AD's English Literature : 2015

Psychological Principles Applied to the Teaching of English Strategies For Beginners: Questions at the Heart of Pragmatic and Strategic Policies

What Principles are to be applied in the Teaching of English is much debated and ever since educational Psychology are introduced Linguistics argue in the mechanism of them. These questions are at the heart of a pragmatic and strategic policies in the general field of Teaching of English in the early 21st century , and they urgently demand answers if these theories are not to be seen by teachers as yet another example of arid scholasticism . Teachers need to be able to make informed and engaged choices about the theories they encounter, to take a critical stance towards them, and to deploy the resulting insights in their own critical practice. Perhaps, since ‘teaching literature is always already teaching theory’, and since students ‘are always already inside theory’, ‘Theory can be taught best as theorising. Without in any sense denying the importance of ingesting the theoretical work itself or appearing to promote once more a simplistic empiricism, Psychological principles are being followed in teaching all the subjects in the curriculum.

Want A Thriving Reading Experience? Focus On William Wordsworth’s ‘Daffodils’!: Nature as Possessing Life and Consciousness



Daffodils is one of the most beautiful lyrics of William Wordsworth. Wordsworth,  the Nature priest, looked upon Nature as possessing life and consciousness. He believed that nature could feel joy like human beings. So in Daffodils he describes how the daffodils danced with joy—
 “Ten thousand saw I at a glance
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.”

Self-knowledge in Jane Austen’s 'Pride and Prejudice': Speaking of the Heroine, Elizabeth Bennet


"I had not seen Pride and Prejudice till I read that sentence of yours, and then I got the book. And what did I find? An accurate daguerreotyped portrait of a commonplace face; a carefully fenced, highly cultivated garden, with neat borders and delicate flowers; but no glance of a bright, vivid physiognomy, no open country, no fresh air, no blue hill, no bonny beck. I should hardly like to live with her ladies and gentlemen, in their elegant but confined houses."
Charlotte Brontë (1816 - 1855)




The attainment of self-knowledge on the part of the central figures is always Jane Austen’s theme, and self-knowledge results in goodness. Thus, the heroine of Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth gradually discovers the truth and sheds her prejudices en route a love journey both humorous and deeply serious moods. She has been proud of her discernment but she finds that she has been wrong in judging both Darcy and Wickham. By the end, she realizes her folly and her prejudice. Life for her is thus a continuous process of increasing self-knowledge.

What Makes Shakespeare’s Use of Blank Verse in His Plays More Interesting In English Dramatic Poetry?



“The Measure is English Heroic Verse
without Rhyme, as that of Homer in
Greek, and of Virgil in Latin; Rhyme
being no necessary Adjunct to true
Ornament of Poem or good Verse, in
larger Works especially...”
--  English poet John Milton in the preface to his epic Paradise Lost

What is a Blank Verse?:  Blank verse is unrhymed poetry, typically in iambic pentameter, and, as such, the dominant verse form of English dramatic and narrative poetry since the mid-16th century. Blank verse was adapted by Italian Renaissance writers from classical sources; it became the standard form of such dramatists as Ludovico Ariosto, Torquato Tasso, and Battista Guarini. From Italy, blank verse was brought into English literature by the poet Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, who first used it in his translation of books II and IV of the Aeneid, by the Roman poet Virgil and dramatic application first in Gorboduc. The so-called University Wits developed it further till their master; Marlowe made magic music with it and wrote his marvelous mighty line. Shakespeare in this respect was a true student of Marlowe, the master in blank verse and his early works permeate with the overt and covert influences of the Marlovian rhetoric. However, Shakespeare’s genius found its own in blank verse too and made this a potent instrument for the flowering of the greatest drama in English literature. He transformed blank verse into a supple instrument, uniquely capable of conveying speech rhythms and emotional overtones. 

William Blake’s Holy Thursday (Twas on a Holy Thursday their innocent faces clean): Atmosphere of Innocence, Purity and Sacredness


In William Blake’s Holy Thursday an atmosphere of innocence, purity and sacredness pervades it. The children of the charity schools are innocent in nature. Their clean faces sustain the idea. Further, the radiance that comes out of them intensifies it once, again. The church, comparison of children to flowers and lambs, rising of hands towards heaven and singing of hymns, snow-white wands, and wise guardians also contributes to the maintenance of this atmosphere:

“Twas on a Holy Thursday their innocent faces clean 
The children walking two and; two in red and; blue and green 
Grey-headed beadles walkd before with wands as white as snow,
Till into the high dome of Pauls they like Thames waters flow”

Thomas Hardy’s Novels at Faults? Five Ways You Can Be Certain

"There, in the heart of the nimbus, twittered the heart of Hardy
There on the edge of the nimbus, slowly revolved the corpses
Radiating around the twittering heart of Hardy."

