The Editorial Problems of Shakespeare’s Plays

Shakespeare’s plays abound in difficulties of reading and interpretation. These mainly arise from printing errors. When such misprints are apparent, the problem or difficulty is not so acute but very often whole phrases and even sentences become the victims of such printer’s devil making them unintelligible even to the learned and erudite. Moreover, the plays were originally meant for performances and not for printing, having served as scripts for actors and not texts for a reading public. Shakespeare also did not edit his own works as did Ben Jonson, which in fact rendered possible variations in reading thus aggravating the editorial difficulties. Pirated editions of Shakespeare’s works and the vagaries of unscrupulous shorthand reporters of Shakespeare’s plays further complicate the matter. It is here that the function of an editor comes into play for he has to cleanse the mess to arrive at a readable text in good print. The editor has to collect or compare the various available tex…

Bertolt Brecht’s “The Life of Galileo” Is the Changing Consciousness of the World: Responsibility of the Intellectual to Defend His or Her Beliefs In The Face Of Opposition from Established Authorities

The key to Bertolt Brecht’s theatre is the changing consciousness of the world. By this Brecht the most influential German dramatist and theoretician of the theater in the 20th century meant first of all the transforming of social relationship — what he referred to as social overhaul. After the overhaul of society which occurred in German Democratic Republic, Brecht spoke, particularly in his last years, of the transformation of the world, which had become even more urgent because of the possibilities and necessities of the dialectical process. The theatre of the scientific age,” he wrote, “is in a position to make dialectics into a source of enjoyment.” (Brecht on theatre: The Development of an Aesthetics). Social dialectics in moral level results in a moral paradox which is at the root of Brecht’s theatre. It arises throughout his plays from the clash between ends and means, between the intention and the affect, between the individual and the world. The Communist agent who has to be…

Introduction to Shakespeare’s Comedies: Discussing Number of Shared Features

The term comedy originally meant merely a play with a happy ending, as distinct from a tragedy with its unhappy ending. The modern definition of comedy is more biased towards laughter, and this can cause some confusion when a student first turns to a Shakespearian comedy. Shakespeare’s comedies are funny, and the make audiences’ laugh, but they do not only do that. They can have very serious elements in their themes and plot, and often concern themselves with some of the weaker aspects of human nature. This explanation is possibly only necessary for those brought up on a diet of filmed television comedy, with maniac laughter from a tape or cassette surfacing every few seconds on the sound track, and comedy taken to mean that at no time must anything serious take place or be mentioned to the audience, unless it is to be instantly deflated or mocked. Good comedy has always had a serious dement in it. The circus clown is felony, but also often a pathetic figure. Someone for whom things n…

Article Writing in the Classroom: Better Class Management Method

Above all else, any strategy or approach towards utilizing writing in the classroom must take as a beginning stage the inquiry: What is writing?
Many creators, commentators and language specialists have thought about what writing is. One more extensive clarification of writing says that artistic writings are items that reflect distinctive parts of society. They are social records which offer a more profound comprehension of a nation or nations. Different language specialists say that there is no inalienable quality to a scholarly content that makes an artistic content, rather the translation the pursuer provides for the content .This takes us back to the above definition as in writing is just writing on the off chance that it is considered as craftsmanship.

Do you agree with the view that the “hero of Paradise Lost is not Christ, nor Adam, but Milton himself”?

The problem of hero in Paradise Lost has not been finally solved and no one single opinion has been formed on this subject. Before we give our judgment on this controversial question let us examine the claims that have been put forth for the various characters of the epic.
Some critics like Dryden are of the view that Satan is the hero of Paradise Lost and they arraign the wisdom of Milton in making a wicked and pernicious character the hero of the sublime epic. These critics consider Satan as the hero of the epic because Satan possesses heroic dimensions. He is energetic, forceful, dauntless, and inflexible in his resolve, and a leader of the fallen angels inspiring them by his indomitable will power and his firm resolve to wreck vengeance on the author of their ills. It is said that Milton endows Satan with heroic qualities. It is in the character of Satan that the poet has expressed his own pride, invincible temper, love for liberty, defiance of authority and heroic energy. It is Sa…

What Are The Career Opportunities Of An English Graduate?

“It took me fifteen years to discover I had no talent for writing, but I couldn’t give it up because by then I was too famous.” Robert Benchley Literary Insults
Joblessness Striking: Unemployment, implemented inertness of breadwinners who are capable and willing to work yet can't discover employments. In social orders in which a great many people can gain a living just by working for others, being notable discover a vocation is a significant issue. As a result of its human expenses in hardship and a sentiment dismissal and individual disappointment, the degree of joblessness is broadly utilized as a measure of specialists' welfare. The extent of laborers jobless likewise demonstrates how well a country's HR are utilized and fills in as a record of monetary action.

