AD's English Literature : 2016

Every Woman is not Ann but Ann is Everywoman: Characterization of Shaw’s Ann Whitefield in Man and Superman


Shaw has been pre-occupied mainly with the exposition of his philosophy through the media of plays and this is a crystal truth as far as Man and Superman is concerned. Characterization or depiction of characters in their full human round has never been his forte. But nonetheless the feminine characters created by Shaw are undeniably marvelous. Raina in Arms and the Man, St Joan in Saint Joan and Ann Whitefield in Man and Superman are some of the unique creations bearing the impress of Shaw’s mature and superb literary merit.

Differences Between the Spelling and Pronunciation of Old and of Modem English


Besides the great differences in the character of the words and in the ways of expressing their relations and changes of meaning, there is also a marked difference between the spelling and pronunciation of Old and of Modern English. For a long time, indeed, everyone in England tried to write his words as he pronounced them, sometimes, indeed, with different spellings of the same word in the same sentence. And, judging from the varieties of spelling there must have been great variety in the pronunciation. Since the close of the fifteenth century, however, although many changes have taken place, the growth of national culture and the intermingling of people from various parts of the British Empire, have tended to make the pronunciation uniform; so that now, educated speakers of English, all over the world, differ only slightly in their modes of pronunciation. Our spelling, also, chiefly owing to the use of dictionaries and the influence of our printed literature, has become almost rigidly flxed and very often do

Critical Estimation of Bacon’s essay ‘Of Adversity’: Man to be Optimistic under Most Adverse Circumstance

Prosperity doth best discover vice; but adversity doth best discover virtue.
Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626)
English philosopher, statesman, and lawyer.
Essays, "Of Adversity"

Francis Bacon was a great Elizabethan of wonderful versatility. He was a true child of the Renaissance. He was a great scholar ‘familiar’ with the scriptures of classical languages, histories and mythologies. He was a shrewd observer of life all around him.

Varieties of Present English: Usage of Grammar in the Learning of the Language


Besides the differences at different periods, there are considerable differences in the language of English speakers even at the present day. Thus, every region has some peculiarities in the way in which its speakers use their English. There are, for example, the peculiarities of the English of Ireland and of Scotland, noticed by us in the Irish and the Scotch immigrants. And, in general, an Englishman can tell an American and an American an Englishman by the way he talks. When these peculiarities amount to so much that they begin to interfere with our understanding the persons who have them, we say that such persons speak a dialect of English, rather than English itself, which in contradistinction is known as Standard English.

Good English and Bad  English: 

There is also the difference between what we call good English and bad (or vulgar) English. By good English we mean those words and those meanings national of them and those ways of putting them together that are used generally by the best educated people of the present day; and bad English is, therefore, simply that which is not approved and accepted by good and careful speakers and writers. Then, again, we find that good English, when spoken, differs slightly from the language of well written books. In ordinary conversation we use, for instance, shortened forms of words, familiar expressions, and a loose arrangement of our sentences, which do not seem fitted for the higher kind of literature. We have in this Good English is reputable, recent, and way a classification of good English into standard literary English and standard spoken (or colloquial) English.

The Scene before the University Wits and The University Wits

The Scene before the University Wits:

 The Scene before the University Wits the English drama as it developed from the Miracle plays has an interesting history. It began with school-masters, like Udall, who translated and adapted Latin plays for their boys to act, and who were naturally governed by classic ideals. It was continued by the choir-masters of St. Paul and the Royal and the Queen’s Chapel, whose companies of choir-boy actors were famous in London and rivaled the players of the regular theatres. These choir-masters were first stage-managers of the English drama. They began with masques and interludes and the dramatic presentation of classic myths from the Italians. But some of them, like Richard Edwards (choir master of the Queen’s Chapel in 1561), soon added forces from English country life and dramatized some of Chaucer’s stories. Finally, the regular play-wrights, Kyd, Nash, Lyly, Peele, Greene, and Marlowe, brought the English drama to the point where Shakespeare began to experiment upon it.

Political Poetry of W. B. Yeats: Production of Illuminating Poetic Collections

The canvas of Yeats’ Muse is admittedly vast, combining within itself two apparently irreconcilable pigments. With a beginning which is reminiscent of Keats and the Pre-Raphaelites, Yeats moved forward with mighty strides towards the mature phase of the production of illuminating poetic collections which constitute sortie at the rare marvels in English literature. In between this early and the mature stage here is another period—that of transition which is equally reductive of scintillating poetry full of coruscating symbols.

