Showing posts from May, 2013

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 60 (Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore): Time’s Destruction is Inevitable, The Verse Will Get Away With It

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,
So do our minutes hasten to their end;
Each changing place with that which goes before,
In sequent toil all forwards do contend. 

Nativity, once in the main of light,
Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd,
Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight,
And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.

Time doth transfix the flourish set on youth
And delves the parallels in beauty's brow,
Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth,
And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow:

   And yet to times in hope my verse shall stand,
   Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand.

This is one of the most famous of the William Shakespeare’s sonnets and perhaps the best illustration of the theme of the ravages of time. Each quatrain engages the theme in a unique way, with the destructive force of time redoubling with each successive line. Although the poet seems certain that Time’s destruction is inevitable, he is none th…

Ben Jonson: English Dramatist and Poet of Classical Learning, Gift for Satire, and Brilliant Style made him one of the Great Figures of English Literature

When first he threw in his lot with the playwrights, Ben Jonson frankly followed the current demand for romantic drama, showing no small skill in adopting the full – blooded romantic manner. Even here, in the early years of apprenticeship, he displayed vigorous power of imagination; but romantic drama was not characteristically expressive of the man’s personality. After his dismissal by the theatrical manager, Henslowe, a rival manager – William Shakespeare – came forward and helped him to put on his comedy, Every Man in His Humour. It was performed in 1598 by the Lord Chamberlain's Company with William Shakespeare in the cast. Here Jonson for the first time struck the anti – romantic note, and sought to establish a satirical comedy of manners framed in a definite plan. He saw clearly enough that despite the splendid, exuberant power of the Shakespearean drama, there was no underlying theory or convention, and that its tendency to guide and control. 

In the prologue to Every Man in…

Comparative Study of Spenser's Amoretti ( Sonnet No. 75) and Sidney’s Astrphel and Stella ( Sonnet No.1)

Even though the SpenserianSonnet Sequence of Amoretti parallels the contemporary sequences like Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella, Daniel's Delia, Drayton’s Idea, and Shakespeare's sonnets, it is unique in the realm of love-sonnets by the virtue of its dramatic lyrics. 

Sonnet No.75(One day I wrote her name upon the strand)of Amoretti not only presents the dramatic background for the intensely personal colloquy between the lover and the beloved, but it seems to be even a reenactment of the eternal drama of mortality and immortality. 

The first quatrain presents the lover attempt to eternize his beloved’s name on the sea-shore, the second the lady’s virgins opposition since she feels instead that she cannot be eternized by a mere physical etching; and finally  the poet lover's declaration that the extermination of his beloved would proceed naturally from time's point of view but his poetry enliven their token of love forever.
“Vayne man”, sayd she,“that doest in vaine assay,

Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 (Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?) - Fair Lord’s Timeless Beauty

SONNET 18 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date: 

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;

Model English Note -7 for PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

Difficulty Level:  Graduation Time: 2hr Each Question: Word Limit: 30
1. What is the called pantheism?
Ans- The concept that everything is God or mature is God. In Christian terms this was somewhat flawed if not heretical. Such is the Wordsworthian view that nature is spiritually felt and transmuted. His views evolved  and changed but they fundamentally saw a supernal element in nature. 2. Which is the called a ‘succession of’ hungry generation’ in Nightingale’s why?

Ans- Keats observe a pessimistic outlook in his Nightingale. The transitory world is an inadequate place to live-in. The very helm of our existence is hunted by loss, decay and detrimentality. Such is the case with human life which is affected by pains. Keats means this world by the quoted phrase. 3. As lumber did my spirit seal-what is the reason behind the poet’s slumber?

Ans- Lucy’s presence in the poet’s life has engrossed him so much so that he has lost him selfontrol and has imbedded through the mysterious and impulsive p…

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 65 (Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea): Addressing the Passage of Time on Earthly Things but not on Love

Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea,
But sad mortality o'er-sways their power,
How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea,
Whose action is no stronger than a flower? 

O, how shall summer's honey breath hold out
Against the wreckful siege of battering days,
When rocks impregnable are not so stout,
Nor gates of steel so strong, but Time decays?

