A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 11

                       A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a.       Mathew Prior’s Alma is an imitation of Hudibras.

b.       Solomon is a long and serious poem by Addison.

c.       Pope’s two translated works are Iliad and Odyssey.

d.      Moral Essays was written by Pope.

e.      Horace Walpole: Life is a comedy to those who think and a tragedy to those who feel.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 10

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
(a) An Essay on Criticism by Alexander Pope appeared in 1711. Written in heroic couplet the poem professes to the gospel of wit and nature as it applies to the literature of the age.

 (b) Phillis Wheatley’s poetry (Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral) begins a powerful African American tradition in American poetry.

 (c) Dunciad (a satire) is the longest of pope’s work.

(d) The age of pope is called classical age, because the poets of that age aimed at clerical perfection of form. They wanted to achieve the formal beauty which the poet of Rome attained under Emperor Augustus. That is why the age is treated a part of the Augustus age is English literature.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 9

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. George Chapman is chiefly remembered as translator of Homer.

b. Between 1562 and 1591 chronicle play dealing with real characters of history developed with an astonishing rapidity.

c. The Victorian age is an age of sensibility of large charity and deeper faith is humanity.

d. The marked character of Victorian literature is that it tries to teach and improve and reform.

e. Andrea Del Sarto, a poem by Browning describes the strength and weakness of painter.

f.  William Langland wrote The Piers Ploughman is an allegory of life. The poet lies down on the Malvin Hills on a morning and a vision came to him in his sleep.

g. If The Canterbury tales had been completed according plan, there should have been one hundred and twenty eight tales. However Chaucer could complete twenty and left four unfinished.
h. Ralph Royster Doyster is the first true play in English with a regular plot and acts and scenes.

i.   For several years before Elisabeth I there was no literature.The reason for this infertility was intense absorption of the intelligentsia in religious question.

    j.  Edmund Spenser is known as the poet’s poet.

    k. Castle of Otranto a novel of mystery and terror was written by Walpole.

  l.  The common factor found in Thomas More’s Utopia, Bacon’s The New Altantics , Samuel Butler's Erewhon and W M Mallock’s The New Republic is that they are all imaginative reconstruction of the world along an ideal.

m.  The identity of the characters of The Four P’s are a pardoner, a Palmer, a pathycary and a peddler.

n. The battle of the Barks by Swift shows the superman of the ancients over the succeeding writers.
o. Vanity Fair (1847-48) is a novel by Thackeray the little of this book has been taken from Pilgrims Progress.

p. The Borderers, a play by William Wordsworth was rejected for not being stage able.

q. Annus Mirabilis of Dryden means year of miracles.

r.  Cura Pastorals was originally written in Latin by Pope Gregory and translated into English by Alfred the Great.

s. Truth about an Author is Arnold’s autobiography.

t.  The Golden Treasury, a collection of lyrical poems was brought out by Frences Turner Palgrave in 1861.

u. The importance of Being Earnest a play of Wilde has a subtitle A trivial Comedy For serious people.

v.  Confessions are a fictional autobiography of Rousseau.

w. Oliver Twist by Dickens Portrays the degradations and sufferings of the poor in English work houses.

x. The picture of Dorian Gray, a novel by Oscar Wilde is condemned as a poisonous book as a pursuit of sensual and intellectual delight with no acceptance of moral responsibility.

y. Praeperita (1885-89) is an autobiography of Ruskin.

z. Gaskell’s novel Wives and Daughters (1866) is considered to be her best social comedy.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 8

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. Lord Byron wrote Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte which was written in 1814, after Napoleon’s abdication of the ‘throne of the world’ when he was on the island of Elba.

b.  Keats is referred to as Adonais in Shelley is elegy.

c. The pen-name of Charles Lamb is Elia.

d. Romantic age is given the term the Return to nature because their concern with nature and natural surroundings.

e. Sir Walter Scott is known as historical novelist of modern period. His two notable works are The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor.

"The Spectator" by Addison and Steele: Study of Life and Manners

 " Whoever wishes to attain an English style familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, must give his days and nights to the volumes of Addison." -Dr. Johnson

The Spectator essays of Addison and Steele  strongly influenced 18th-century English taste and opinion and they generally served a five-fold purpose:
(l) they presented the first excellent characterization in prose outside of the drama and thus advanced the art of the novel;
(2) they gave birth to the modern essay; 
(3) they vernacularized English prose style.
(4) They have left us our most vivid picture of eighteenth-century life and manners. 
 (5)The Spectator is remembered mainly as one of the founders of the modern familiar essays and as a prose style of polish, grace, and elegance.