Te bulk of his early poetry is languid, marked by tinge of romanticism and a pronounced note of escapism. It belongs to the dream-world which is essentially irresponsible and which implies an abnegation of the values of this mundane or terrestrial world. Yeats’s early poems are in the Victorian tradition which itself was a development from the Romantic Revival. Tennyson would not have some into being without Keats, Rossetti would not have come into being without Tennyson. Yeats would not have come into being without Rossetti. One of the chief characteristics of this line of poets—in their better poems—is “an autumnal, almost a morbid, langour”. Yeats’s early poems are dreamy, interspersed with poignant nostalgia. He loved to dwell upon the theme of love frustrated. The verbal music of his early poems is also sleepy, keeping in tune with the theme:
“Although our love is waning, let us stand
By the lone border of the lake once more.
Together in that hour of gentleness
When the poor tired child, Passion falls asleep
How far away the stars seem, and how far
Is our first kiss, and ah, how old my heart.”- Ephemera by William Butler Yeats

Historical Advantages of Fielding’s “Joseph Andrews” in the Purview of Novel Writing

 Introduction:

Fielding’s Joseph Andrews begun as a parody of Pamela. In November 1740, Samuel Richardson published his novel, Pamela. Fielding started a parody of this novel. But just as Pamela had grown under its author’s hands into something much larger than the original conception, so the parody grew beyond Fielding’s first intention till it became his first published novel, The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr. Abraham Adams. As Pamela was tempted by her master, Squire Booby, so her brother, Joseph Andrews, is tempted by his mistress Lady Booby, another member, of the family.

John Galsworthy as a Social Propagdandist: A Voice for Economically and Socially Oppressed

Introduction: 

John Galsworthy, the 1932 Nobel Laureate, is best known problem playwright and novelist in the 20th century. His is the collections which treats of a particular social or moral problems so as to make people think intelligently about it. It is usually somewhat tragic in tone in that it naturally deals with painful human dilemmas. It is a kind of writings that, by implication, asks a definite question and either supplies an answer or leave it to us to find. One of his best known plays The Silver Box deals with the inequality of Justice, Strife with the struggle between capital and labour, Justice with the cruelty of solitary confinement, The Skin Game with the different values of the old aristocracy and the newly rich businessman, Loyalties with class loyalties and prejudices and Escape with the inadequacy of the administration of justice and attitude of different types of people toward an escaped prisoner. His dramas frequently find their themes in this stratum of society, but also often deal, sympathetically, with the economically and socially oppressed and with questions of social justice. 

William Shakespeare is Reintroduced for Young Readers in Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb’s "Tales from Shakespeare"

Introduction:

 The romantic wave that swept Europe early in the 19th century also affected children's literature if it were indeed intended for doing so. Primarily these were for the newly educated common mass and the young ones of the upper classes apart for the general intelligentsia. Thus, William Shakespeare is relocated once again in Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare (1807) in simple words without losing the root interest in it. It is very common that a common citizen  much  suffer reading Shakespeare and that they always read simple summaries before reading the original plays, so it was very thoughtful of Lambs to bring a book that contains the most famous plays of Shakespeare retold in a very clear and easy-to-follow style.

Such a revival of interest in the works of English playwright William Shakespeare resulted in one of the most popular children's books, Tales from Shakespeare, a prose adaptation for children, consisting of versions of the Shakespeare stories by essayist Charles Lamb and his sister Mary Ann Lamb. Writing the stories was a project for Mary Lamb while in a sanitarium for murdering her mother. Her brother Charles Lamb faithfully visited his sister every day. They divided the tales up, each wrote half and they would read them to each other.

Shakespeare Simplified:

This is a wonderful introduction to the genius of Shakespeare. Generally, the book is pretty helpful for beginners.  An ESL student usually pick up a certain play and read it from this book before, during or after reading the original play to make sure they understood the play completely and perfectly. The tales in this volume are written for critical summarizations and have become literature in their own right. These stories are a perfect way to introduce new readers to Shakespeare’s plays.

John Galsworthy's Falder in "Justice": How does his Tragedy Prove Social Injustice?

 Introduction:

John Galsworthy's Falder in Justice is not a hero in the Aristotalian or Shakespearen sense. The dramatic action of Justice by Galsworthy revolves around Falder. He is in the middle of our attention of sympathy and pity. He is the tragic hero and the victims of social injustice which we all resent. He is the character of a man who is in the machinery of social injustice.
  

"The Rising of the Moon" by Lady Gregory as a Drama of Patriotism

"MAN [going towards steps]. Well, good-night, comrade, and thank you. You did me a good turn to-night, and I'm obliged to you. Maybe I'll be able to do as much for you when the small rise up and the big fall down . . . when we all change places at the rising [waves his hand and disappears] of the Moon."-The Rising of the Moon 
The Rising of the Moon by Lady Gregory is a play concerning patriotism and struggle for freedom in the background of Ireland political history involving two characters- one the disguised ballad singer and the other the sergeant in search of a run away prisoner. The Rising of the Moon carries a title well chosen from a popular ballad for the Irish Revolutionary who would relay round at the precise moment for same undertaking. Fenian poet John Keegan Casey composed his well known ballad with the following lines:
“Who would follow in their footsteps at the Rising of the moon”

Biographical and Autobiographical Writing in English Text: Preview of It's Journey

Biographical and autobiographical prose is more or less true-to-life stories and often bears great literary merits. They pervade the world of history, philosophy, psychology, ideology, propaganda, untold mysteries, confessions, criticism, travelogues etc. These works are conventionally classified into factual writing and fictional writing, or simply, true and semi true. The present essay deals with biography and autobiography and its truthfulness and literary merits. As a descriptive term, biography and autobiography is completely meaningless, since all story is beyond eyewitnesses when it first appears. Further, if one takes it as applying to all modern perceptions, one soon discovers that they differ so much among themselves that any simple definition of the school will exclude a number of important lies. One perception will emphasize close reading, another symbol, another morality, another psychology, sociology, and till another mythical as of criticism.

