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The Relationship between Poetry and Music as Stated in Plato’s Republic

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Plato, who makes his famed TheRepublic the entreaty of all possible discussions on all the aspects of citizenship and an inquiry into the nature of justice and the organization of a perfect society, brings both poetry and music within his preview. Book III of the Republic, in particular, is concerned with the education of the ideal civilization for his ideal republic. The two kinds of education are mental and physical, and mental education includes the cultivation of both music and poetry. Criticizing the doctrines of atheism and materialism, Plato reaffirmed his idealistic position and asserted his belief in the moral government of the universe and the immortality of the soul. Yet, Plato’s attitude is not of ecstatic enthusiasm but rather of a subdued and resigned acceptance. Music and poetry, if they are finding a place in his somewhat Utopian republic, must not exist as parries. They must subserve, the kind of education Plato seeks, and for that, many aspects of music, as of poetry…

Analysis of P.B. Shelley’s Ode to the West Wind: Adoration of Powerful Force and the Poet's Reformist Words

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P.B. Shelley‘sOde to the West Windaddresses the west wind as a powerful force and asks it to scatter the poet's reformist words throughout the world. It is written in a spirit of exaltation; it is a dignified strain in praise of West Wind. The metrical effects are very beautiful here and in doing so Shelley unifies the content of the poem by focusing the first three stanzas on the powers of the wind and the last two stanzas on the poet's desire to use these powers to spread his words throughout the world.

Analysis of Thomas Hardy's In Time of 'The Breaking of Nations' : Glorious Triumph of Love and Life

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The title word In Time of 'The Breaking of Nations' significantly echoes God’s words that He will break the nations and bring destruction (The Bible, Jeremiah LI 20). Ironically enough the optimist Thomas Hardy is here boldly contesting God’s words. He voices the glorious triumph of love and life over the onslaught of war and destruction.

UGC NET Solved Paper II ; Subject -- English ; December : 2010

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ENGLISH Paper – II Note : This paper contains fifty (50) objective type questions, each question carrying two(2)marks. Attempt all the questions.
(ALL THE ANSWERS ARE COLOURED. I HAVE TRIED TO GIVE LOGIC BEHIND ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS. WITHOUT SYLLOGISTIC FORMAT YOU NEED AN ELFIN TOWER TALL HEAD.)
1. Jeremy Collier’s A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage attacked among others. (A) John Bunyan (B) Thomas Rhymer (C) William Congreve (D) Henry Fielding
<Note: When the work of Congreve and his colleagues was attacked by the clergyman JeremyCollier as licentious, Congreve replied with Amendments of Mr. Collier's False and Imperfect Citations (1698). >



2. The Crystal Palace, a key exhibit of the Great Exhibition, was designed by (A) Charles Darwin (B) Edward Moxon (C) Joseph Paxton (D) Richard Owen
<Note: CrystalPalace, famous exhibition hall was designed by Sir Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, England. Because of its great size and its…

Sir Walter Scott’s The Lay of the Last Minstrel: Patriotism is an Eternal Ideology for Loving of One’s Country

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The bright, fervent love of one’s country i. e. affection with which people care their homeland is an eternal ideology. In the name of patriotism we are eager for the sacrifice which will be celebrated with honor on the occasion of freedom. We all anticipate that happy moment. Whereas, a hater of his homeland is shadowed in the blackest darkness, by reason of the betrayal veil that obscures his sight.The theme of Sir Walter Scott’s TheLay of the Last Minstrel is centered on the same subject of patriotism. In simple words, the poet extols patriotism and denounces lackness in patriotism. The tone of the poem is patriotic. Each line thrills with deep patriotic feelings. Love of one’s own country is the kernel of this poem. The lines are highly inspiring.

Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones: Literary Imagination , Perfection of Plot and Artistic Form

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Henry Fielding’s Tom Jonessketches the evolution of novel writing till the close of the eighteenth century that the reader may be reminded of those authors whose influence is still felt and of whom it belongs to the humane life to know. In the more detailed studies we find the story extensively popular, with a lot of literary imagination and artistic form. It marks a progressive change. In estimating Tom Jones’s place and function, a close examination of the work must have to be done.