John Betjeman (1906 - 1984)..British poet and broadcaster. Referring to Thomas Hardy ..John Betjeman's Collected Poems"The Heart of Thomas Hardy"

Introduction: Critics have attacked Hardy for his novel's plotting and style arguing that all of his novels could not possibly be considered pure. In fact, Thomas Hardy’s view of life was cosmic. This means that tragic novels exist on two planes, the plane of design and the plane of plot. As a plotter Hardy, largely self-educated, was often defective. Sometimes he stumbles because the course of the Ilion suddenly becomes implausible, as when Tess kills Alec with the hand-knife, an implausibility underlined by the failure in tact which allows him describing the blood seeping through the floor to the ceiling below in the likeness of “a gigantic ace of hearts.” His incursions into melodrama are familiar signs of a failure in fact; the final arrest of Tess at Stonehenge is an ambience. It just fails to come off; the grandiose conception is somehow allured. 

Model Poetry Questions for English Graduate: Mixed Up Categories



Poetry Questions

Difficulty Level:  Graduation     Time: 2hr
Each Question: Word Limit: as per

1. Give short answer to any eight of the following questions. 2x8=16
a. What is the full title of Wordsworth’s Tintern Abbey?
b. Who is Maenad? What natural sight resembles a Maenad in Ode to the West Wind?
c. What is ‘embalmed darkness’ in Ode to a Nightingale?
d. What story does Geraldine tell Christabel regarding her abduction?
e. Why does Tom Dacre cry? What consolation does the speaker give him?
f. What does the sculpture of Neptune taming a seahorse suggest in My Last Duchess?
g. What boon does Tithonus ask for? How does ‘strong Hours’ work upon him?
h. What allusion does ‘ignorant armies clash by night’ make in Dover Beach?

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 94



A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

a.      Lake poets: William Wordsworth, S.T. Coleridge, Robert Southey are called the Lake poets because they lived in the Lake District.
b.     Two prose works of Coleridge: The Watchman (a periodical), Biographia Literaria.
c.      Two sonnets by John Keats:  a) On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer, b) Bright Star, c) Would I Were Stedfast as Thou Art.
d.     The expression of a certain idea by saying or showing just the opposite: irony
e.      The use of indirect or polite language to express a concept generally considered unpleasant: satire

Understanding The Background Of Teaching Other Than Class Room: How to get the most from the Distance Learning?



"Discussion in class, which means letting twenty young blockheads and two cocky neurotics discuss something that neither their teacher nor they know."

Vladimir Nabokov (1899 - 1977)


In distance learning the study Selected Topic Text divisions replace the lecturer. This is one of the advantages of distance learning; the student can read and work through specially designed study materials at the student’s own pace, and at time and place that suits the student best. Think of it as reading the lecturer instead of listening to a lecturer. In the same way that a lecturer might give the student some reading to do, the study Selected Topic Text divisions tell the student when to read the student’s set books or other materials.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 93




A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

A. ‘Amor Vincit Omnia’ in Chaucer’s The Prologue means Love conquers all:
“It was almoost a spanne brood, I trowe;
For, hardily, she was nat undergrowe.
Ful fetis was hir cloke, as I was war;
Of smal coral aboute hir arm she bar
A paire of bedes, gauded al with greene,
And theron heeng a brooch of gold ful sheene,
On which ther was first writen a crowned A,
And after, Amor vincit omnia.”
B. The renaissance started in Italy and later came into England via France. (European history from 1440- 1540)

How to Know and Understand our Students in Digital India Initiative while Teaching English?