Now coming to the terminology into better introspection, the fertile of English biography emerged in the late eighteenth century, the century in which the terms "biography" and "autobiography" entered the English lexicon. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical the Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid but condemned it as 'pedantic'; but its next recorded use was in its present sense by Robert Southey in 1809. The form of autobiography however goes back to antiquity. Biographers generally rely on a wide variety of documents and viewpoints; an autobiography, however, may be based entirely on the writer's memory.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 103

A Set of Objective Questions & AnswersUGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

1.Oxymoron: A figure of speech made up of two seemingly opposite words.

2. John Dryden’s poems that describe the political and social events of the Restoration period: Astraea Redux, in celebration of Charles II’s return to the English throne and Annus Mirabilis giving a spirited account of the great fire in London . The title Annus Mirabilis means the wonders of the year .

3. Absalom and Achitophel: Dryden wrote Absalom and Achitophel. It is a political satire in the form of allegory. The historical figures hidden under the Biblical characters referred to in the title are Charles II, the Duke of York and the Earl of Shaftsbury.

4. Allusion: A passing reference to something outside of a literary work.

5. Restoration: Restoration indicates the restoration of monarchy. Charles II was restored the throne of England after a period of Puritan vale.

Significance of the Dumb Scene (Act III Sc. III) in John Galsworthy’s "Justice"

In John Galsworthy’s play Justice the exercise of social injustice in the name of legal justice has been criticized. And in the dramatic action of the Dumb Scene (Act III Sc. III)  of his play, Galsworthy has portrayed the deep agency of a sensitive prisoner kept in a solitary confinement. With a cudgel in hand here Galsworthy is merciless in his criticism of prison administration that treats prisoners not as humans but as dumb inhabitants of dungeon.


Roman Mob in William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" is Itself a Character

Introduction:

 In the group of Shakespearean  Roman plays, Julius Caesar remains an epic making work and like Coriolanus, their other theatrical play, Julius Caesar also has a strong opening scene of a crowd in commotion. In fact, the presence of Roman Crowd in their various characteristics can be felt throughout the play of Julius Caesar. However, it is in the opening scene and in the forum scene that they are actively instrumental in mounding the course of the play. Let us now have a close look of their characteristics under the following heads.

R. K. Narayan's "Emden" is the Reminiscence of Human Life in Old Age: Clocking Time

Some of the important literary qualities of R. K. Narayan's Emden are the use of humanized time reference, character complexity and development, interwoven stories, a flashback technique to vividly portray past events, and a setting that demonstrates themes, personalities, and conflicts. Emden, the title character in R. K. Narayan's Emden, is more than 100 years old and now he can’t even remember his age. Emden, the oldest man in Malgudi, who hated birthdays. He abominated birthdays because according to him it may reduce the days of birthdays' count. He has nearly lost his hearing abilities and can’t retain names. According to Narayan “Even such a situation was acceptable, as it seemed to be.........by nature to keep the mind uncluttered in old age”. 

Narayan in his portrayal of the oldest man gives a glimpse of his history through half remembered memories by the old man who loves his routinely two-hour walk. We also get a peep into his history through an account by others who witness him on this routine. Like the photographer who mixes Emden’s history with his fiction while gossiping about him as Emden crosses his shop.

Eliminate Your Fears and Doubts about Comprehension Skill of a Target Text

The students will have to complete numerous comprehension exercises during their time in school, both in class and at end of each Key Stage examination. This is true from early secondary stage to the post graduate label. The tasks i.e. The Comprehension Skill of a Target Text which help the students with their writing, such as adjective use, creating atmosphere and so on, introduce the skills that the students will need to discuss in their analysis of texts. Learning of these skills and implementations of them are very crucial both for the students and the teachers.

George Herbert’s “The Pulley”: Establishing Our Relation to God

Before we go into the Christian doctrine let’s focus on the title Pulley or the Gift of God by George Herbert first. Pulleys and hoists are mechanical devices aimed at assisting us with moving heavy loads through a system of ropes and wheels (pulleys) to gain advantage. We should not be surprised at the use of a pulley as a central conceit since the domain of physics and imagery from that discipline would have felt quite comfortable to most of the metaphysical poets. God is the most important character in “The Pulley”, and the only one whose name is given except the poet narrator. In the beginning of the poem, he is excited by the ringing of the truth while He and his creations, i. e. the human being are having a conversation while in imaginations through the poet’s conversation with the God. Herbert sees a perfect design of our psychology in Christian ideological terms explained through his God's eyes, but he longs to join the religious journey.