Lethal Combination of Drunkenness and Pride to Lead Fortunato to His Demise: Edgar Allan Poe's “The Cask On Amontillado”

The terror on “The Cask on Amontillado,” so of deep of Edgar Allan Poe's short stories, resides between the scarcities on evidence so accompanies Montresor’s claims according to Fortunato’s “thousand injuries” yet “insult.” The story purposes retaliation or stolen homicide as much a road in conformity with avoids the use of criminal channels because of retribution.

Life and Career of Mr. Micawber in Dickens’ ‘David Copperfield’: Great Comic Character Second Only to Shakespeare’s Falstaff

Mr. Micawber, one of the outstanding characters inDickens’David Copperfield is a man of kindly, genial nature. Some critics say that he is a pen-portrait of Dickens’ own father. However it may be, there can be no denying the fact that he “is the type of a whole race of men who will not vanish from the earth as long as the hope which lives eternal in the human breast is only temporarily suspended by the laws of debtors and creditors.” A kindlier and merrier a more humorous and more generous character was never conceived than this.

Rise to an Unprecedented Spirit of Satire in the Augustan Age: From Dryden to Dr. Johnson

“We must beat the iron while it is hot, but we may polish it at leisure.” John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic. Aeneis
Various causes gave rise to an unprecedented spirit of satire in the Augustan age, from John Dryden (1631-1700) to Samuel Johnson (1709-1784). It is a materialistic age in which certain fashions and modes of behaving and taste hold away.
 (1) What is considered “genteel taste” is vigorously upheld, and any deviation from it is satirized. (2) “Correctness” and “good sense” are the order of the day. Emphasis is on reason and correct observation of certain rules both in literature and social life. Rationalism develops clear thinking and the temptation to pronounce judgment is strong. This accounts for the rise both social and literary satire.  (3) The restoration witnessed a revolt against Puritan austerity. There was also a reaction against religious hypocrisy. The religious and the devout were criticized as hypocrites. The Puritans were the…

Wordsworth Reacted Sharply and Sought to Increase the Range Of English Poetry through Rustic Characters and Their Language

The poetry of the Pseudo-classical school was very artificial and unnatural. It was extremely limited in its themes. It was confined exclusively to the city of London and in that city to the artificial and unnatural life of the fashionable lords and ladies. It did not care for the beauties of nature or for the humanity-farmers shepherds, wood cutters etc. Who live its simple life in the lap of nature? Wordsworth reacted sharply and sought to increase the range of English poetry by taking his themes from humble and rustic life, himself living in the lap of nature, was well familiar with the life of the humble people, and he has rendered it in his poetry, realistically and accurately.

Justifying Emergence of Poetic Drama in the 20th Century: A Critical Overview

After the Restoration dramatists drama in English seems to have gone into hibernation, if it had not died altogether. There were at least two dramatists of great calibre in the closing years of the 19th century. Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, but both of them steadfastly choose prose as the medium of their plays. The 20th century saw some powerful influence that exerted themselves on the drama, the influence of the great continental dramatists, and that of the Irish dramatic movement. It was, however, left to T. S. Eliot to rehabilitate poetic drama and place it on a sound footing.

Wordsworth Not Only Democratized But Revolutionized English Poetry: Critical Overview of Preface to Lyrical Ballads

"Every great and original writer, in proportion as he is great and original, must himself create the taste by which he is to be relished." William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850) British poet. Lyrical Ballads (2nd ed.)
Wordsworth was the chief spokesman of the Romantic Movement. HisPreface to Lyrical Balladssays M.H. Abraham has been one of the most discussed and influential of all critical essays. “In the preface Wordsworth tried to overflow the basic theory, as well as the practice of non-classical poetry and also sought to defend and justify the new kind of poetry that he himself and Coleridge were writing.”

Post Chaucerian Barrenness in English Literature

The literature of the fifteenth century is comparatively barren in production, and there are no any poets or prose-writer in consequence. There is a steep decline in poetry even in the hands of the English and Scottish Chaucereans. By that time that freshness of Chaucer, in the fields of characterization; narration and versification was come to an end. Chaucer’s great name and fame disciples like Lydgate, Langland, Dunbar, Skelton, Occleve, Barclay, Hawes etc. were also unable to keep the freshness of poetry   of their master. There is a marked decadence in style. In Chaucer’s great disciples the spirit of poetic imagination and phrasings always lacked. Their metres were merely decrial: Compared with master, their works seemed sheer childish. In the sphere of prose there is a little progress, though the prose of the fifteenth century is better man the prose of the preceding age. Several factors are responsible for the barrenness of literary production in this age.

William Shakespeare’s “Measure For Measure” as a Dark Comedy With The Deus Ex Machina Dramatic Functionary Of Duke

Measure for Measure is one of the dark comedies or problem plays of Shakespeare. In this group of plays, we find Shakespeare confronted with some practical problems of life— generally with the problem of evil in daily life—and we find him also trying for a comic solution but net often getting it. As a result, the comedy gets rather dark and an atmosphere of cynicism seems to emerge. In the present play, the thesis seems to build up round the problem of combining authority with mercy and justice for the purpose of eradicating the evils of a corrupt society.