Digital India is an initiative by the Government of India to ensure that Government services are made available to citizens electronically by improving online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity. –Wikipedia

A critical limitation of teacher’s ability to use technology in Digital India Initiative is too little understanding of technology of teachers while teaching English.  In a sense, this is another example of the productivity costs of a lack of ubiquitous computing literacy.  We should spend a lot on technology in Educational Institutes.  If teachers learned more about computing, they could use it more effectively.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 92



A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK
                                                                
A.  Match the items in the List – I with items in List – II according to the code given below:
List – I
(years)

List – II
(incidents)

i  1066
1. Henry’s son Edward defeated the rebel factions and restored his father to power.

ii 1215
2. William Duke of Normandy invaded in 1066 and defeated Harold in the famous battle of Hastings.
Iii 1264
3. The Magna Carta agreement signed.
Iv. 1267

4. The outbreak of the second Barons war.

Codes:
i
ii
iii
iv

(A)
2
1
3
4
(B)
2
3
4
1
(C)
2
 3
1
4
(D)
1
2
4
3

B. This is told about The Hundred Years War:

I.   the interference of France in England’s attempt to control Scotland was the only reason for the conflict.
II. Following the Norman Conquest, the connection of England to the continent has been broken. This was succeeded by conflict of interests and hostilities with France between 1337 to 1453.
III. The time that was spent fighting in the battlefield was too long, and this provoked a feeling of animosity in the minds of the English, French, the language of the enemy country was in use in England. The hundred year’s war was partly responsible for the downward trend experienced in the use of the French language in England.
IV. Canons were first used in 1346 by the English at the battle of Crecy.

Find out the correct combination according to the code:
(A) I, II and III are correct, as IV is true explanation of it
(B) I, II and IV are correct, but III is false
(C) I, III and IV are correct, as II is true explanation of it
(D) II, III and IV are correct, but as I is false

Attending Spenser’s Sonnet 57 and Sonnet 67 (Amoretti) Can Be Interesting If We Remember Popular Theme of Indifference and Chastity



"So let us love, dear Love, like as we ought,
Love is the lesson which the Lord us taught."
Edmund Spenser 1552? - 1599
English poet.
Amoretti

The tradition of writing a sequence of many sonnets, based also on the Petrarchan model, was initiated in English by Sir Philip Sidney in Astrophel and Stella 1580, a prolonged argument by the speaker, Astrophel, aimed at overcoming his mistress's indifference and chastity. Other important sequence of the period, Amoretti 1595 by English writer Edmund Spenser, employs similar arguments, though it ends with the possibility that the lovers will unite and eventually marry. Spenser’s Sonnet 57 and Sonnet 67 is an argument by the speaker aimed at overcoming his mistress's indifference and chastity. But both the sonnets are differently modeled. While Sonnet No. 57 uses war metaphor, Sonnet No. 67 uses the hunting one.

Critical Estimate of Gerard Manley Hopkins’s Sonnet, ‘Thou art indeed Just, Lord, if I contend’



  ‘Thou art indeed Just, Lord’ is one of the most widely known sonnets of Gerard Manley Hopkins. It shows, on the one hand, the deep faith of the poet, and holds, on the other, some of his pleadings and complaints. It is also rich in autobiographical elements. It further shows the technical skill of Hopkins.

Plot Structure of Thomas Hardy’s Epic Novel, ‘Tess of the D’Urbervilles’: How does it differ from a Dramatic Novel?

 Critics (i.e. Prof. L Abercrombie) have divided the novels of Thomas Hardy into two forms: the dramatic and the epic. In a dramatic novel there are a number important characters and the action arises out of the conflict of these actions.  Epic Novel is the story of a single person. There is no sub-plot as in dramatic novel. The main interest centres round- the career of the hero or heroines. However, the entire action of the epic revolves round the life and fortune of the single heroic individual. It is the story of his rise and fall, of the vicissitudes that he faces in the course of his or her life. Conflict there is, but it does not arise out of the characters. It is rather an impersonal conflict between the dominant individual the one hand, Fate or environment, on the other. Thus the Epic Novels in Hardy always create the impression of vast colossal forces ranged automated individual and pounding him to atoms. Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jute the Obscure are the two important Epic Novels  of Thomas Hardy.

Harlem Renaissance: Burst of Creativity among African American Writers and Artists in the 1920s



If we must die, let it not be like hogs
Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,
While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,
Making their mock at our accursed lot.
If we must die, 0 let us nobly die,
So that our precious blood may not be shed
In vain; then even the monsters we defy
Shall be constrained to honour us though dead!
0 kinsmen1 We must meet the common foe!
Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,
And for their thousand blows deal one deathblow!
What though before us lies the open grave?
Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack,
Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!  ”- Claude McKay’s militant sonnet If We Must Die (1919)

Harlem Renaissance, the burst of creativity among African American writers and artists in the 1920s and early 1930s that was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. Variously known as the New Negro movement, the New Negro Renaissance, and the Negro Renaissance, the movement emerged toward the end of World War I in 1918, blossomed in the mid- to late 1920s, and then faded in the mid-1930s. The term ‘Renaissance’ which literally means rebirth is loosely applied to this creativity (efflorescence, for it was really a birth) for this was the first opportunity African Americans had to create and celebrate the uniqueness of their culture. The Harlem Renaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics took African American literature seriously and that African American literature and arts attracted significant attention from the nation at large. Read More Literary Terms Although it was primarily a literary movement, it was closely related to developments in African American music, theater, art, and politics.