Is “The Anniversary” by Chekhov a Comedy or Farce?

In a farce, there is exaggeration both in situation and character for the sake of humourous effect. The difference between a comedy and a farce is that there is a soul of seriousness in the comedy. A comedy, says Schlegel, calls forth the most petulant hilarity by its jocose and deprecatory view of things. In it the perception of the incongruous and the unexpected conduces to our mirth follies, absurdities, odd audients, cross purposes, sallies of nit and humour is it striking features. The Anniversary is, sorry to say ,miss the quality of comedy proper. 

Interview Tips For School Service Commission English Teachers


 Hi Friends!

Now get ready for the Interview--The last hurdle of your glory.

You are the Constructor:

'Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor designed to impart learning to the student.' So friends, teachers are not machines but an articulation of human passions with the objective of imparting guidance to learning. So the job of teaching is different from other jobs in the sense that it is not a subject of calculating your money rather it provides perspective to the whole of education as well as life. The approach to teaching at school level is integrative rather than as additive which means values are integrated into the processes of life, living and enlightenment. A teacher should involve himself / herself into the over-all school climate and interactions and they are transformed in the tradition of constructor of social values. It is because the attitudes and values of a teacher are incorporated in the foundation of a student's character.

Character of Ruth Honeywill: How is She Responsible for Falder’s Death?

Introduction: 

John Galsworthy’s Justice has a propaganda basis. While his fiction is concerned principally with English upper middle-class life; his dramas frequently find their themes in this stratum of society, but also often deal, sympathetically, with the economically and socially oppressed and with questions of social justice.  His Justice also has two problems raised and recked in minute details – the rigorous system of legal justice prevailing in the society and the other is the contemporary prison system. To portray these social hindrances Galsworthy has to device a plot. And here is the story of a young man Falder who has been crunched under the wheel of fatal social systems. And the person behind the Falder’s tragic catastrophe is a love and sympathy personified Ruth Honeywill.

Only woman character in Justice:

 In justice Ruth is the only woman character. A married and having two children, she lives a miserable life under a cruel husband who tortures her both physically and mentally. As a woman of destitute she earns sympathy and love from Falder. In fact, in order to take her away from her cruel husband that Falder commits the crime leading to the subsequent incidents of the play.
Ruth Honeywill’s problems as portrayed in the play Justice: Ruth, a destitute woman in order to flee from her cruel tyrannical husband she needs a friend. In facts, by marrying Falder who loves her and promises to rescue her from her cruel husband she would somehow problems are not solved. Falder with the desperation of love commits forgery and later imprisoned. Ruth is forced to lead an inglorious life with her husband in Falder’s prison days. In the end when Falder commits suicides her last ray of hope extinguishes.

Compare and Contrast James How and Walter How in Galsworthy’s "Justice"

In John Galsworthy’s Justice, James How and Walter How, the owners of a solicitors firm are father and son. Both are educated, polished and reasonable persons. But while the father is more conservative in his attitude to life, the son is rather liberal in his views on the problems of life. Both agree that forgery by Falder is a serious crime. But the son wishes to ignore it as the first crime by him and to give him a second chance. The father, on the other hand, thinks that allowing this crime to go unpunished will itself be a crime.

James How is a grand Victorian. His prudery may sound false, but his concern for honesty and sanctity of institutions is very much genuine. He hates dishonesty and immorality. It is difficult for him to forgive Falder, for he has not only swindled his employer but has proved himself a hardened criminal by ensuring that everybody suspects Davis. He appears to be custodian of the edifice of law, and his devotion to and respect for it makes him very much conservative in his attitude to any offence. Whether it is the first offence or the last, forgery is a crime which cannot go without punishment. So he insists on letting law take its own course and refuses to listen to his son’s and Cokeson’s plea for mercy. This attitude of his represents the attitude of society itself, and it appears to be real not in the system that causes all the suffering.

Character of the Ragged Man from Lady Gregory's "The Rising of the Moon"

The Rising of the Moon by Lady Gregory is a play concerning Irish revolution and an effort to arouse Irish nationalism through an appreciation of Irish literature and speech. The ragged man is no other than distinguished patriot, at Irish rebel who has absconded from the prison. In a disguise of poor ballad singers he appears on a seaside. In a secret plan he is plotting to escape in a boat to a safety place. To hide his face he is wearing a wig and a hat. The parson is so clever that he succeeds his real nature to an experience intelligent police man without vast suspicion. The ragged man would have to wait at the sea-side until the fellow friends or reveals come on the harbor in aid of him. He dupes and misleads the sergeant by clever tricks even though he continues his physical gesture of talking singing and smoking.

A fellow feeling or sympathy seized the atmosphere is at first aroused by the poor ballad singer and defines the purpose of his coming here that some of his ballads are to be sold to the sellers to earn his bread. He even charms the sailors by his song. But the sergeant is more dutiful and the ragged man does not find any safe passage to the Jetty going down the steps. The sergeant is each time takes him by the shoulder and pushes him out. The rebel now finds more tricks to play.