Despite of Learning Mother Tongue Prioritized In the System of Education, English L2 Occupy the Most Important Place in the Learning System

“There are many who understand Greek and Latin, and yet are ignorant of their Mother Tongue.” John Dryden (1631 - 1700) English poet, playwright, and literary critic. Sylvae (translation of Horace's Odes)
The system of learning English or any other foreign language after learning the mother tongue is justified or not is much debated.  The controversial subject needs to be cleared on the sequence of learning mother tongue and foreign language in more psychological analysis.  Although many century linguists strove to make their own mother dialects the basis for a standard language, attempts were also made to work out a general   tongue. Literature, however, languished in dominant language until the late   century, when signs of a marginalized language literary revival developed—in reaction to the dominant language, which had become rivaling, control over other languages.

Musical and Lyrical Elements in Rabindranath Tagore’s “Gitanjali” (Song Offerings)

Rabindranath Tagore once declared that his own country would best remember him for his songs, and indeed he is seen by an over whelming majority of his countryman not merely as a poet  but doubled with a singer. The essentially musical charter of the lyrics in Gitanjali was clearly indicated by the title which Tagore gave to the English version Songs Offerings. The pieces included in it were prose renderings of a selection of poems from the Bengali Gitanjali, Naividya, kheya, Gitimalya –all titles which reveal the song –like character of the poems. The accent in all these anthologies is as much on the music as on the poetry. As K.R.S Iyengar says; “the stillness is suddenly disturbed by a dance of rhythm; the ear is charmed and enraptured, there is a quick passage through the doors of sensibility and the chords reach the soul’s sanctuary at last.” This is evident even is the translation, though many feel that Tagore defies translation into English even when the attempt is made by the …

Rustic Characters of Thomas Hardy are the Son of Soils and Full of Life in The Return of the Native as if Descendants of Shakespeare’s Rustic Characters

The peasants in the novels of Hardy may be regarded as the chorus. We meet these rustic characters in The Return of the Native (Fairway, Christian, Grandfer Cantle, and the rest), Far from the Madding Crowd(Joseph Poorgrass, Henry Fray, Billy Smalibury, Jan Coggan), and so on. They cannot be compared with the central figures in the drama, because they are placed in the story to provide a chorus. They always appear in a group, seldom separately. They are not full-length portraits. Moreover, they are drawn in a different convention. Here Hardy is in the straight tradition from Shakespeare. These rustic characters are the direct descendants of Bottom and Dogberry and the rustics who gather in response to Falstaff’s call to arms at the house of Justice Shallow, and are made up of a few strongly marked, deliberately caricatured personal idiosyncrasies. Rich fragments of rusticity, they are as entertaining as any of the classic comic characters of Fielding or Goldsmith. But, unlike theirs a…

Response to the Military Heroism in G. B. Shaw’s “Arms and the Man”

Military Heroism regards a soldier as a superhuman being above the ordinary weaknesses, moved entirely by noble impulses Patriotism and self sacrifice, utter disregard of life, and strive for honour and honour only—these are the traits of Military Heroism. Military Heroism is the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in literary works such as great epics or poems. Survival in the Face of Mass Destruction of War is in fact the goal in being a soldier and that there is s no such unified political or national response to the Military Heroism.

The Teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar: How the Caesar and the Brutus of Shakespeare Differed from the Caesar and the Brutus of History?

 Teachers of English should be on intimate terms with the masterpieces they are expected to teach. They ought to have a clear idea of the action of the play, and mental pictures of the various scenes and characters. They should be familiar with the fine lines; should be able to quote what is worthwhile; and should appreciate the diction, the wealth of allusion, and the various other literary qualities that combine to produce style. These things come through careful and loving study of a masterpiece and this is also true for the teaching of William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. In fact, since its first production, Julius Caesar has enjoyed immense and enduring popularity. The play forms part of the repertoire of most Shakespearean stock companies. A notable production, with the actors in modern dress, was directed by Orson Welles for the Work Projects Administration (WPA) in 1937. There have been several motion picture productions of Julius Caesar as well as a number of tel…

Rasa School of Thought in Indian Poetics: Aphorism of Bharatamuni and Other Sages

 “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.”-  Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra
The principle of Rasa is the very kernel of Indian Poetics. Rasa is the essence of literature. The outlines of the nature of poetry appeared in Bharatamuni’s Natyasastra. Bharata says, “From the conjunction of Vibhãvas, Anubhãvas and Vyabhicaribhãvas Rasa are produced.” Just as persons, mentally peaceful, while eating food mixed with various kinds of condiments taste and derive pleasure and the like, so also spectators with calm minds taste the Sthyibhãvas spiced with various kinds of emotions enacted and combined with verbal, physical and Sãttvika acting and derive pleasure. Bharata’s aphoristic statement “Vibhavanubhavayabhicarisamayogidrasanishpattih” has been discussed at length by good many scholars. Of these Bhattalollata, Srisankuta, Bhattanayaka and Abhinavagupta deserve special mention. They will be discussed separately in this short critical essay.