Analysis of Mulk Raj Anand’s Story, "The Lost Child": Accepted Part of Our Multicultural Neighborhood in the World

Simply, Mulk Raj Anand’s story, The Lost Child narrates how a little boy was lost in the crowd of a village fair. It tells us how on his way to the fair he was attracted by various things such as toys, sweetmeat, balloons and birds, butterflies and flowers. But what attracted him most was the roundabout. It made him forget his parents and everything else in the world. Thus he lagged far behind his parents and got lost in the crowd of the fair. Here, Anand deals with the child psychology in a sensitive way without shying away from its reality. We too have grown up as an accepted part of our multicultural neighborhood in the world.  Anand’s at his strongest when writing about the Child’s classic confrontational relationship with his world without parents. Young adult readers will be able to identify with the lost child’s struggle to live within his family’s ambit while trying to discover his own world outside.

Brief Analysis of R.K Narayan’s ‘Engine Trouble’: Greater Simplicity of Plot and Language, even as it Develops a Greater Complexity of Meaning to Exhibit the Domain of India

 Malgudi Days fits neatly into R.K Narayan's literary evolution. According to the author himself, each of his stories displays a greater simplicity of plot and language, even as they develop a greater complexity of meaning to exhibit the domain of India. By the time Narayan wrote Malgudi Days the crowded action of his early fantasies was replaced by introspections of Indianness   stripped to its essence and resonant with meaning.

Critical Analysis of Charles Lamb's "The Convalescent": Introspecting Sickness



“The greatest pleasure I know is to do a good action by stealth, and to have it found out by accident.”
Charles Lamb (1775 - 1834)
British essayist.
The Athenaeum, "Table Talk by the late Elia"

The Convalescent was first published in the London Magazine for July, 1825. It was later collected in the Last Essays of Elia which made its appearance in 1833. Charles Lamb is the most delightful and sweetest essayist of English literature. He himself is the subject of his essays and maintains a perpetual friendship with his readers. Lamb's literary essays were often perceptive and original. He had a particular gift for analyzing character and his sensitivity and perceptiveness made him a valuable essayist.

Critical Appreciation on the Theme and Style of Joseph Addison’s essay, “A vision of Justice”: Visionary Judgment of the Goddess of Justice




“In the mean time the world was in an alarm, and all the inhabitants of it gathered together upon a spacious plain; so that I seemed to have all the species before
my eyes. A voice was heard from the clouds, declaring the intention of this visit, which was to restore and appropriate to everyone living what was his due. The fear and hope, joy and sorrow, which appeared in that great assembly after this solemn declaration, are not to be expressed.” A Vision of Justice by Joseph Addison

A Vision of Justice by Joseph Addison is thematically complex, with much material to argue about. The most disputable theme or concept may be the implication of inevitability disclosed at the end of the essay: the reality of judgment.  A Vision of Justice, however, is a delightful essay which has neatness, lucidity and precision of expression. Its style is highly polished and cultivated. There is spontaneity and ease in it. It is written in a familiar and elegant manner. Here we observe delightful plasticity of language too. Its prose is smooth and elegant in manner and obviously highly refined. True to Joseph Addison’s style, A Vision of Justice is very delightful and pleasant. The sentences are embellished and polished. Their movement is smooth and brisk. Less ornamental and ornate, the ideas are expressed clearly and vividly. The essay reveals clarity of ideas. It has compact and dignified expression. The forceful, fluent and impressive essay has charm and freshness of its own.

