Showing posts from 2018

The Editorial Problems of Shakespeare’s Plays

Shakespeare’s plays abound in difficulties of reading and interpretation. These mainly arise from printing errors. When such misprints are apparent, the problem or difficulty is not so acute but very often whole phrases and even sentences become the victims of such printer’s devil making them unintelligible even to the learned and erudite. Moreover, the plays were originally meant for performances and not for printing, having served as scripts for actors and not texts for a reading public. Shakespeare also did not edit his own works as did Ben Jonson, which in fact rendered possible variations in reading thus aggravating the editorial difficulties. Pirated editions of Shakespeare’s works and the vagaries of unscrupulous shorthand reporters of Shakespeare’s plays further complicate the matter. It is here that the function of an editor comes into play for he has to cleanse the mess to arrive at a readable text in good print. The editor has to collect or compare the various available tex…

Bertolt Brecht’s “The Life of Galileo” Is the Changing Consciousness of the World: Responsibility of the Intellectual to Defend His or Her Beliefs In The Face Of Opposition from Established Authorities

The key to Bertolt Brecht’s theatre is the changing consciousness of the world. By this Brecht the most influential German dramatist and theoretician of the theater in the 20th century meant first of all the transforming of social relationship — what he referred to as social overhaul. After the overhaul of society which occurred in German Democratic Republic, Brecht spoke, particularly in his last years, of the transformation of the world, which had become even more urgent because of the possibilities and necessities of the dialectical process. The theatre of the scientific age,” he wrote, “is in a position to make dialectics into a source of enjoyment.” (Brecht on theatre: The Development of an Aesthetics). Social dialectics in moral level results in a moral paradox which is at the root of Brecht’s theatre. It arises throughout his plays from the clash between ends and means, between the intention and the affect, between the individual and the world. The Communist agent who has to be…

Introduction to Shakespeare’s Comedies: Discussing Number of Shared Features

The term comedy originally meant merely a play with a happy ending, as distinct from a tragedy with its unhappy ending. The modern definition of comedy is more biased towards laughter, and this can cause some confusion when a student first turns to a Shakespearian comedy. Shakespeare’s comedies are funny, and the make audiences’ laugh, but they do not only do that. They can have very serious elements in their themes and plot, and often concern themselves with some of the weaker aspects of human nature. This explanation is possibly only necessary for those brought up on a diet of filmed television comedy, with maniac laughter from a tape or cassette surfacing every few seconds on the sound track, and comedy taken to mean that at no time must anything serious take place or be mentioned to the audience, unless it is to be instantly deflated or mocked. Good comedy has always had a serious dement in it. The circus clown is felony, but also often a pathetic figure. Someone for whom things n…

Article Writing in the Classroom: Better Class Management Method

Above all else, any strategy or approach towards utilizing writing in the classroom must take as a beginning stage the inquiry: What is writing?
Many creators, commentators and language specialists have thought about what writing is. One more extensive clarification of writing says that artistic writings are items that reflect distinctive parts of society. They are social records which offer a more profound comprehension of a nation or nations. Different language specialists say that there is no inalienable quality to a scholarly content that makes an artistic content, rather the translation the pursuer provides for the content .This takes us back to the above definition as in writing is just writing on the off chance that it is considered as craftsmanship.

Do you agree with the view that the “hero of Paradise Lost is not Christ, nor Adam, but Milton himself”?

The problem of hero in Paradise Lost has not been finally solved and no one single opinion has been formed on this subject. Before we give our judgment on this controversial question let us examine the claims that have been put forth for the various characters of the epic.
Some critics like Dryden are of the view that Satan is the hero of Paradise Lost and they arraign the wisdom of Milton in making a wicked and pernicious character the hero of the sublime epic. These critics consider Satan as the hero of the epic because Satan possesses heroic dimensions. He is energetic, forceful, dauntless, and inflexible in his resolve, and a leader of the fallen angels inspiring them by his indomitable will power and his firm resolve to wreck vengeance on the author of their ills. It is said that Milton endows Satan with heroic qualities. It is in the character of Satan that the poet has expressed his own pride, invincible temper, love for liberty, defiance of authority and heroic energy. It is Sa…