O fearful meditation! where, alack,
Shall Time's best jewel from Time's chest lie hid?
Or what strong hand can hold his swift foot back?
Or who his spoil of beauty can forbid? 

 O, none, unless this miracle have might,
 That in black ink my love may still shine bright. 

William Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 65continues the theme of the two sonnets preceding it, addressing the passage of time with the similar approach of how it destroys all earthly things. Sonnet No. 64discusses the “lofty towers I see down-raz’d”, the “brass” which is “eternal slave to mortal rage,” or a victim to war, and the destruct…

Shakespeare’s Sonnet No. 55 (Not marble, nor the gilded monuments ): Shakespeare Seeks to Build a Figurative Monument to His Beloved, the Fair Lord

SONNET NO. 55 Not marble, nor the gilded monuments a  Of princes, shall outlive this powerful rhyme;b But you shall shine more bright in these contents a Than unswept stone besmear'd with sluttish time.b 4
When wasteful war shall statues overturn,c
And broils root out the work of masonry,d
Nor Mars his sword nor war's quick fire shall burn c

 The living record of your memory.d 8
'Gainst death and all-oblivious enmity
 Shall you pace forth; your praise shall still find room f Even in the eyes of all posteritye
That wear this world out to the ending doom.f12

So, till the judgment that yourself arise,g
You live in this, and dwell in lovers' eyes.g14

The ancient poets (Ovid, Horace etc.) and to some extent, their renaissance imitators made certain distinctions between different kinds of transience, which is not found in the sonnets of Shakespeare. In such ancient poetry, we very often find a distinction between Ovid’s all – devouring Time and Horace’s brief span of Time allott…

John Milton’s Paradise Lost and University Notes

Milton's indebtedness to earlier poetry in his use of epic convention. His magnificent ‘Paradise Lost' is considered to be the finest epic poem in the English language.      Milton modified classical epic convention in the first 26 lines of Paradise Lost.

(Bk-1) to suit his own purpose. Milton's originality in his use of the invocation- Fusion of the pagan (classical) and the Christian.Milton's portrayal of Satan is unique—a character with real motivations and desires, Satan is led astray by excessive pride and belief in his own power over God’s power.For the student who is reading Milton's work for the first time, his poetry is admittedly difficult. There are many references to obscure Biblical and mythological people. Milton's language is often high-flown, deliberately literary, and far from common or natural. 
Once these difficulties are overcome, however, the student can recognize why Milton is great. First, he sees that Milton's subjects are lofty and…

Articulation and Philology: Velar closure and Velic closure : Contrastive distribution and free variation : Consonant cluster and consonant gemination.

Which is the position of Soft Palate during the production of [n]?Ans:Soft Palate is lowered to touch the back of the tongue.
Velar Consonant and Velarized Consonant.Ans:A velar consonant is one in which the primary arliculatary feature is the movement of the back of the tongue towards the S.P. [k], [g] and [n] are all velar consonants. A velarised consonant is one in which there is a secondary movement of the back of the tongue towards the s.p.or velum e.g. [t] which occurs only before consonants and in the final position is a velarised consonant because in addition to the primary articulatory movement of the tip of the tongue towards the alveolar ridge, the back of the tongue is raised towards the s.p. or velum.
Linking /r/ and intrusive /r/:Ans: Although /r/ is not pronounced in the final position in English, it is pronounced it the ward ending with this sound is followed them another word beginning with a vowel sound in a continuous utterance. This phenomena is called li…

Edmund Spenser’s Literary Works that Bridged the Medieval and Elizabethan Periods

It was Charles Lamb who called Spenser ‘the poet’s poet”. Spenser is called ‘the child of Renaissance and Reformation’ as his works are the finest expression and exposition of the ideals and principles of the Renaissance and the reformation. Spenser was an extremely learned poet, acquainted with the best models not only in English, but in Greek, Latin, Italian, and French. Like Wyatt and Surrey, Spenser derived his chief impulse from Italy. He knew and admired Chaucer and the other old English poets, but his real masters were Ariosto and Tasso. 