Analysis of Anton Chekhov’s 'A Marriage Proposal': Great Economic Security Takes Precedence over Romance and Love; What Keeps Together and Binding?— Defining the Institution of Marriage



"I must live a well regulated life.  I have a weak heart, continual pappitations, and I am very sensitive and always getting excited...But the worst of all is sleep! I hardly lie down and begin to doze before....I jump up like a madman, walk about a little, and lie down again.... And so it is all night long!"
-Ivan Vassilievich Lomov in Anton Chekhov’s A Marriage Proposal

  Anton Chekhov’s one act play A Marriage Proposal is not thoroughly anti romantic like that of G. B. Shaw’s Arms and the Man. In Shaw’s case it was practicality and good judgment preceding over romance and love, here in Chekhov’s A Marriage Proposal economic security takes precedence over romance and love. Even though Russia is the primary setting, it can be anywhere in the world, and the home can be the case of any household history. Read More Drama Ivan Vassilievich Lomov is no superhuman Bluntschli, and Natalia is no sweet sixteen of Riana. But they are representative of every man, every couple in the world of families.

Thoreau’s ‘Civil Disobedience’: Views Government as a Fundamental Hindrance to the Creative Enterprise of the People



                                                                                                      
“I heartily accept the motto, “That government is best which governs least”; and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically. Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which also I believe,—”That government is best which governs not at all”; and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have. Government is at best but an expedient; but most governments are usually, and all governments are sometimes, inexpedient. The objections which have been brought against a standing army, and they are many and weighty, and deserve to prevail, may also at last be brought against a standing government. The standing army is only an arm of the standing government. The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.” - Thoreau’s ‘Civil Disobedience’
                                     - Henry David Thoreau in ‘Civil Disobedience’

Introduction:
Writers such as Henry David Thoreau in ‘Civil Disobedience’ (also known by the title “Resistance to Civil Government”) along with Herman Melville in ‘Bartleby the Scrivener’, suggest that democracy can actually oppress and restrict the individual. Thoreau views government as a fundamental hindrance to the creative enterprise of the people it purports to represent. Read More Criticism  

Theme of Incarnation in John Milton’s Paradise Lost and Tulsidasa's Ramcharitmanas: Comparative Study the Philosophy of Incarnation in the Orient and the Occident



 Introduction: John Milton’s Paradise Lost and Tulsidasa's Ramcharitmanas enjoys a magical cast of characters including one mournful king-man, an inarticulate but athletic scarecrow devil, a chattering spiritual, two apprentice enchanters, many headstrong leaders, and a host of others. The Wizard Satan is, of course, one of the major characters, as is the determined Rama hater, who proves by the end of the story to be both his match and his mate. Read More Criticism Myth the fire demon and the Ravana of the far, furlong round out the central foursome, and it is through their intervention that Satan and Rama originally come—and eventually remain—together by the voice of incarnation.

Criitical Summary of Shelley’s A Defence of Poetry: Philosophical Assumptions about Poets and Poetry



“Poetry is the record of the best and happiest moments of the happiest and best minds.”
Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792 - 1822)
English poet.
A Defence of Poetry

The unfinished critical work A Defence of Poetry (written 1821; published 1840) by P. B. Shelley is minutely skillful. The justly celebrated A Defence of Poetry by P. B. Shelley was originally written, as its title suggests, in a polemic vein, as an answer to Peacock's The Four Ages of Poetry. In this essay, written a year before his death, as earlier said, Shelley addresses  The Four Ages of Poetry,  a witty magazine piece by his friend, Thomas Love Peacock. Read More Romantic   Period Peacock’s work teases and jokes through its definitions and conclusions, specifically that the poetry has become valueless and redundant in an age of science and technology, and that intelligent people should give up their literary pursuits and put their intelligence to good use. Shelley takes this treatise and extends it, turning his essay into more of a rebuttal than a reply. In its published form, much of the controversial matter was cast out, and only one or two indications remain of its controversial nature. The essay as it stands is among the most eloquent expositions that exist of the ideal nature and essential value of poetry. Its chief distinction lies in the sincerity and enthusiasm of the author. Read More Romantic   Period

In What Way does the Mother Tongue Interfere in the Learning of a Foreign Language?



 Mother Tongue interferes in the teaching of foreign language in a number of ways. When a child learns his mother tongue there is no other language getting in the way but when he learns a foreign language (F.L) the habits of his mother tongue conflicts with those of the foreign tongue. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)  This conflict arises in all areas viz sounds, structures and vocabulary.

