AD's English Literature : April 2012

Sunday, April 29, 2012

John Donne's "The Canonization" : Love Non-peril

"For God's sake hold your tongue and let me love."

Even more than Petrarch and Spenser, John Donne is a poet of Love. The poem, The Canonization embodies all those qualities which make Donne’s poetry of love non-peril. Although he conceives of love as one of the most invigorating and vigorous aspects of life and sometimes even raises it to the position of supreme importance’ his is no mere echo of the Petrarchian love –worship of the beloved. On the other hand  The Canonization, is a mire situation of love . Donne is at once physical and spiritual, for he does not separate the two into exclusive categories. Farther, The Canonization, also speaks of love not in the deliquescing and meting rhythm of the poets of yore but in the vigorous and colloquially dramatic tone that is possible only to Donne. The poem unites the abstract and the near, sublime with the commonplace.

Sunday, April 22, 2012

William Shakespeare's "SONNET NO. 116" (Let me not to the marriage of true minds): Analysis of Rhetoric



SONNET 116
Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O no! it is an ever-fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's compass come:
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.

"Let me hot to the marriage of true minds  

This is a case  of  Hyperbaton since the normal word order should have been.

            This is also a case of synecdoche (abstract for the cocrety ) since the abstract ‘ true minds’ stands for the concrete  lovers who are faithful to 'each other ’

     It is also a case of Alliteration  since the sound /m/ occurs at the beginning of words.

Power and Suffering is one of the Themes of Christoper Marlowe's "Edward-II"


Some critics are of the view that Christoper Marlowe's ‘Edward-II’  is a play of  “power and suffering.” This theme, in a very large manner is visible in the play. The root cause in the working of this theme is the common flaw of self assertion or the exercise of power by the characters who are responsible for the inevitable tragedy of the play.

In the play the final impression is of Edward’s suffering. It is bound up with power – the power that Edward loses, the power that Mortimer wins. If a man had no power over other, there could be no suffering such as Edward knew. King Edward was too desperate for the power and just of friendship that he can not foresee the future consequences. He even deserts his wife and deprive her in his love. Here starts cropping up the seeds in infidelity in her heart. The king gives vent to his sufferings fanning the fire of hostility. He is robbed of his friendship for barons murder Gravestone. When he was defeated  and is imprisoned he is made in undergo all sorts of physical and mental tortures like a mean prisoner is inflicted with . But till his imprisonment he keeps on boasting and never pays any heed to the fact that a king cannot continue to be in power until he cares for the advice of hi9s subordinates and threat tyrant faces defeat at the hands  of his own subjects where all his pride of power is nullified.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

John Donne's "THE GOOD MORROW": Rhetorical Construction



 I wonder by my trouth , what thou , and  I Did , till we Lov’d? 
were we not wean’d till then ? 
But suck’d on country pleasures , childishly ?

    This is a case of Metaphor .The  lovers, prior to their experience of true loves , have been compared to children  who have not yet given up their mothers’ milk .The  comparison is no made explicity.

     It is a case of Metaphor again, because the country  pleasures have been compared to mothers’ milk . The comparison is not explicit .

    Or snorted we in the seaven  sleepers den ?

This is a case of allusion .The poet here refers to the Christian tale of the seven young christions who spent centuries sleeping in a cave in  order to escape the persecution of king deacius .

      This is also  a case of Metaphor .The lovers prior to their experience of true love have been compared to people who were sleeping [ snorted ] The  comparison is not made explicit.

Shakespeare's "SONNET NO. 73" (That time of year thou mayst in me behold) : Analysis of Rhetoric


SONNET  NO. 73
That time of year thou mayst in me behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,
Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.
 
 In me thou see'st the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west;
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. 
 
 In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire,
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,
As the death-bed, whereon it must expire,
Consum'd with that which it was nourish'd by.
 
 This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,
  To love that well, which thou must leave ere long.

    That time of year thou mayst in me behold .

    It is a case of Hyperbaton because the normal order of words has been changed.

    That time of year thou mayst in me behold .
  When yellow leaves, or none, or few  do hang
.

 This is a case of Metaphor since the poet compares his present condition to the season of winter. This comparison is not stated explicitly.

     This is also a metaphor in another sense because the ‘sweet birds’ not only refer to the literal birds but also to the ,choir singers in the church.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

John Donne's "Go and catch a falling star": Analysis of Rhetoric


    Go and catch a falling star
 by John Donne

 Go and catch a falling star,
Get with child a mandrake root,
Tell me where all past years are,
Or who cleft the Devil's foot,
Teach me to hear mermaids singing,
Or to keep off envy's stinging,
And find
What wind
Serves to advance an honest mind.If thou be'st born to strange sights,
Things invisible to see,

Ride ten thousand days and nights,
Till age snow white hairs on thee;
Thou, when thou return'st, wilt tell me
All strange wonders that befell thee,
And swear
No where
Lives a woman true, and fair.If thou find'st one, let me know,
Such a pilgrimage were sweet;
Yet do not, I would not go,
Though at next door we might meet:
Though she were true, when you met her,
And last, till you write your letter,
Yet she
Will be
False, ere I come, to two or three.