Forum Scene in William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar (Act III, SCENE II. The Forum): Compare and Contrast Brutus' Speech and Antony’s Speech

"A man of great common sense and good taste,—meaning thereby a man without originality or moral courage."
George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950)
Irish playwright, 1901
Referring to Julius Caesar

Both Brutus and Antony are the great orators as we find them in William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. Their respective speeches signify their character as well as patriotism- the two individual in different colours. At first Brutus delivers his speech and explained the reason of Caesar’s assassination. He says that Caesar being a friend of him makes him proud by his valiant deeds and heroism. But he is a dictator, autocrat and ambitious. For this reasons, in order to save the beloved mother-land Rome he is murdered by him. His death is an inevitable consequence of a tyrant ruler who is persuading the hostility and barbarism to cause the destruction of republic in his country. Brutus the stoic philosopher, have to bear a burden too heavy for him:
“Be patient till the last.
Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my
cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me
for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that
you may believe: censure me in your wisdom, and
awake your senses, that you may the better judge.
If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of
Caesar's, to him I say, that Brutus' love to Caesar
was no less than his. If then that friend demand
why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer:
--Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved
Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living and
die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live
all free men? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him;
as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was
valiant, I honour him: but, as he was ambitious, I
slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his
fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his
ambition. Who is here so base that would be a
bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended.
Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If
any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so
vile that will not love his country? If any, speak;
for him have I offended. I pause for a reply.”

Lyrical Faculty in P. B. Shelley’s Poetry

In none of P. B. Shelley’s greatest contemporaries was the lyrical faculty so paramount. Whether we consider his (i) minor songs (ii) his odes, or his more complicated (iii) choral dramas, we acknowledge that he vas the loftiest and the most spontaneous singer in our language’ says Symonds, comparing Shelley to the other romantic poets. The lyrics of Shelley cover a wide range and variety and can be classified under three different heads:

(I) Personal Lyrics

(ii) Lyrics of Nature

(iii) Lyrics of Hope & Liberty

Robert Lynd Captures a Beautiful Atmosphere in the Essay “Sea Side”

Sea side an essay by Robert Lynd, one of the well known essayists of the twentieth century, provides a befitting description of French Seal coast along with it, setting the Sea and the travelers. In fact, this is the personal essay of the author has been staying in a holyday resort nearly the French sea coast. The festivity and the mood of gala permit and pervade the entire atmosphere for the sea side. Not only the beauty of the sea side is minutely expressed but also that visitor’s activities are minutely put into account. Au of the individual present here portrayed here in this piece. But here and there a note of sadness is plotting in the atmosphere. It is seen fisher women working heard for their lively hood. There are another instance of the unhappy grey haired father struggling hard to make his child walk but unsuccessfully. Accept these two spots of sadness the entire sea beach is brushed with fun and various walking gaiety.

There are different types of tourists in this spot. The industry bands are flying kites. Children taking exercise interacts in the game. Few are having different game – cricket, golf, casino, football, tennis etc. few are swimming and bathing. All the tourists are busy with their pet occupations- of various types of game. Lynd finds a sense of restraint and control in the celebration of joy. On the beach Lynd also find souveteours, the life savers who are dutifully spying on the behavior of the swimmers and concerned with the safety of the tourists.

Critical Commentary on A. G. Gardiner’s “On Shaking Hands”

A. G. Gardiner’s amusing subject On Shaking Hands is a beautifully curved piece carrying out a discussion to pros and cons of shaking hands. Gardiner is of the view that hands shake is the most innocent and amiable custom of greeting. Even it is criticized on medical grounds. Taking the concept Gardiner rather carries out a thorough discussion On Shaking Hands. Gardiner then mentions few of the examples of salutation worldwide. In India we pay ‘Namaskar’ while the Japanese ‘kowtow’. Such examples can easily be multiplied.

Gardiner comparatively discusses hands shake along with the other mood of salutation kissing, practiced and excessively nourished in the 15th and 16th century during reign of Tudor kings. Gardiner thinks that along with the mood of kissing as a salutation there is a sense of sexual overtones.

The Character of Prospero in the Design of Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”

Although The Tempest has been assessed as the full expression of Shakespeare’s mood in his final period and although the play has been praised for its observance of the classic unities, it requires no elaboration to establish that the play is lacking in essential dramatic elements. This is due to the preponderance of only one character, Prospero, besides whom other characters seem pale and even anemic. Indeed, Prospero occupies a more important place in The Tempest than does the Prince of Denmark in Hamlet.