Lord Alfred Tennyson‘s Crossing the Bar: Spiritual Discourse on the Aftermath of Life

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One has to die some day or other, and one cannot die a better death than Jesus. It is his death that brought a revolution into the consciousness of humanity.  Osho (The Dhammapada)
Lord Alfred Tennyson‘sCrossing the Bar is a highly charged spiritual discourse on the aftermath of life. It is a philosophic discourse on the subject of death. However, the central issue in this poem is the personal vision of death presented through the analogical metaphors of sea voyage. In fact, Lord Alfred Tennyson‘sCrossing the Bar is allegorical and steeped in deep symbolic meaning from the beginning to the end. The entire poem is deeply suggestive lesson of final journey of life towards death set forth in the metaphoric language of sea voyage.

Hamlet’s Delay in Action: Critical Commentary on Shakespeare’s Hero

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Hamlet has every reason to act swiftly in avenging his father’s murderer; we know he can act quickly, as his behaviour on the pirate ship shows. Yet he seems to find it impossible to kill Claudius, and when he does so it is an immediate response to the death of his mother. Critics debate over the Possible Reasons for this delay. The popular theories are:
The Earlier Play:There is a theory- but it is no more than a theory- that hamlet is based on another, earlier play with essentially the same story, but which treated the issues raised more simply- for example, hamlet simply wants revenge, is prevented from enacting it by practical difficulties of killing a reigning king and adopts madness as a ruse to avoid suspicion. This theory coincides with know practice; Shakespeare’s age did not prize originality of plot a great deal and the majority of Shakespeare’s plays are taken from other books or works. The idea also helps to explain some of the apparent inconsistencies and uncertainties of…

Walter de la Mare’s Silver: Simplicity of Dictions, Rhythmic Sounds, Painting of the Nocturnal Setting and Fairy- tale like Ambience

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Walter de la Mare’s Silver is simply beautiful for its simplicity of diction, rhythmic sounds, painting of the nocturnal setting and fairy tale like ambiance. Rhyming in couplets the entire poem is a flow of onomatopoeicsounds; but the sounds itself transmutes the colours.

William Wordsworth’s Interest in Nature: Theory of “Emotion Recollected in Tranquility.”

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“The office of the poet is not that of the moralist, and the first aim of Wordsworth's poetry is to give the reader a peculiar kind of pleasure.” --WALTER PATER
 [From Appreciations, 1889. First published in the Fortnightly Review for April, 1874.]

William Wordsworth introduced nature into English poetry and revived interest in natural scenes and country folk in the truest sense of pleasure. Most of his great lyrics and odes had aesthetic pleasure of nature for their theme, for instance, Immortality ode and The Solitary Reaper. Wordsworth not only dwelt on the external beauty of nature but also revealed the inner aesthetic meaning of the various objects of nature. Thus in Immortality Ode he writes – “To me the meanest flower that blows can give Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears. ”

Critical appreciation of Bertrand Russell's Free Thought and Official Propaganda :What does Russell mean by the word ‘Free Thought’ and how it is prejudice by the official Propaganda?

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Bertrand Russell, the British philosopher, mathematician, Nobel laureate and logical analyzer in his critical lecture (DELIVERED AT SOUTH PLACE INSTITUTE ON MARCH 24, 1922), Free Thought  and Official Propaganda observes the nature of Free wills in the individuals and critically portraits the propaganda which curb the destined goal of it. In simple words, according to him reasoning and better civilized world is a performance of the Free Thinker, which time and again are put into control or checked by the orthodox Governmental measures.

R. K. Narayan 's essay , A Writer’s Nightmare : Critical Observation on Censorship of Writings and Writers by the Governmental Parameters

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"There are writers- Tolstoy and Henry James to name two- whom we held in awe, writers- Turgenev and Chekhov- for whom we feel a personal affection, other writers whom we respect- Conrad for example- but who hold us at a long arm's length with their 'courtly foreign grace.' Narayan (whom I don't hesitate to name in such a context) more than any of them wakes in me a spring of gratitude, for he has offered me a second home. Without him I could never have known what it is like to be Indian." --- Graham Greene

R. K.Narayan in his A Writer’s Nightmare vividly sums up a critical observation on censorship of writings and writers by the Governmental parameters. It is a sweet anecdote of dream like qualities. Here is not only a simplicity of consecration but also of lasting literary merits. R. K. Narayan’s essay, A Writer’s Nightmare reveals his keen observation on the situation of writing in India. The essay is also a virtue of simplicity, precision, clarity and reada…

Shakespeare's Audience: Structural Analysis

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Prologue:“If an audience disrespects me it is insulting the music I play and I will not continue, because if they don't want to listen then I don't want to play. An audience chooses to come and see me perform; I don't choose the audience.”-  Nina Simone (1933 - 2003) U.S. jazz singer, pianist, and songwriter.

Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot as an avant Garde Performances

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If Avant-Garde musical is Boulez's Livre Pour Cordes, films in  Michelangelo Antonioni; Ingmar Bergman; Luis Buñuel; Sergey Mikhaylovich Eisenstein; etc, avant-garde theater and playwrights must comply with  Antonin Artaud; Samuel Beckett; Bertolt Brecht; Jean Cocteau; Friedrich Dürrenmatt; Jean Genet; Eugène Ionesco; Alfred Jarry; Vsevolod Meyerhold etc. Notably Samuel Beckett’s Waiting For Godot is an exquisite Avant-Garde production.

The Return of the Native By Thomas Hardy : Important Short Questions Part IV

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31. Explain the phrase ‘Cretan Labyrinth’ – Explain the context in which it appears.
            Minos, the legendary king of Crete, ordered the construction of an elaborate Labyrinth in which he kept the Minotaur, a monster which was half bull and half man. Each year seven young men and seven young women imprisoned in the labyrinth for the Minotaur to kill.             This appears in the context of the dreams dreamt by Eustacia about Clym which were very exciting and was certainly never dreamed by a girl in Custacia’s situation before. The dreams of Eustacia had as many remifications as the Cretan Labyrinth.
32. ‘But providence is nothing if not coquettish’ – When and why did Hardy say this?
            Hardy told this when Eustacia resolved to look for the man from Paris i.e. Clym, no more Eustacia was so much fascinated in her dreams that it led her to seek for Clym everyday. Unfortunately she could not see Clym even aftr her fifth visit to the heath. She retired with heart sickness …

The Return of the Native By Thomas Hardy : Important Short Questions Part III

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21. Why did Thomasin write a letter to Diggory Venn?

            Diggory Venn, the riddle man was once a dairy farmer. He was in love with Thomasin but despite the fact that she considered him to be a good man declined to marry him. In a letter therefore, Thomasin had candidly exclaims her position to him and urged him not to see her again. For this reason only, Thomasin, wrote a letter to Diggory Venn.
22. What was the secret of the reddleman’s deep concern for Thomasin’s happiness?
            Diggory Venn, the reddleman loved Thomasin to the core of his heart and also proposed her. Thomasin Teobrite rejected his proposal and wrote him a letter. But Venn’s love for Thomasin did not wane. He tried her best to ensure Thomasin’s happiness.
23. ‘The reddleman suggested to Eustacia that he would arrange for her escape from Egdon to Budmouth’ – How did he liked to do it? Why did Eustacia reject the suggestion?
            The reddleman’s uncle had been a trustee of a rich widow at Bud mouth fo…

The Return of the Native By Thomas Hardy : Important Short Questions Part II

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11. ‘And if you hear a frog jumped into the pond with a flown, like a stone thrown in, be sure you run and tell me because it is a sign of rain’ – Who said this and to whom? Was the jumping of a frog really a sign of rain? If not, what did it signify?


            This was told by Eustacia to her assistant, Johnny whom she had employed to keep the bonfire burning.
            The jumping of a frog was not really a sign of rain. It was the sound of the stone thrown into the pond, which was the signal of Wildeve’s coming to meet with Eustacia.

The Return of the Native By Thomas Hardy : Important Short Questions Part I

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1. ‘The untamable, Ishmaelite thing that Egdon now was it always had been’ – What is meant by Ishmaelite thing? Why Egdon is called Ishmaelite thing?