"Tell me where all past years are,
Or who cleft the Devil’s foot,"

    This is a case  of allusion .It refers to the medieval believe that an unknown power has cleave the foot of the devil .

Monday, April 16, 2012

Thomas Wyatt's "They Flee From Me That Sometime Did Me Seek": Rhetorical Analysis


  

 'They flee from me that sometime did me seek,
With naked foot stalking in my chamber.
'

          This  is a case  of Metaphor .The women have been  here  compared to predatory animals  through their  prey is not ordinary food but sexual flood.

   --It is also a case of Hyperbaton since the word order in ‘did me seek’ has been changed from the usual one .

    'That sometime they put themselves in danger
To take bread at my hand; and now they range
Busily seeking with a continual change.
'
    --- This is a case of Metaphor since the amorous women have been here compared to birds while the poet himself  has been compared to the feeder . The comparisons are left in explicit .

Andrew Marvell's "TO HIS COY MISTRESS": Analysis of Rhetoric


     “ Thou by the Indian Ganges' side
  Shouldst rubies find; I by the tide
  Of Humber would complain. I would
  Love you ten years before the Flood;
  And you should, if you please, refuse
    Till the conversion of the Jews.


                This is a case of Hyperbole. The poet exaggerates the extant of physical distance between the two lovers .

          He also exaggerates the length of time for which they would love each other .

                This is also a case of Allusion since flood refers to here alludes to the Biblical flood in which  none but No an  and his family was left alone .

    '
My vegetable love should grow
Vaster than empires, and more slow.
'

                This is a case of Metaphor. The maturation of non-physical platonic love has been compared to the slow and insensible growth of vegetable love .

                This is also a case of Irony. Although he seems, to praise vegetable love, -- the poet actually criticizer its lack of  intelligence and vitality .

Sunday, April 15, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 13


A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

A.  In poetry, a tercet is a unit of three lines that usually contain end rhyme; a couplet is a two-line unit that usually contains end rhyme. Shelley wrote the tercets in a verse form called terza rima, invented by Dante Alighieri. exp: P.B. Shelley ‘s Ode to the West WindRead More A to Z (Objective Questions)
                              
B. “A man may have many moods; he has but one spirit; and this spirit he communicates in some subtle, unconscious way to all his work. It waxes and wanes with the currents of his vitality, but no more alter than a chestnut changes into an oak.” Read More A to Z (Objective Questions) FROM The Inn of Tranquility JOHN GALSWORTHY

C. Macaulay's "History of England" contains a vast amount of information, but it is not its stores of information which have attracted to it millions of readers; it is the fascinating style in which the information is conveyed, making the narrative as pleasing as a novel, and giving some passages a power of exciting the emotions which not many poems possess. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)

D. The “Faerie Queen" was intended to have extended to twelve books, but only six books and two cantos were written at least that is all which has survived.

E. Coleridge’s Kubla Khan went unfinished because the call of a friend broke the thread of the reverie in which it was composed.

Sophocles' "Ajax" : Earning Deeper Sympathy


It is generally agreed that Ajax and The Antigone are the two earliest extant plays by Sophocles; which of the two was produced first it is difficult to say. Perhaps an important feature of technique settles this—both tragedies need three actors, but the Ajax in this respect is more tentative than the Antigone. The scene is laid before the tent of Ajax on the plain of Troy. Enraged by the action of the Greeks in awarding to Odysseus instead of to himself the arms of the dead Achilles, Ajax sought to slay Agamemnon, Menelaus, and others in their sleep. The goddess Athena sent madness upon him so that he slaughtered cattle in their stead. Coming to himself he realizes his shame, and eluding his friends—the chorus of Salaminian sailors and the Trojan captive, Tecmessa (who has borne him a son),—he retires to a lonely spot by the sea and falls upon his sword. His brother Teucer returns too late to save him, but in time to confront and defy Agamemnon and Menelaus, who have decreed that Ajax' body shall be left unburied. At length Agamemnon is induced by Odysseus to forgo his purpose.

Sophocles is considered by many modern scholars the greatest of the Greek tragedians and the perfect mean between the titanic symbolism of Aeschylus and the rhetorical realism of Euripides. Sophocles also effected a transformation in the spirit and significance of a tragedy; thereafter, although problems of religion and morality still provided the themes, the nature of man, his problems, and his struggles became the chief interest of Greek tragedy.