Prospero is Providence personified, the omnipotent and omniscient destiny itself, manipulating and wire-pulling everything human, non-human or super-human in the enchanted island. Nothing happens in the play without Prospero wishing it to happen. The consequence is that the plot lacks an inner law of growth and the dramatic presentation is somewhat bloodless. Prospero is a strong man, a sweet man, a gracious man given to forgiveness. He is also a garrulous old man, pedantic and severe and with a high sense of his opinions. His powers of white magic know no limits. And that exactly makes limitations for the dramatic difficulties of the play. This limitation is nowhere more apparent than in Prospero’s narration of his past life to Miranda. Despite its telescoping, It is a long narration on the stage and clearly undramatic but Shakespeare has no other way of conveying this essential background of the play in the absence of a real antagonist. Where the protagonist is all, the play as the play inevitably suffers.

Isabella in William Shakespeare’s “Measure for Measure”: Paragon of Virtue or Despicable Pride?

At varying times Isabella in William Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure has been seen as a marvelous symbol of virginal purity, and an utterly distasteful and self-righteous prude. The problem is that while it is theologically correct for her to value her immortal soul more highly than her brother’s life, it is also distasteful, and an audience might prefer her to take a decision that was theologically and morally wrong, but more admirable in human terms, namely to sacrifice her body for her brother’s survival. 

William Shakespeare
Perhaps Shakespeare’s audience would have been more familiar than a modern audience with ‘the idea that no good can come out of evil, and Angelo confirms this when he says he will not release Claudia even if Isabella does submit to him, thus perhaps justifying Isabella’s early decision not to submit. A Jacobean audience would have had a more vivid concept of hellfire and damnation (which is what Isabella risks if she submits to Angelo), and would value the whole concept of honour more than a modern audience. However, it is dangerous to rely too heavily on assumptions about the Jacobean audience: being dead, they have the too-convenient attribute of not being able to argue with any features ascribed to them. Even if Isabella’s decision is the right one, the play suffers drastically if she alienates the audience’s sympathy.

Analysing Deep and Profound Philosophy in Robert Browning’s "Rabi Ben Ezra"

Robert Browning’s Rabi Ben Ezra is a poem for young and old alike. It gives inspiration and courage to youth, and consolation and peace to old men. It is indeed a priceless “jewel of Browning’s poetry”. Robert Browning’s Rabi Ben Ezra is meant for those persons who consider that the aim of life is merely to live for the gratification of bodily needs. Browning gives a jolt to such thoroughgoing worshipers of the body, and awakens them from their mistaken conception of life. Those who read this poem attentively will realize the wisdom of living life.

Rabi Ben Ezra is a philosophic poem and embodies some of the finest philosophic thoughts of the poet. The philosophic ideas of this poem are deep and profound, and colored the main stream of thought in the poem. Various ideas are developed and presented with penetrating insight and philosophic vision by Robert Browning, and the poem, as a whole, cap be taken to be the quintessence of the poet’s philosophic thoughts.

Beauty of Capri as told in Maugham’s Short Story ‘The Lotus Eater’

Maugham’s short story ‘The Lotus Eater’ is set on the island of Capri. It is a place as the author has described is a modern lotusland for its scenic beauty and charm. Situated at the entrance to the Bay of Naples in Italy, Capri Island is famous for beaches, and mild climate, the picturesque measures. The protagonist of the short story Wilson, the lotus eater like the mythical mariners of Ulysses, settles down here to a life of utter indolence and ease bidding adieu to a life of toil and sweat as a Londoner. He looks in the sundry places of Capri forsaking the hardships of a Londoner.

Lists of Literary Clubs and Web links while Understanding English Literature

In the golden 50’s or 60’s there had been the glory of reading books and analysis in campus adda or Sahitya Sava. It is now renovated through Google Search with wide spectrum in literary clubs. But now a day, academically such a glorious part of discussions is restricted upon literary conferences and academic dissertation where a few of the research scholars and guest teaching remain present. There had been hardly any fresh air albeit the thesis submission and obtains the degree.

Critical Appreciation of Alfred Tennyson’s "The Lotos-Eaters"

A Forbidden Land of Spiritual Barrenness:

There are some parallels between Alfred Tennyson’s The Lotos-Eaters and T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land. Lotosland offers not abundant life but spiritual death; it is no Garden of the Hesperides but a magnificently ironic variation upon a wasteland.  In both poems the past has become a bucket of ashes, a heap of broken images; fragmented and dimly remembered; it also is incapable of giving a sustenance which is not wanted anyway: ‘Let what is broken so remain.’..Lotosland has yellow down and sleeping poppies, thick twined vine and weeping long- leaved flowers, not Eliot’s dull roots, city streets and endless plains, but it is, as surely as Eliot’s ‘Waste Land’, a spiritual desert.

Pettigrew has pointed out: ‘In both the poems enervation and desiccation of spirit is refracted through symbolic landscape: The waters of the ‘hateful sea’ of troubles and life are as resented as the spring rains; of The Waste Land stirring memory and desire.’

How can you use Facebook in Studying English Literature and Grammar both as a TEFL( Teaching English as Foreign Language) & FLL (First Language Learner)?

