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FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : TET, SSC ETC


1.Using suitable words from the list --( horde, mob, crowd, gang, band, group, company, squad,crew, team
Ans- (a) During the riots the mob got out of control and police were forced to open fire.
(b) The sergeant major was drilling a company of soldier’s on the aquarium.
(c)Although they defended themselves bravely, they could not keep off the horde of Indians thatattacked then in thousands.
(d) The crowd that watched the football match broke in to groups on leaving the field.
(e) The aeroplane crew could see the gang of robbers rushing away to hide in the forests.
(f) The hoarder/band of workmen soon had the new piece railway track lay.
2. Arrange the words in the two lists so as to make pairs.
A                    B
1. Pelican 1.orchaed
2. Crapes 2. Oil
3. Fruit trees 3. Case
4. Cricket 4.tannery
5. Barrel 5. Mint
6. Coal 6. Crossing
7. Leather 7. Rod
8. Spectacles 8. Vineyard
9. Angler 9. Pitch
10. Money 10. Scuttle
Ans- 1_______6 /2_______8/ 3_______1/…

The Conformity of Tom Jones with Fielding’s Theory of the Novel

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Fielding was essaying in the art of the novel when the genre was yet in its incipient stage and Fielding can therefore be called a pioneer. More than anybody else Fielding himself was aware of his role in the evolution of his genre and although he disclaims the title of a pure divine tyrant, he asserts his independence about being ‘founder’: As I am in reality, the founder of a new province of writing,   So I am at liberty to make what laws I please there in.  And there laws, my readers, whom I consider my subject, Are bound to believe in and obey………[Book II Tom Jones] It is in the preface to Joseph Andrews that Fielding points out the true nature of his creation ‘a comic epic in prose. He distinguishes it from many other genres including history, serious romance, and comedy, burlesque and heroic romances. It is different from history in that it does not imitate the ‘painful and voluminous historian’ as also in that it often admits of ‘chasms’ in the history. It is distinct from the ser…

Henry Fielding’s Tom Jones as a Picaresque Novel: ‘comic – epic in prose’

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"Heroes, notwithstanding the high Ideas, which by the Means of Flatterers they may entertain of themselves, or the World may conceive of them, have certainly more of Mortal than Divine about them. However elevated their Minds may be, their Bodies at least (which is much the major Part of most) are liable to the worst Infirmities, and subject to the vilest Offices of human Nature. Among these latter the Act of Eating, which hath by several wise Men been considered as extremely mean and derogatory from the Philosophic Dignity, must be in some Measure performed by the greatest Prince, Heroe, or Philosopher upon Earth; nay, sometimes Nature hath been so frolicksome as to exact of these dignified Characters, a much more exorbitant Share of this Office, than she hath obliged those of the lowest Order to perform."- Tom Jones by Henry Fielding



Although Fielding called his novel a ‘comic – epic in prose’, the epithet of ‘picaresque’ would be equally justified. This, of course, does no…

Indo-Anglican Fiction of the Post-Independence Era

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"After independence, the Indo-Anglican writer of fiction is more self-confident than ever before. These are a sudden widening of the horizons and a keener and deeper interest in the history of our people and country. Again and again we find a conflict of ideologies raging in the minds of our post independence novelist. Whereas poverty, hunger, death and disease form the key notes of symphony, movements like humanitarianism, socialism and liberalism spot-light the finer and the more sublime aspects of their dreams for the future. The post-independence novelist seems to stand between the two worlds-one dead, the other yet to be born. It is difficult to predict the course of this novel, though it is full of potentialities which may be vital to the nation as a whole." (The  Cambridge History of English Literature) The fiction writers in this era are not in large number. A sparkling writer is Sudhin Ghose with his three books And Gazelles Leaping, Cradle of the Clouds and Vermilli…

Tiresias in The Waste Land: Central Figure and Interested Spectator of the Modern Waste Land

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Introduction: Tiresias: The central figure: Tiresias, according to Eliot is the central figure in The Waste Land, an interested spectator of the modern waste land and, what Tiresias sees in the substance of the whole poem. The significance of Tiresias is complex and varied. Historically he is connected with the story of king Oedipus of Thebes, which is clearly and demonstrable the classical legend of a waste land, with striking resemblance to the drought infested, sin – ridden kingdom of the medieval Fisher King.