No Greek play gains so much by re-reading as the Ajax. Ajax, in Greek mythology, mighty warrior who fought in the Trojan War. He was the son of Telamon, king of Salamís, and led the Salaminian forces to Troy. An enormous man, slow in speech but unshakable in battle, Ajax was called “bulwark of the Achaeans” by Homer. Angered because he was not awarded the armor of the dead Achilles, Ajax resolved to kill the Greek leaders Agamemnon and Menelaus. To prevent this, the goddess Athena struck him with madness. In his delirium, Ajax committed suicide by falling on his sword.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

William Collins's "ODE TO EVENING" : Analysing Rhetoric


 
Ode to Evening
by William Collins


If aught of oaten stop or pastoral song
May hope, chaste Eve, to soothe thy modest ear,
Like thy own solemn springs,
Thy springs, and dying gales,
O nymph reserved, while now the bright-haired sun
Sits in yon western tent, whose cloudy skirts,
With brede ethereal wove,
O'erhang his wavy bed:

Now air is hushed, save where the weak-eyed bat

With short shrill shriek flits by on leathern wing,
Or where the beetle winds
His small but sullen horn,
As oft he rises 'midst the twilight path,
Against the pilgrim borne in heedless hum:
Now teach me, maid composed,
To breathe some softened strain,
Whose numbers stealing through thy dark'ning vale
May not unseemly with its stillness suit,
As, musing slow, I hail
Thy genial loved return!

For when thy folding-star arising shows

His paly circlet, at his warning lamp
The fragrant hours, and elves
Who slept in buds the day,
And many a nymph who wreathes her brows with sedge
And sheds the fresh'ning dew, and lovelier still,
The pensive pleasures sweet
Prepare thy shadowy car.

Then let me rove some wild and heathy scene,

Or find some ruin 'midst its dreary dells,
Whose walls more awful nod
By thy religious gleams.
Or if chill blust'ring winds or driving rain
Prevent my willing feet, be mine the hut
That from the mountain's side
Views wilds and swelling floods
And hamlets brown and dim-discovered spires,
And hears their simple bell, and marks o'er all
Thy dewy fingers draw
The gradual dusky veil.

While Spring shall pour his showers, as oft he wont,

And bathe thy breathing tresses, meekest Eve;
While Summer loves to sport
Beneath thy lingering light;
While sallow Autumn fills thy lap with leaves;
Or Winter, yelling through the troublous air,
Affrights thy shrinking train
And rudely rends thy robes;
So long, regardful of thy quiet rule,
Shall fancy, friendship, science, smiling peace,
Thy gentlest influence own,
And love thy favourite name!


 William Collins(1721-1759) is the first definite break with the classic convention which had been triumphant for the inspiriting freshness which came later with Wordsworth and Coleridge .

‘ If  ought of oaten stop, or pastoral song
May hope , chaste Eye, to soothe thy modest ear,

      This is a case of Apostrophe, since the abstract entity had been addressed as a person or deity .Evening has been addressed as  Eve.

      This is also a case of periphrasis or circumlocution . A flute has been referred to not by usual name but in a round about manner as an ‘oaten stop’

      This is also a case of transferred  epithet . The adjective ‘modest’ properly belongs to ‘Eve’.

Alexander Pope's "ESSAY ON MAN ; EPISTLE II OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL": Rhetoric Constituted


 EPISTLE II
OF THE NATURE AND STATE OF MAN
WITH RESPECT TO HIMSELF, AS AN INDIVIDUAL


KNOW then thyself, presume not God to scan,
The proper study of mankind is man.
Plac’d on this isthmus of a middle state,
A being darkly wise, and rudely great:
With too much knowledge for the sceptic side,
With too much weakness for the Stoic’s pride,
He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;
In doubt to deem himself a God, or beast;
In doubt his mind or body to prefer;

Born but to die, and reas’ning but to err;
Alike in ignorance, his reason such,
Whether he thinks too little or too much:
Chaos of thought and passion, all confus’d;
Still by himself abus’d or disabus’d;
Created half to rise, and half to fall;
Great lord of all things, yet a prey to all;
Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl’d:
The glory, jest, and riddle of the world!

    Know then thyself , presume not God to scan;

This is a case of Antithesis because both parts of the statement which appear in balanced form, reinforce the idea that the knowledge of man is to be achieved by the person himself by looking into himself .

    This is also a case of  Hyperbaton . The normal word order should have been 'don’t presume God to scan' rather than ‘presume not God to scan’ .

Monday, April 9, 2012

John Millington Synge’s ‘Riders to the Sea’ : Ten Key Points


1. “It may be neat, compact and rigid; but it may also be wayward, expansive and flexible. So long as it does not conflict with the fundamental principles of drama, it may venture into a hundred different directions and exploit almost as many themes as the ingenuity and inventiveness of the author can suggest”- Herman Ould on one act play 

2. John Millington Synge (1871-1909)’s “Riders To the Sea” is characteristically so different yet great one act play. It is a one act play that discusses its natural setting, plot construction, characterization and overall impressions on life in a newly accomplish mood.

Monday, April 2, 2012

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 12


A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

a. Etherege, Wyeherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh and Farquhar contributed a great deal to the development of the comedy of manners.

b. The society mirrored in the comedy of manners was the society of the court of Charles II. It was careless, intend only on pleasure and intrigue.The comedy which depicted this society had an air of abandon and immorality.
c. “All human things are subject to decay.” This is the beginnings of John Dryden's poem, Mac Flecknoe.

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