentioned is the Vaigai, famed in Tamil legends and puranas. A.k.Ramanujan in A River presents these ideas in an unsentimental manner.

Sincerity, Faithfulness and Generosity of Rudolf Rassendyl in Anthony Hope’s The Prisoner of Zenda

Key characters:

Rudolph Rassendyl, King Rudolf V,  Princess Flavia, Rupert of Hentzau, Antoinette De Mauban ,Colonel Zapt, Black Michael, Captain Fritz von Tarlenheim

Light novels of adventure, intrigue, and romance set in a mythical European kingdom are typical of the literature popular before World War I.The Prisoner of Zenda, a novel by Anthony Hope is about a man who poses as the heir to the throne in a small European country when the real heir falls into a coma. King Rudolf is in coma and his distant cousin Rudolph Rassendyl takes the king’s place during his illness. The false king has to fend off assassination attempts engineered by the real king’s brother and his cohort Rupert of Hentzau. He also must convince Princess Flavia that he is her fiancé, and in the process he falls in love with her.  Rudolph Rassendyl the foremost character of the novel is the best creation of Anthony Hope Hawkins. Anthony has presented him in such way that he has become immortal in the field of Engli…

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 106

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
1.‘The Testament of Beauty’, is generally considered Robert Seymour Bridges’s masterpiece. In 1918 Bridges published a complete edition of the poetry of his friend from Oxford, Gerard Manley Hopkins, thus bringing it out of obscurity. 2.English poet Geoffrey Chaucer writes ‘The Canterbury Tales’, a collection of stories told by pilgrims en route to Canterbury Cathedral. A literary classic, the work’s genius lies in the interaction between the tales and the framing story.

3.English philosopher and statesman Thomas More pens Utopia1516satirizing British life in a story of a mythical, perfect society. More’s moral beliefs later cost him his life; after failing to support King Henry VIII’s break from Rome, More is executed.

Socio-Political Background of Shakespeare’s Times

Every man in a sense is the product of his age and since Shakespeare was a man, he must have represented his age. This is not to say that he did not exceed his age for that would be to strip him of his native genius, the indelible mark of which is impressed forever in the history of world literature. It is just to point out that such a remarkable man represented in his person and works a very remarkable age, Elizabethan England.

Kafka's “The Metamorphosis”: Loneliness, Frustration, and Oppressive Guilt Seen through Existentialism and Surrealism

Kafka’s work, like all the best literature, is multidimensional can mean different things to different people. As such his Metamorphosis is so rich that we can find many deeper meanings. Aabye Kierkegaardian existentialism and surrealism- the realm of dreams and the unconscious mind shape the Kafka's Metamorphosisto put forth the loneliness, frustration, and oppressive guilt of an individual threatened by anonymous forces beyond his comprehension or control.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 105

A Set of Objective Questions & Answers UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
Here is some kind of random stuff for the test with the sole purpose of time management. 

1. Match the List I with List II List I List II 1 Dr. Johnson says A . “Life is not a series of gig lamps symmetrically arranged; life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us from the beginning of consciousness to the end.”
2 The Mistakes of a Night B fictional biography 3 Oscar Wilde C “There is no moral purpose in Shakespeare” 4 Cavalier poets D   first used by Swift  in The Battle of the Books 5 Carlyle’s Sartor Resartus E Geoffrey Chaucer  6 The phrase ‘Sweetness and Light’ F sub-title of She Stoops to Conquer 7 Lord Peter’s forcibly cutting of a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor’s hair
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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

"Dear Readers/ Students, I am a huge fan of books, English Grammar & Literature. I write this blog to instill that passion in you."