Tiresias: Connection with king Oedipus and His Waste Land: The way the introduction of Tiresias serves complicates the unethical frame of the poem and universalizes its central significance by bringing home to us that the sin involved in the violation of the sublimity of sex has in all ages and countries led to decay and degeneration, and the necessity of purifying the sinner’s soul through suffering as the sole way to salvation. Oedipus unwittingly kills his father and marrie…

Development of English Essays from Bacon to Addison

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An essay is short composition in prose. Sainsbury calls 'a work of prose arts’. Dr., Johnson defines it as 'a loose sally of the mind, an irregular, undigested piece , not a regular and orderly  performance’. There are various types of essay-personal, giving the author’s own experiences, impression or reactions: Aphoristic, giving impersonal reflection on wisdom and philosophy; periodical, Read More Essaypublished in dailies, weeklies or monthlies detailing contemporary social or political problems etc. Now we should carry to the different stages of its development in English particularly from Bacon to Addison.



To trace the history of the English Essay we shall have to go back to the Elizabethan Age, The Miscellaneous work of a few University wits like Lyly, Greene, Lodge, and Nashe has some Traces of novel. It has also the first anticipation of the Essay. Apologia For Poetries of Sir Philip Sidney has a semblance of essay though in uncertain style.


Raja Rao’s Contribution to Fiction: Critical Assessment

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It is significant coincidence that Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, and Raja Rao, the three major writers of the Indian novel in English, belonged to the thirties of the twentieth century. Their prolific literary output defined the Gandhian dream of India. Their bland of political ideology and social realism ensured that the English prose fiction would be the medium for the definition of a new Indian and aspiration. We will now carry a few sketches of Raja Rao’s life and literary outputs.
Raja Rao belongs to an ancient Brahmin family of Mysore. He receives his early education from Muslin from Aligarh Muslim University Raja Rao has been familiar with variety of languages Kannada, Telugu, Urdu, English and even French etc. His wide learning and the discovery of the mantra of true in the classical literature of ancient India lead him as a creative artist.

20th Century Literary Criticism with Special Reference -T.S. ELIOT, Arthur Symons

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Twentieth century literary criticism has a wide variety. It is the result of the great  variety and complexity of the century itself-in all walks of life. The arm of the century inherited subjective and impressionistic criticism from Waller patter and Swinburne. The impressionistic criticism is based on the individual response to a literary work. Symons and Spingram are the well known impressionistic. Then, there is a psychological school of criticism, and a sociological school of critics. Then, there is a psychological school of criticism, and a sociological school of criticism. There psychological school of criticism regards all literary creation as the mar formation of the artist’s psychological abnegation.  The sociological school of criticism lays stress on the importance of mid-line in reference to the making of an artist. Modern criticism has discarded some of the bold canons of crisis and commendable work in evaluating some of the Elizabethan and Noe-classical writers, and has …

Pre- Raphaelite Poetry: ‘Fleshly School’ of Sexual Passion

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The Pre- Raphaelite movement was started in 1810 by two German painters, Cornelius and Overbeck. It was called Pre- Raphaelite Brethren’. In England it was started by D.G. Rossetti, Hunt and Millais in 1848. It was called Per- Raphaelite Brotherhood. Its object was to revive in painting the simplicity, natural ease and grace of the early painters of Italy before Raphael. They indented themselves artistically with the painters before Raphael. Later on the move mint was joined by Morris and Swinburne. Of these D.G. Rossetti, Morris and Swinburne were poets, the other were painters. Rossetti was both painter and poet. These there poets represent the Pre-Raphaelite school of poetry. The poetry of the Per-Raphaelite poet was also called by some critics as the poetry of the ‘Fleshly school’.

One Act Play Made its Entrance in the Twentieth Century and Concentrates both the Denouement and Climax within its Short Space

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Introduction:The one act play practically made its entrance in the twentieth century and it concentrates both the denouement and climax within its short space. Herman Old comments on one act play as, “It may be neat, compact and rigid: but it may also be wayward, expansive and flexible. So long as it does not conflict with the fundamental principles of drama, it may venture in to a hundred different directions and exploit almost as many themes as the ingenuity and inventiveness of the author can suggest.”



It’s Organ: Although in 20th century there is the preponderance of one act play, its origin can be stressed back to the 15th century among the Morality, miracle and Mystery plays. In old Sanskrit text there is also the shadow of one act play. But among those plays there is only the outward from not the essence of the modern time.