Spenser stands in between Chaucer and Shakespeare and it would not be wrong to entitle him as the “second father” of English poetry as Chaucer is called the father of English poetry. However, a greater contrast to Chaucer it would be difficult to imagine. Spenser "dwelt in a world ideal;" the visionary sights and beings which fill the land of Faerie floated round him continually; his imagination rose above the rough practical world in…

The Dawn of British drama: A Vehicle of Religious Propaganda

Drama is defined as an articulate story presented in action: The origins of Drama  have always been deeply rooted in the religious instincts of mankind. This is true of the Greeks, Indians, Chinese, Egyptians and also Christians. In Europe, the Church was the cradle of English drama. In fact, English Drama  originated as a vehicle of religious propaganda. In their attempts to Christianize the Celtic island, the inhabitants of which were illiterate, drama was chosen as a mode of presentation and it was hoped that this spectacular and visual performance could have better effect on the people. Dramatized versions of biblical stories, from the creation to the Resurrection, were popular in the middle Ages. Their early history cannot be confidently outlined, though it is widely accepted that the movement towards dramatizing Christian doctrine and biblical history outgrew the comments “upon our literature the drama is incomparably the greatest force of the time it inspired our grandest poetr…

‘The Ox’ Renders ‘Unsentimental Pities’ for those that Suffer Alone – Character sketches of Mrs. Thurlow

In H. E. Bates' The Ox we find Mrs. Thurlow is grounded by poverty and being ever immersed in toiling life, is often troubled by the harsh remarks of his husband and sons.  She receives reproaches   for her dullness in as much as she does not stir herself about emotions but money. Her necessity and the constant drudgery are set out to try her fortune to seek a better future for his two sons. Fatigued by the labours of the four square, she stooped to bovine spirit. Describing her toils the author indirectly deplores both her approach as well as the society’s insipid outlook. Read More Short StoriesHer way lacks the generous woman’s heart, a motherly love, no less than the wandering beggars whose needs never meets all ends. So she comes home with a further throng of beggars behind her.  Bate sees the scene and becomes desperate. He does not curse poverty, but in a few lines droops down the story of Mrs. Thurlowin dead silence with ‘unsentimental pity’.

 In absolute poverty, without p…


William Shakespeare is the English playwright and poet who is recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists and the most widely quoted author in history, details about whose life are sketchy, mere surmise based upon court or other clerical records. For someone who lived almost 400 years ago, a surprising amount is known about Shakespeare’s life. Indeed we know more about his life than about almost any other writer of his age.

There are still significant gaps, and therefore much supposition surrounds the facts we have.His parents, John and Mary (Arden), were married about 1557; she was of the landed gentry, he a yeoman-a Glover and commodities merchant. By 1568, John had risen through the ranks of town government and held the position of high bailiff, similar to mayor. Although the exact date of Shakespeare’s birth is unknown, his baptism on April 26, 1564, was recorded in the parish register of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, a prosperous t…

The Rich Metaphorical Significance of the Hell-scene in G. B. Shaw's "Man and Superman"

Act III of Man and Superman is loaded with rich metaphorical significance. It is virtually a full-fledged one-act play incorporated into and inter-fused with the texture of this drama by the superb dramatic genius of Shaw. The drama being a realistic one the Hall scene typifies Shaw’s ability to create fantasy.

Indeed it is suggestive of an exquisite imaginative fecundity of Shaw. Thus, by skillfully interweaving this piece of fantasy with the drama Shaw has made wonderful admixture of realism and fantasy. “Without this scene Man and Superman is merely a comedy, the story of a marathon man-hunt on the part of a woman. With this scene alone it attains the dignity of a philosophy”. In stage representation this scene proved to be exceptionally effective and Shaw himself intended it to figure as a vital and inextricable part of the drama. The entire scene is laden with philosophical ideas of almost encyclopedic magnitude. Prof. A. C. Ward has made an illuminating comment on the merit of th…

Great Expectations: Characters and “Family Tree”

 “It is the real unconquerable rush and energy in a character which was the supreme and quite indescribable greatness of Dickens.” - G. K. Chesterton 
Pip (Young Phillip Pirrip) The narrator as well as the protagonist of the story. Pip is an orphan being raised by his sister, Mrs. Joe Gargey and her husband, Mr. Joe Gargery, a blacksmith.   in constant fear of punishment -A sensitive boy, he is frequently beaten or starved and verbally abused by his sister. Pip has long-standing belief that he deserves more in life than becoming a blacksmith like Joe.