 Introduction:

 In the age of Digital Revolution, the English literature students are not far away of aspiring goal of ‘getting and reaching’ and by the process enriching the ultimate goal of learning. The same process cannot be overlooked in other South Asian / developing countries too. The recent meeting between Facebook boss Mark Zuckerberg and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Damodar Modi entices one to write this article where it can be easily stressed my wishes of suggesting your learning English literature through Facebook.

How to Embolden your Character by Reading Literary Texts from World Literature?

Reading literature at the tender age can shape one’s characteristics by million ways. In this age of cyber communication and hyper activity, the literature can be at steady pace to safeguard and mould young siblings by providing them the right text at right time. Taking this into account we can devise a plan of reading into three separate groups.

  1.   Reading at Student Life
  2. On Job Reading
  3.  Pleasure Reading at the Pastime

Is Victorian Poetry a Continuation of the Romantic Movement?

Introduction:

In spite of the great changes that occurred at the reign of Queen Victoria, Victorian poetry was, in a nutshell, a continuation of the Romantic Movement. But there were certain distinctive characteristics. 

Doubts and Disbelief in the Religious Authority of the Church:

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 102

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers
UGC NET ENGLISH QUESTION BANK

1.      Two plays by Thomas Heywood:  A Woman Killed With Kindness (1603), The Royall King and the Loyall Subject.
2.    John Webster wrote The White Devil.  The chief figure of it is the notorious Victoria whose deeds and death occurred during Webster’s lifetime. Having urged her lover, Brachiano to murder her husband, Commillo and his own Duchess Isabella. Vittoria marries him and both eventually fall victims to the vengeance of Isabella’s brother.
3.    Two dramatists who jointly produced plays:  Beaumont and Fletcher. Their comedies—A  King and  No King,  The Knight of the  Burning Pestle. Their tragedies---  Philaster, The Maid’s Tragedy.

‘The Choice-I’ from "The House of Life" Celebrates Love and Relationship of D. G. Rossetti and Elizabeth Siddal

A Projection of Life:

 The Choice-I is a poem taken from The House of Life which consists of 101 sonnets. These sonnets of Rossetti call to mind a projection of life ‘associated with love and death, with aspiration and with ideal art and beauty.’ They have been interpreted ‘as a record of his love for his dead wife and sorrow over her death, and as a record of his passion for W. Morris’s wife Jane.’ The emphasis placed on secrecy, delayed union, and reborn rapture would seem to support the view that the sonnets are, a record of his passion for Jane. However, both Rossetti and his brother William did not like their interpretation to be done from a biographical standpoint.

Is the Victorian Age Rightly Called the Golden Age of Literature?

The Victorian Age may be called the Golden Age of Literature if the size and variety is in count. No earlier age can compare or compete with it in respect of the variety, quality and output of its literature. Covering the span of 1832 to 1901, it has seen a wide, immense, variegate as well as self critical literary activities. The chief literary trends of the age are -

Is Poetry of Shakespeare’s Sonnets Essentially the Poetry of a Dramatist?

Early sonnets are related to the early plays and later ones are akin to the dark comedies or tragedies: 

Despite the controversy about the date of composition of Shakespeare’s Sonnets, they may be taken to have been composed during 1590’s whether we take Meres’ Palladis Tamia which dated the sonnets before 1598 or Jaggard’s Miscellany The Passionate Pilgrim, which published two sonnets in 1599. The nineties of the sixteenth century constituted Shakespeare’s lyrical period which produced besides the sonnets such pieces as Venus and Adonis, Lucrere, Love’s Labour’s Lost, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice.

The Age of Chaucer and the Contemporary England

The fourteenth century is a period of great political, social, religious and literary activity. Politically it was a period of the Hundred Years’ War which strengthened the feeling of national consciousness and patriotism both in England and France, people began to realize that they were Englishmen of Frenchmen and the idea of a Holy Empire vaporized from their thoughts. The victory at the battle of Crecy (1346) and of Portiers (1356) made Englishmen fervent patriots. As these crucial battles were largely won by the English yeomen, middle class sprang up to ascendancy. They gradually grabbed power from the hand of the nobility. Power, like a slippery cell , slipped from the hand of the nobility.

Symbolism in John Osborne’s “Look Back in Anger”: The Bear and Squirrel Game

Some critics feel that the bear and squirrel game is simply a device to escape the harsh and cruel realities of life in the face of mutual conflicts and tensions and the failure of marriage between Alison and Jimmy. This is true as far as it goes, but it does not go very far.

This game is not merely a device for the evasion of the complexities of a marriage. It is the statement of the nature of human love to share the pain and pleasure of life. It seems that Jimmy ultimately reconciles himself to an animal relationship with Alison.

Is T. S. Eliot A Genuine Classicist in “Tradition and the Individual Talent”?