Charles Lamb's "Essays of Elia" : Study of Personality

Charles Lamb's Essays of Elia is a study of personality. A true follower of Addison is Charles Lamb, whose essays  contributed to the London Magazine between 1820 and 1825 and published in book form as Essays of Elia (1823) and Last Essays of Elia (1833), found response in the hearts of all lovers of books. The name "Elia" under which they were written was that of a fellow-clerk in the India House. The first series was printed in 1823, the second, The Last Essays of Elia, in 1833. Lamb had a particular gift for analyzing character and his sensitivity and perceptiveness made him a valuable critic and friend. Some of his best writings were in Essays of Elia. Lamb was a fine-grained romanticist, an ardent admirer of the Elizabethans, a happy observer of the humors of his own day, a man whimsical and sympathetic. Lamb is just Lamb. Through the essays shines his personality. His brave manliness, his devotion to his sister Mary, his simple pursuance of duty, his loving circle of friends must be known by a class before they appreciate the essays. His witticisms, his insight into character, his wisdom, his self-betrayal, his felicitous phrase, his tender pathos, his charm, his whimsicality, his fine ideals, his quaintness do you, for your part, help pupils to see and feel these traits in the essays?

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 7

A Set of 26 Objective Questions &Answers

a.     The prologue to the Canterbury Tales is the mirror of the 14th  century society of England.

b.      Satan in Paradise Lost is Milton’s mouthpiece.

c.     Dryden’s Asolom and Achitophel is heroic poem both in style and action.

d.    The Rape of the Lock includes – epic qualities like supernatural machinery,a  voyage, a heroic battle between the sexes etc.

e.     Blake’s Songs of Innocence is about: the joys of childhood ia an natural and protected world and s description of pastoral world.

f.      Samuel Butler is Hudibras satirizes Puritanism.

g.    David Copperfield a novel by Dicknens contains the biographical element.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Notes 6

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a.   The monogram PRB was used by the painters belonging to pre Raphaelite Brotherhood.

b.   Calcutta-born Victorian novelist is W M Thackeray; Bombay-born Victorian novelist is Kipling.

c.   Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) borrowed the little Sohrab and Rustom (1853) from Bible.

Literary Terms: Satire, Interludes, Tragedy, Tragi-comedy, Comedy, Farce

Satire: Dryden defines the satire as a literary composition whose principal aims to redicule folly or vice.The true end of satire is an amendment of vices by correction.A healthy satire good humouredly exposes one’s folly or vice.
Exmp:Samuel Butler’s novel The Way of All Flesh (1903) is a comic satire that criticizes overzealousness and hypocrisy in child rearing and religious faith.

Interludes: The interludes were generally short entertainments inserted within a longer play or amidst some other festivities or festivals.Their primary function was to entertain the audience by humour or even by force.
Exmp:British composer Benjamin Britten's Sea Interludes.

Ten Common Literary Terms: Renaissance, Reformation, Wordsworthian definition of poetry ,Poetic justice, Epic, Mock epic, Sonnet, Ode, Elegy, Ballad

1. Renaissance – Renaissance means revival or rebirth of Greek learning, art, literature and culture of the riddle age in Europe  in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. These movements began in Italy and eventually expanded into Germany, France, England, and other parts of Europe. In England it came through Italy and flourished in the Elizabethan Age is the works of Shakespeare, Spenser, Marlowe and Ben Jonson etc .

2. Reformation – Reformation was a religious revolution in 16th-century  in the Christian church, which ended the ecclesiastical supremacy of the pope in Western Christendom and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant churches. It was started by Martin Luther is the fifteenth century. It protested against the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. It advocated complete faith in the Bible and in one’s own soul for salvation.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Notes 5 (1890 - 1950)

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
a. Maurice, a novel by E M Forster deals with the theme of Homosexuality.
b. Mrs. Ramsay (a character) appears in Virginia Woolf’s novel To The Light House.
c.  Joseph Conrad was of Polish origin.
d. Virginia Woolf belonged to a group of eminent literary figures, which was known as Bloomsbury group.
e. Thought Hopkins belongs to the Victorian Age, he is modern in matters of Technique.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 4

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
a. The heroine of The Tempest is Miranda.
b. The 16th century the English sonnet dealt primarily with the subject of love.
c.  Few immortal lines from Shakespeare’s plays:
To be or not to be that is the question – Hamlet
Nothing will come out of nothing – King Lear
Fair is foul and foul is fair – Macbeth
Brevity is the soul of nit – Hamlet
Life is but a walking shadow – Macbeth
Frailty thy name is woman – Hamlet