The distances of languages  is to be looked for—( 1 ) in pronunciation, or the ways of speaking the same words by different peoples; (2) in the vocabulary, or the use of the same words to express the same ideas in different languages ; (3) in grammatical structure, or the ways in which words are put together to make sentences. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)  So that in two languages we shall find that letters and words are pronounced rather differently, but that the words used are mostly the other, and that there is so much difference in the grammar—that is, in their ways of showing genders, numbers, and cases of nouns, or voices, moods, tenses, numbers, and persons of verbs, and of linking and arranging words and sentences. Thus, if we take mother tongue (SL) with that of English we find showing difference at its greatest and likeness at its least. Read More Teaching English (TEFL)  

Jonathan Swift’s "Gulliver’s Travels" is a timeless creation: Is This Really a Children’s Book?




 “I found how the World had been misled by prostitute Writers, to ascribe the greatest Exploits in War to Cowards, the wisest Counsel to Fools, Sincerity to Flatterers, Roman Virtue to Betrayers of their Country, Piety to Atheists, Chastity to Sodomites, Truth to Informers.” Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels Part III

Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels is a timeless creation. George Orwell considered it to be one of the finest five works of world literature. Gulliver’s Travels resembles Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. But it is not merely an adventurous travel tale. It is more than that. The creator had some basic viewpoints about life. He makes it dear that he will advocate his unbiased view of life in the guise of some exciting story. The obvious source of attraction of the book is its rich humour. Read More Novel It is written in a technique of a science fiction. But the most striking feature of the tale is the satire inherent in the different situations of life. He worked very hard with this book not only to parody travel writing (Robinson Crusoe had just been published about the time that Swift began serious work on Gulliver’s Travels), and to satirize the politics of his age, but to point out human folly in many forms. In the original work Gulliver has undertaken four journeys. The interesting are the two— Gulliver’s journey to the land of Lilliput and to the land of Brobdingnag. Read More Novel Through these two journeys the narrator presents two contrasting views of life. He has seen humanity from two different angles. As a physically superior being he sees mankind as ridiculously small. Again, as an inferior human being he finds human race as ‘grotesquely’ large. Now, through these two different sets of experiences Gulliver’s character changes and progresses into wider shapes.

Rabindranath Tagore’s Perceptive and Insightful Essay ‘Modern Poetry’: Thematic Analysis



“Everything comes to us that belong to us if we create the capacity to receive it.” - Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore’s perceptive and insightful essay ‘Modern Poetry’ was written long before either  the emergence of what we call to the post modernist trends, or even the application of the term ‘modern’ trends initialed in the 20th century English literature by writers like T.S. Eliot. We call T.S. Eliot a modernist today. But Tagore would naturally have been unfamiliar with the term. In any case, among the modernist poets, only Eliot is Tagore’s concern in his essay is to define the term ‘modern’ and indicate its limit, he first deals with the question of relativity which is always implied by the term. The term is in fact semantically mobile and in general sense, modern poetry is something that progresses in company with and at the speed of the years: the last year’s modern is not this year’s. Tagore realizes the problem where he says that the poetry of the great Romantics of the 19th century must have seemed ‘modern’ to their contemporariness because it was so complexly new and such a great departure from the past. Aqua when the Victorians replaced the Romantics there was a similar shift in the implications of the term ‘modern’. However; as we know the Victorian poetry was in its important respect, just a continuation of the romantic poetry. What is more pertinent is Tagore’s point that with the turn of the century Victorianism became absolute. 

William Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors: Repeated Instances of Mistaken Identity of the Two Pairs of Twins


“Am I in earth, in heaven, or in hell?
Sleeping or waking? mad or well advised?
Known unto these, and to myself disguised!
I'll say as they say, and persever so,
And in this mist at all adventures go” ---ANTIPHOLUS OF SYRACUSE

The Comedy of Errors (1592), play by English playwright and poet William Shakespeare,  exemplifies the common Elizabethan practice of adapting classical comedy to the contemporary stage: The plot is loosely based on the play Menaechmi of Roman dramatist Plautus, and it also borrows from his Amphitrus. The story revolves around the twins Antipholus of Ephesus and Antipholus of Syracuse, their parents, and the family’s two servants, Dromio of Ephesus and Dromio of Syracuse, who are also twins. Read More William Shakespeare  A shipwreck separates the family into two groups, leaving the mother with one son and one servant and the father with the other pair. The 'errors' of the play’s title are caused by repeated instances of mistaken identity. These are finally dispelled when the two pairs of twins meet, are properly recognized, and rejoin the other members of their families.

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An English Teacher;    M. A.(English) , D. Ed., B. Ed., UGC- NET Qualified

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