John Galsworthy’s Art of Characterization in The Man of Property

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John Galsworthy, a “master of yesterday” in English fiction, does not ate height in critical evaluation today. That perhaps in an indicator of transience of fame when based on the surface of things or better still it exhibits the parade of literary fashion which so often rejects the beau model of yesterday are for the beau ideal of the next if only to keep the critic abreast of his times. Galsworthy has been variously described as one of the vile materialists, the protagonist of the well-made novel and the creator of well-made characters, which rather correspond to types despite the particularization they receive in the hands of their creator. Perhaps these are all true, but what is true is that these by themselves do not tell the whole truth.

Galsworthy’s presentation of characters in The Man of Property presumes a background with which the novelist was intimately connected in life. The action of the novel or the trilogy of which if forms a distinct and independent first part is woven…

W. B. Yeats’s Poetry: Analysis of Organic Development and Growth

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The entire poetic career of Yeats, stretching over a period of about fifty years may be classified in to four sharply distinct hazes. It is of course, true that a critical analysis which concentrates on dissection is bound to be erroneous. Indeed it is not fair to segregate and pin down each phase as exclusively separate. A critical analysis which is equivalent to true appreciation will not put each such phase in to water bight compartment.
Three is however, a consensus of opinion amongst crib as that Yeast’s poetic career shows a development which is almost organic. Eminent cities including T.S. Eliot hold the view that Yeats’s creative faculty manifests a sort of organic development and growth. T.S. Eliot’s pertinent observation merits quotation.              “I can think of no poet, not even the greatest, who has shown a longer period of development than Yeats. Development to this extent is not merely generous, it is character.”

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 41

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Short notes on History of English LiteratureA Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
1.Arcadia (1590), a pastoral romance in verse linked by prose passages; the first considerable work in English in this form, it became a model for later pastoral poetry.
2.Ben Jonson’s first comedy, Everyman in His Humour, is a satiric picture of his own age, to write with cool irony of contemporary human foibles as he considered them and as Terence had done.
3.Utopia, by Thomas More, is a powerful and original study of social conditions, unlike anything which have had ever appeared in any literature except some points of resemblance in Plato’s Repubilic.The book is divided into two parts.
4.Utopia’s influence is found in several important works of European literature, including Anglo-Irish writer Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels(1726) and French philosopher and author Voltaire’s Candide (1759).

Men That Keep Attention: Life and Contribution: Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, The First Indian Poet in English

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The first Indian poet in English Henry Louis Vivian Derozio was born in 1809. By the early influence of his mother and teacher, establishing the dimension of his thinking and writing, he wrote The Fakir of Junghera, a Metrical Tale (1828) inspired by the gigantic rock rising out of a river and woven around a young Brahmin widow. Read More Men That Keep AttentionThis poem launched him on his rewarding poetic career- he came into contact with john Craft, Editor of The Examiner who helped him to get an important position in The Indian Gazette.

Woman Novelists of the Victorian Era: CHARLOTTE BRONTE, EMILY BRONTE, Mrs. Gaskell, GEORGE ELIOT

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Introduction: The Victorian era is known for the galaxy of female novelists. CHARLOTTE BRONTE, EMILY BRONTE, Mrs. Gaskell and GEORGE ELIOT are in prime focus.  They also include Mrs. Trollope, Mrs. Gore, Mrs. Maroh, Mrs. Bray, Mrs. Henry, charlotte younger, Miss Oliphant, and still more. However, the four most important women novelists, who yet are quite important, are charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, Mrs. Gaskell and George Eliot. Of the four, the two first named were sister, and their methods and achievement as novelists met at many places. But each of the remaining two priced her own line and made herself known in the field of English novel in her own way. 

Revival of Poetic Drama in 20th Century: A Late Start in England

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The poetic drama had a late start in England. During the thirty years from 1890 to 1920 the pure poetic play was almost non-existent in England. However, in Ireland, it attracted some of the Abbey theatre authors. Stephen Philips remained strictly faithful to the verse form. His Paolo and Francesca, which was modeled upon Dante's famous episode in Inferno, was a great success in 1900. His other plays were Herrod, A Tragedy, Ulysses, The Sin of David and Nero. John Drinkwater also endeavored to re-establish the poetic play in his earlier career. His notable plays RebellionandThe Storm are written in this style. W.B. Yeats, the great poet, whose work belongs to the Irish Literary Movement and the Abbey Theatre also wrote plays in this style. His finest achievement in this sphere is The Countess Kathleen. J.M. Synge is the other important name in the history of the poetic drama. He evolved a new from more closely in accord with the spirit of his age. He contributed immensely to the d…

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