Eliot’s ideas of ‘tradition’, ‘classicism’ and ‘depersonalization’ in  “Tradition and the Individual Talent” should not mislead us. He is not Orthodox or traditionalist in every sense of the terms. He does not like a retreat to Roman Catholicism. He becomes a citizen of England. The land of his forefathers and adopts the religion of that Nation. In his later essays like ‘Frontiers of Criticism’ he does not insist on Tradition. In essays and lectures, Eliot profoundly influenced modern literary criticism. In the collection The Sacred Wood (1920), he contended that the critic must develop a strong historical sense to judge literature from the proper perspective, and that the poet must be impersonal in the creative exercise of the craft.

The Real Secret of Greatness and Popularity of Charles Dickens as a Novelist

Charles Dickens is a good story-teller. His stories are gripping in their interest. Critics after critics have recognized the genius of Dickens; they have also emphasized his many glaring social criticism.  However, critics have mentioned time and again several weaknesses in Dickens’ plot-construction such as superfluity, verbosity, incoherence, lack of unity, improbability, abuse of coincidence, over-crowding of events, lack of logical relationship between the plot and character, subordination of plot and character, over-moralizing, etc.

Are Shakespearean Sonnets a Psychological Drama in Five Acts?

"Shakespeare's verbal imagination was also his dramatic imagination."

Inga-Stina Ewbank (1932 - 2004)
British academic and critic.

Shakespeare and the Arts of Language, "Companion to Shakespeare Studies"


Shakespeare’s sonnets have been a riddle to critics and readers alike and in the maze of criticism and interpretation it is more likely for one to lose his way than to get out of it. For those who believe that the sonnets display a chronological order of composition, the separate poems do not have much value by themselves unless they feel the developing situations show a definite pattern of sustained dramatic utterance. For them it is the poetry of self-dramatization unfolding a psychological drama in full five acts.

The Hidden Mystery behind “The Winter’s Tale” as one of the Dramatic Romances of Shakespeare’s Last period: Reflecting His New Attitude of Life



The Winter’s Tale is one of the last plays of Shakespeare along with Pericles, Cymbeline and The Tempest. These are a cluster of plays, forming as it were a distinct group, indicating a happy end of a long joinery of spirit along the many-splendoured path of drama and poesy. They resemble the romantic comedies and are in a way an extension of the preceding tragic mood at least in patches. They combine in their queer way realism and romance and give to Elizabethan fancy and imagination “a local habitation and a name”. The cruelties and caprices of characters and situations are ultimately redeemed in happy ending with innocence getting victorious in a not-unlike Spenserian world of flower and poetry depicting the charms of a pastoral beauty. The recurrent theme is of recognition, redemption and if one might say regeneration.

Most Important Thing You Need To Know About “The Poet’s Poet”: Edmund Spenser Bridged the Medieval and Elizabethan Periods



"I was promised on a time

To have reason for my rhyme;

From that time unto this season,

I received nor rhyme nor reason."

Edmund Spenser (1552? - 1599)
English poet.

It was Charles Lamb who called Edmund Spenser ‘The poet’s poet’ and in giving him that honoured title, the prince of essayists and critics, was not wrong. Spenser is regarded the poets poet and the second father of English poetry. Chaucer being the real father, because Spenser rendered incalculable service to English poetry in a variety of ways and left behind him models of poetic excellence to be imitated and Spenser followed by a host of poets came in his wake. He is the great English poet, who bridged the medieval and Elizabethan periods, and who is most famous for his long allegorical romance, The Faerie Queene.

Why Some Critics Almost Always Get Confused with William Shakespeare’s “The Tempest” as a Kind of Romance Written in a Tragic Mood

We find William Shakespeare’s so-called final period producing three romances of which The Tempest is the best representative. Several views persist about these romances and some critic almost always get confused with William Shakespeare’s “The Tempest” as a kind of romance written in a tragic mood. Dowden finds in them a serene self-possession after the sounding of depths in sorrow; suffering and guilt and consequently he think that the spirit of reconciliation observed in the happy endings is not merely a function of stage device but of a compulsive moral need. Lytton Strachey who challenges Dowden holds that the happy ending may not be a response to stage necessity but is demanded by a fairy-tale atmosphere for which a bored poet was hankering after tragic exhaustion. Dover Wilson challenges Strachey and finds in these plays and particularly The Tempest a spiritual conversion of Shakespeare trying to look into the heart of things. Tillyard opines that there s no cleavage between tragedies and romances, they being supplementary creations.

Sir Thomas Browne’s "Religio Medici" (Religion of a Doctor/Physician): Skepticism and Scientific Reasoning are Mixed with Faith and Revelation

“And, considering the thousand doors that lead to death, do thank my God that we can die but once.”

Thomas Browne (1605 - 1682)

English physician and writer.

Religio Medici

Sir Thomas Browne’s first important work, Religio Medici (Religion of a Doctor/Physician), probably written in 1635 at the age of thirty, is a rambling discourse in which skepticism and scientific reasoning are mixed with faith and revelation. The book was published in 1642 and translated into Latin, Dutch, French and German. Soon after its appearance in the continent, the book became popular. In France, particularly, Browne’s Religio Medici was highly esteemed and the author revered. Read More Age of Dryden

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