Characteristics of Renaissance: Reflection in Literature

“In essence the Renaissance was simply the green end of one of civilization's hardest winters.” John Fowles(1926 - 2005) British novelist. The French Lieutenant's Woman

The characteristics of Renaissance, both in England in Europe, were similar. Freedom of thought and a broadened vision became the order of the day. Dogma in matters of fate or destiny and morals disappeared. Read More History of English Literature (Short questions) Reformation questioned the authority of the spiritual energy. The discoveries of navigators and astronomers created a sense of wonder and astonishment on the part of men and women. Classical Literature of Rome and Greece was looked upon as very great and beautiful.

The World of Egdon Heath in Thomas Hardy’s The Return of the Native

There were many texts of Thomas Hardy based on animism, the belief that all objects have a spiritual being. This belief led to his careful stewardship of nature out of fear or respect for these divine spirits. Moreover, rustic lifestyles, dependent on nature become respectful attire in his writing. The same is true for his The Return of the Native. Here the nature is presented through the Egdon Heath which is a fictitious area of Thomas Hardy's Wessex . However, Hardy draws Egdon Heath keeping in mind east of Dorchester and north-west of Wareham broadly.

The Three Woman and Their Respective Approaches Towards Egdon Health:Eustacia Vye, Thomasin and Mrs. Yeobright are the three women as mentioned in Book 1 of The Return of the Native. This three major woman character had their different reactions and outlooks towards Egdon.

George Bernard Shaw as a Dramatist: “For art’s sake’ alone I would not face the toil of writing a single sentence”

Before George Bernard Shawstarted his career as a dramatist, the English drama had already entered into a new phase of development under the influence of the Norweigian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The romantic tradition of the Elizabethan drama which held the English stage for more than three centuries began to lose its influence from the middle of the nineteenth century. “Is drama to be limited to the surface characteristics of a life that is no longer lived in surface, or will drama reflect in form and substances the deepest life of the time?” This was the question which vigorously agitated the mind of the mid-Victorian dramatists. They finally realized that the new drama had a serious purpose to server and it should be brought in line discarded the romantic tradition of the Old English drama and accepted the real and serious problem of the age as the themes of the new English drama. In the absence of any British playwright to supply them with motive and model they drew inspiration fro…

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 43

Short notes on History of English Literature A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers a.Catherine is the heroine of ‘A Farewell to Arms’.Henry is the hero of ‘A Farewell to Arms’. Lieutenant Henry was commander of an Ambulance unit. b.Willy Loman is a hero of‘Death of a Salesman’. c.‘Walden’ is written by Thoreau. Mahatma Gandhi was inspired by Thoreau. Thoreau had read Hindu Scriptures. d.‘Stopping by Woods’ inspired Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru. e.Frost is also called a regional and pastoral poet. f.In the last scene of Hamlet Horatio   bids flights of angels to sing Hamlet to his rest. g.Jane Austen’s light comic touch and finely developed sense of irony are evident in Emma. h.Jane Austen’s last completed novel, Persuasion, has a more sombre tone than her earlier work.

UGC NET Solved Paper II; Subject -- English; December: 2012

UGC NET Solved Paper II; Subject -- English; December: 2012Note: This paper contains fifty (50) objective type questions, each question carrying two (2) marks. Attempt all the questions.[Maximum Marks: 100 Time: 75 mnts]
1. Identify the work below that does not belong to the literature of the eighteenth century: (A) Advancement of Learning (B) Gulliver’s Travels (C) The Spectator (D) An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot (Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626), English philosopher, statesman, and lawyer composed The Advancement of Learning. Here Bacon   sets guidelines for study and presents a highly organized survey and classification of knowledge. Bacon rejects learning by astrologers and others who gather unrelated facts. ) 2. Which, among the following, is a place through which John Bunyan’s Christian does NOT pass? (A) The Slough of Despond (B) Mount Helicon (C…