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 3

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

Thomas Hardy
Fess of the D’urbervilles (1891)
Henry James
The Golden Bowl(1904)
Joseph Conrad
Almayer’s Folly (1895)
Herbert George Wells
The History of Mr. Polly(1910)
George Bernard Shaw
Plays : pleasant and unpleasant (1898)
J. M. Synge
The playboy of the Western World  (1907)
W. B. Yeats
The Wandering of Oisin (1889)
The testament of Beauty(1929)
G M Hopkins
 The Wreck of the Deutschland (1875)

Oscar Wilde
The Picture of Dorian Gray(1891)
E M Forster
A passage to India(1924)
James Joyce
Virginia Woolf
Mrs. Dalloway(1925)
T S Eliot
Murder in the Cathedral(1935)
George Orwell
Animal Farm (1945)
W H Auden
 Poems (1930)

Dylan Thomas
Under Milk Wood(1954)

a. There are seven plays is Shaw's Pleasant and unpleasant.

b. Widower’s house, Mrs. Warrens Profession and The Philanderer and three unpleasant plays.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 2

 A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. Pope’s Essay on Criticism is written in heroic couplet.

b. Chaucer wrote during the reigns of Edward III, Richard II and Henry IV.

c. There are 24 tales in The Canterbury Tales.

d. The Canterbury Tales is narrative poetry.

e. Chaucer is often called the grand father of English novel.

f.  Chaucer was realistic writer.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 1

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
(a) William Langland belongs to 14th century.
(b) Renaissance as a movement in arts and letters is said to have started in Europe in1453.
(c) The year 1660 is associated with the restoration of the monarchy in England.
(d) The four wheels of the novel writing are Richardson, Fielding,Smollett and Sterne.
(e)  Matthew Arnold and Lord Tennyson are the great Victorian poets.
(f)  Absurd Drama is also called avante garde Drama.

Fools in Shakespearean Drama: Clawn in Antony and Cleopatra, Grumio and Curtis in The Taming of the Shrew, Launce in The Two Gentlemen of Verona

Introduction: like that of regular protagonist, Shakespeare’s comic figures are also highly varied. They include bumbling rustics such as Dogberry and Verges in Much Ado About Nothing, tireless punsters like the Dromios in The Comedy of Errors, pompous grotesques like Don Armado in Love’s Labour’s Lost, elegant wits like Feste in Twelfth Night, cynical realists like Thersites in Troilus and Cressida, and fools who utter nonsense that often conceals wisdom, such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the Fool in King Lear. In traditional theater, the fool typically stood outside the action of the drama, making witty asides about the events onstage. The fool’s costume was boldly colored, and the hood was often adorned with bells and horns. Laurie holds a marotte, a staff with a small puppet resembling the fool himself at one end.

Arnold’s views on Poetry in Study of Poetry

Stress on Action: He begins his ‘Preface to Poems’ 1853, by saying that he dropped his poem Empedocles on Etna from the new collection, because it had very little action. The hero suffered and brooded over his suffering and committed suicide. Mere subjectivity, the inner gloom or melancholy of the poet to the neglect of action, can never result in true poetry. Poetry of the highest order requires suitable action an action sufficiently serious and weighty. Poetry is dedicated to joy and this joy results from the magnificence of its action (reminds of Aristotle’s stress on action as the soul of tragedy)

Character of Bishop in Norman McKinnel’s One Act Play “The Bishop’s Candlesticks”

Introduction: The one-act play “The Bishop’s Candlesticks” is McKinnel’s adaptation of the opening chapter of Victor Hugo’s celebrated novel Les Miserable. The play is based on the concept that no man is a born offender. It is the embodiment of a true Christian. The Bishop has all the virtues which a bishop ought to have −− he is selfless, kind, generous and charitable. He has a childlike innocence and does not understand any ‘dupe’. His absolute faith in God has made him fearless. The convict’s treats to kill him fail to unnerve him. He hates sin but loves sinners. The way he restores the convict’s faith in Christianity is remarkable. Even the convict recognizes his goodness towards the end of theplay, “… but somehow I −− I … know you are good…” He is the most adorable character in the play. No wonder person calls him the best man in the whole of France. 

Beckett’s "Waiting for Godot" an Avant Garde Play?

Avant-Garde is the sector of the arts that draws its inspiration from the invention and application of new or unconventional techniques and is therefore on the vanguard or cutting edge of new styles. Participants in the creative process can be considered members of the avant-garde. We can mention a few avant-garde theater and playwrights:   Antonin Artaud; Samuel Beckett; Bertolt Brecht; Jean Cocteau; Friedrich Dürrenmatt; Jean Genet; Eugène Ionesco; Alfred Jarry; Vsevolod Meyerhold.

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