AD's English Literature : January 2015

Wednesday, January 28, 2015

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 81

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1. One important feature of Charles Lamb’s style is humour and pathos. Lamb's literary career included the writing of poetry, plays, essays (Essays of Elia in 1823 and Last Essays of Elia in 1833)., stories(Tales from Shakespeare in 1807) and literary criticism (Specimens of English Dramatic Poets who Lived about the Time of Shakespeare in 1808). Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    

2. The title of the poem The Second Coming is taken from The Bible (Matthew 24:29-31; Mark 13:24-27; Luke 21:25-28).

3. The main character in Paradise Lost Book I and Book II is Satan.

4. Feminist critiques of To the Lighthouse have drawn very different conclusions about its gender politics. Elaine Showalter suggests that the novel is a retreat from feminism into mysticism, while Toril Moi argues that it is a radical feminist attack on the logic of patriarchal male society.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Emily Dickinson’s Vision of ‘Death’ and ‘Eternity’ in “Because I could not stop for Death”

“Because I could not stop for Death”

Because I could not stop for Death –
He kindly stopped for me –
The Carriage held but just Ourselves –
And Immortality.

We slowly drove – He knew no haste
And I had put away
My labor and my leisure too,
For His Civility –

We passed the School, where Children strove
At Recess – in the Ring –
We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain –
We passed the Setting Sun –

Or rather – He passed Us –
The Dews drew quivering and Chill –
For only Gossamer, my Gown –
My Tippet – only Tulle –

We paused before a House that seemed
A Swelling of the Ground –
The Roof was scarcely visible –
The Cornice – in the Ground –

Since then – 'tis Centuries – and yet
Feels shorter than the Day
I first surmised the Horses' Heads
Were toward Eternity –

Heralded as one of the most gifted American writers, Emily Dickinson’s  poems were struck by her succinct style and the intensity of emotions that the poems contained. In the poem Because I could not stop for Death, the ballad-metre has been used and the poet’s encounter with Death is told like a story. Again, Dickinson’s poems are familiar teaching devices that reveal moral lessons through short and simple stories. Her poem's simplicity lends it a timeless quality. For this reason, Dickinson’s poems hold relevance today in parabolic sense. Dickinson’s poems can also be enigmatic sayings or tales, which obviously contain a message though the precise meaning is anyone's guess. In this poem, Because I Could Not Stop for Death Dickinson focused on themes relating to death, eternity, and love, usually in short four-line stanzas. It may be noted that some of the lines arc rhyming. But the others are not.

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 80

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers


1.  Derrida............. Deconstruction: With the publication of Writing and Difference, French philosopher Jacques Derrida pioneers the method of literary criticism known as deconstruction. Under deconstruction, texts are subjected to new methods of analysis that reveal hidden layers of meaning. The analysis examines the intent of the author, as well as how the concepts, language, and images of the text have been previously used.

2.  Psychological Criticism: Writers’ as well as creative process’s analysis. (Origin Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan)  Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)   

3.   Archetypal / Myth Criticism: Frye’s most important work, Anatomy of Criticism (1957), introduced archetypal criticism, identifying and discussing basic archetypal patterns as found in myths, literary genres, and the reader’s imagination.( origin C. G. Jung & Joseph Campbell)

4.   The correct sequence of the following schools of criticism:

  Structuralism> Deconstruction>Reader-Response> New Historicism

5.   Ezekiel’s Night of the Scorpion shares a moving picture of a mother's suffering.

 6.   Kamala Markandaya’s Nectar in a Sieve is widely acclaimed for its portrayal of the culture clash between whites and nonwhites, and its success at revealing the commonality of the human condition. It received rave reviews and won the American Library Association’s Notable Book Award in 1955.  A to Z (Objective Questions)  

7.  A Suitable Boy by Vikram Seth is the story of an Indian mother's search for a suitable match for her daughter. The tale is set against the panoramic backdrop of life in India just after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. A to Z (Objective Questions)  

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Critical Analysis of Rabindranath Tagore’s Story 'Kabuliwala': Love and Waiting

Rabindranath Tagore’s story Kabuliwala, set in the early twentieth century Kolkata, is about a little girl Mini and a Kabuliwala exploring the bonds of friendship, affection and parting  transcending the borders of race, religion and language. Read More Short Stories The prime characters are two: Kabuliwala and Mini. Kabuliwala’s name was  Rahamat  a middle-aged Pathan trader, a dry fruit seller from Afghanistan, who comes to Kolkata, leaving his family and in particular his favorite daughter, and Mini was a chatty girl and liked to talk all day long.

Monday, January 12, 2015

Stephen Leacock’s “Further Progress in Specialization” as Humorous Essay

The Canadian humourist Stephen Leacock’s sense of humors to create amusement has no doubt abundantly erected in a fanciful story about the recent trends towards specialization particularly in the field of medical treatment in his essay Further Progress in Specialization. At the time Stephen Leacock wrote Further Progress in Specialization, science had become the subject of much public debate. During this period, the natural sciences were becoming part of the everyday curriculum of schools. Read More Essay  Journalists responded to the general interest in science—and the particular interest in medicine and its possible wonders—with a multitude of speculations. Stephen Leacock chose a topic for his essay that was calculated to catch the public's imagination. In addition, his care in presenting accurate details, both in setting and about the everyday lives of his characters, gives the narrative a powerful immediacy, as though the action could be taking place in any reader's own yard in future. Read More Essay

An interesting technique is Stephen Leacock's use of symbolic names. The narrator could be an Everyman figure—a character who is meant to symbolize all human beings. More pointedly symbolic are the Dr. Follicle, Dr Scrape and Dr Clicker. Read More Essay They are not given individual names of their own, but instead stand as representatives of their kind. Usually, an author will try to interest readers in individual characters; in Progress in Specialization the great list of specialists of doctors is more important than the characters because of what Stephen Leacock wants to say about improving medical science, technology, and social evolution. He therefore individualizes his characters only a little, preferring to emphasize what they have in common with the types of people they represent. In this mad rush for expertise, there lies a sense of irony in humouristic blend.

Friday, January 9, 2015

A TO Z Literary Principles from History of English Literature: Note 79

A Set of 26 Objective Questions & Answers

1. Yeats’ Leda and the Swan is drawn upon a Greek myth. Leda and the Swan is a Greek myth in which Zeus, in the form of a swan, seduces Leda
2. The source of E.M Forster’s title Where Angels Fear to Tread is Pope. (Pope’s An Essay On Criticism – ‘Fools rush in where angels fear to tread’)
3. The lines “Things fall apart/ Centre cannot hold” occur in Yeats' Second Coming.
4. The ‘Movement’ is a literary phenomenon in the forties. Read More A to Z (Objective Questions)    
4. The statement “One has to convey in a language that is not one’s own the spirit that is one’s own” appears in :  Kanthapura

Monday, January 5, 2015

Main Themes of Rabindranath Tagore’s "Postmaster": Loneliness and the Search for Meaning in the World

Loneliness and the search for meaning in the world are the main themes of Rabindranath Tagore’s Postmaster, although other themes are subsumed in these two notions. Postmaster’s love and compassion for the young girl and the young girl’s musing by herself late into the night every night suggests loneliness. Postmaster understands implicitly what it may be like to be that lonely, to live that loner’s life. Read More Short Stories Ratan, who has no life, no home, and no job, lacks Postmaster’s perspective on life; she sees only her own immediate desire to stay at home, with no thought towards what may be haunting the young heart she matures night after night.

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