            The phrase ‘Ishmaelitish thing’ refers to a person or thing cast off from others. In the Bible Ishmael was the son of Abraham by Hagar. Abraham cast out Hagar and Ishmael in-to the desert. Hence the sense of an outcast comes.
            Hardy describes Egdon as Ishmaelitish thing, because it is cast off from the civilized world. It is an enemy to civilization.
2. “The great inviolent place had an ancient permanence which the sea cannot claim” – Name ‘the great inviolent place’. How does the speaker establish the ‘ancient permanence’ of the place which even the ‘sea’ can not claim?

P.B Shelley's The Cloud: A myth of Nature

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A myth is a story handed down from olden times, especially explanation of natural events or beliefs about the early history of a race. In other words, a myth is a purely fictitious narrative embodying popular ideas on natural phenomena. In relation to poetry and myth, it is definitely be told that a poet must have in his soul a sense of music, myth and imagination or he will never be able to speak rhythmically, universally and pictorially in his poetry. P. B.Shelley stands among those poets who made a perfect fusion of myth and lyrical grace, the most spontaneous, the most lyrical and most mythical. 

John Keats' "To one who has been long in city pent" : Read from the Perspective of Nature Worship

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The themes of the Keatsian lyrics cover a great range: nature, country, home, family, friends, conduct, love, God whatever emotion can touch. In the poet's heart and mind it has smoldered until it bursts out in the flame of expression. What range of kind and of intensity there is to human emotion! However, Nature Worship, a kind of poetic devotion paid either to nature as a deified collective entity or to all things in nature, including the elements, celestial bodies, plants, animals, and humanities best exhibited in Keatsian poetry. His To one who has been long in city pent can also be read from that perspective of Nature Worship.

Galsworthy's "Justice” : A Problem Play that Satirizes Crime Law and Divorce Law at Force in Then England

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No subject of equal social importance has received such thoughtful consideration in recent years as the question of Crime and Punishment. A number of books by able writers, both in Europe and this country discuss this topic from the historic, psychological, and social standpoint, the consensus of opinion being that present penal institutions and our methods of coping with crime have in every respect proved inadequate as well as wasteful. This new attitude toward one of the gravest social wrongs has also found dramatic interpretation in Galsworthy's "Justice.” It is a problem play that satirizes crime law and divorce law at force in then England.

The Application of Information Technology & Multimedia in Teaching English Literature

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Introduction:
There has been a sea change, during the past two decades, of the teaching of English literature world wide in the schools and colleges by the introduction of scientific equipments. The earlier teaching of English was characterized largely by a type of instruction which is a type of a lecture method in teaching poetry and prose. But, presently, universalisation of education technology is a matter of great prosperity for the teaching ideology. Particularly Information Technology achieves a wide possible reach for the students. A large number of schools and colleges have been upgraded with emphasis on enhancing visual teaching, reducing abstract rate of insipid learning. Multimedia can succeed in achieving most of these targets. While this is true for teaching every subject, The Application of Multimedia in Teaching English Literature is our primary concern.



The Conch in Golding's "Lord of the Flies" Bears a Mythical Identity : Symbolic Stance of Authority, Civilization, Reason, Structure and Self-discipline.

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Introduction:Generally, Conch, the shells of some species, is fashioned into trumpets for use in ceremonial music among certain religious and ethnic groups. For Example, Vishnu is depicted as holding a conch in one of his four hands. The conch in his hand is said to symbolize that from which all existence originates.  The conch in Lord of the Flies also bears a mythical identity with a symbolic stance ofauthority, of civilization, of respectability, order, intelligence, reason, and self-discipline. The conch Image shows Golding's delicacy of touch in his treatment of the myth in the story. His portrayal is most artistic. However, the study of conch follows several lines. Attention may be centered separately, with a view to understanding it thoroughly and training the mind studying in literary appreciation.

Significance of the Mute Scene in John Galsworthy's "Justice"

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 John Galsworthy’s notes in The Mute Scene is an integral part of the drama,Justice which, not to be read as added material, but to be read as material that comments upon and deconstructs the core theme Justice.The Mute Scene (Act III, scene iii) is very important from the theatrical point of view since through this Galsworthy presents the deep agony of a helpless man, Falder in the solitary confinement. The scene arouses not only our pity and fear, but also our hatred for the system. It is heart-gripping in its silent force. The whole scene is a pantomime, taking place in Falder's prison cell.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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