Historical & Literary events
1833 – Oxford Movement started
1848 – R B founded
1850 – In Memoriam by Tennyson
1859 – Idylls of The King by Tennyson
1855 – Men and Women by Browning
1842 – Dramatic lyrics by Browning
1847-48 – Vanity Fair - Thackeray
1859 – On The Origin of The species – Charles Darwin
1879 – A Doll’s house – Ibsen
1865,1888 – Essays in Criticism -M. Arnold
1831-1837 William IV
1837-1901 Queen Victoria
1795-1818 Thomas Carlyle
1809-1892 Alfred Tennyson
1812-1889 Robert Browning
1812-1870 Charles Dickens
1819-1880 George Eliot
1822-1888 Matthew Arnold
1828-1882 D. G. Rossetti
1840-1928 Thomas Hardy
- Who was Christina Rossetti’s brother? To which movement did he belong?
Ans. Dante Gabriel Rossetti is the brother of Christina Rossetti.
He belonged to the pre-Raphaelite movement.
- Name the period, which starts in 1837 and ends in 1901?
Ans. The period, which starts in 1837 and ends in 1901 is the Victorian period.
- Who were Elia and Boz?
Ans. Elia is the pen name of Charles Lamb and Boz is of Charles Dickens.
- What important events occurred in the 1840s in England?
Ans. Chimney Sweep act was actuated in 1840 in England.
- Name two novels by Meredith (1828-1909)?
Ans. The Ordeal of Richard Feveral (1859) and The Egoist (1879) are the two novels by Meredith.
- Name two books published in 1859-
Ans. Darwin’s Origin of Species and Meredith’s The Ordeal of Richard Feverel (Novel) were published in 1859.
- Mention two Victorian essayists dealing with social and moral themes.
Ans. Thomas Carlyle is by far the richest & profoundest. His essays are critical, biographical, historical, social and political.
T. B. Macaulay (Edinburgh Review), John Ruskin Matthew Arnold, Walter Pater are other great artists.
- What is Oxford movement? Who was the leader of the movement?
Ans. The Oxford movement was essentially a religious movement started to reform the English church, the clergy and theology. Keble’s sermons and poems started the reformatory movement. However, its greatest champion was Henry Newman.
- Name an autobiographical novel of Charles Dickens.
Ans. David Copperfield (1849).
- Who is the author of ‘Vanity Fair’?
Ans. Thackeray (1811-63): publication 1847.
- In which town was Thackeray born? (1811-63)
Ans. Calcutta (1811).
- Name two Pre-Raphaelite poets.
Ans. In 1848 D.G.Rossetti along with the English artists Hunt, Ford Maddox Brown and the painter Millais formed the pre-Raphaelite brotherhood to replace the academic style of painting by a return of simplicity, truthful and the spirit of devotion and these came to be attributes of the Italian artists and painters before the time of Raphael (1483-1520).
- Name the poem in which Mrs. Barrett Browning expressed her ardent love for her husband?
Ans. Sonnets From The Portuguese by Mrs. Browning records her ardent love for her husband, Robert Browning. The sonnet sequence was published in 1847, a year’s later of her marriage.
- Name the major work by Carlyle other than Sartor Resartus.
Ans. Caryle’s historical work The French Revolution (1837) contains a perfect pen portrait of the time and struggle. Among his translation works, Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship is popular.Farther his essays on Scott and Burns are critically appraised.
- What is the source of Keats’ poem Lamia?
Ans. Keats’ Lamia (1819) is an allegorical poem .The story line is taken from Burton’s The Anatomy of Melancholy depicting a beautiful enchanter. Here is Keatsian pictorial richness but the allegory is quite confused. It is also a nature of a fable as Dryden uses and the heroic couplet is mastery here.
- Who succeeded Wordsworth as poet laureate?
Ans. Alfred Tennyson (1850-1892).
- Which sovereign of England ruled the country for more than sixty years?
Ans. The reign of Queen Victoria (1830-1990), commonly known as Victorian age produced intellectual horizons, noble Endeavour and bright aspiration in England. The age is recognized for its miscellaneous activities.
- What is an epistolary novel? Give two examples.
Ans. The word ‘epistle’ means letters. Thus, the epistolary novel is the novel of which the plot develops through the medium of letters written by the various characters. These letters express their thought and views. Hardly, in this novel any face to face dialogue.
Richardson wrote Pamela and Clarisa Harlowe in this style.
- Name the epoch-making book written by Charles Darwin and give the year of its publication.
Ans. On the Origin of Species (1859) is the epoch-making work by Charles Darwin. It is the discussion on the theory of evolution and foothold of modern biological science.
- In which year was the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood formed? Name at least two members of the group?
Ans. A group of painter-poets led by D.G.Rossetti founded the Pre Raphaelite School of poetry. Other poets of this school were Christina Rossetti, Swinburne, and William Morris. They wrote highly sensuous, pictorial and symbolical poems, which could be painted with equal effort and effect.
- When did the Oxford movement take place? Name a leader of the movement?
Ans. Despite the scientific progress in Victorian period, it is seen the revival of the old Roman Catholic religion. The Oxford movement represents this revival. The leaders of this movement attack Puritanism and the Church of England. Notable leaders are Newman, Keble, and Morris etc. This movement is also known as Tractarianism.
- At least mention three literary movements in the Victorian period?
Ans. The Victorian period is rich in literary outputs. The three movements – Oxford movement, Aesthetic movement and Pre Raphaelite movement affected the literature of this period a great deal.
The Oxford movement – the revival of Roman Catholicism.
(Leaders – Henry John Newman)
Aesthetic movement – glorification of art and artistic values in prose and criticism.
(Leaders – Walter Horatio Pater, Ruskin & Oscar Wilde)
Pre-Raphaelite movement – glorification of art and artistic values in poetry.
(Leaders – D.G. Rossetti, Morris, Swinburne)
- What do you mean by PRB?
Ans. The initial PRB stands for pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. At first the brotherhood exhibited together anonymously, signing all their paintings with the monogram P.R.B. when their identity and youth were discovered in 1850, their works were harshly criticized for its disregard of academic ideals of beauty but also for its apparent irreverence in treating religious themes with an uncompromising realism. Nevertheless, the leading art critic John Ruskin defended them and their art.
- Name a novel written by Charles Dickens in the background of the French Revolution.
Ans. Dickens’ A Tale of Two cities is written in the background of French Revolution. His Hard Times is an idustrial novel depicting mechanical, insipid and materialistic society.
- Give a name of Pre-Raphaelite magazine.
Ans. The Germ, a periodical edited by W.M.Rossetti of which the first issue appeared on Jan 1.1850. The Germ was the representative of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood but survived only four issues, the last appearing on April 30, 1850. The last two issues of the journal were renamed Art and Poetry. The Germ published the poems of the Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood and is believed to have inspired William Morris’s Oxford and Cambridge Magazine (1856), which continued the Pre Raphaelite movements.
- What is the source of Fra lippo Lippi or Andrea del Satro.
Ans. These two poems by Robert Browning are based on the actual artists of Italy, Filippo di Tomasso Lippi (1406-1469) and Andrea del Satro. Browning adopted his characters from Giorgeo Vasari’s book The Lives of The Most excellent Italian Architects, Paintero and Sculptors.
. Novels (Dickens) Theme
Oliver Twist Boarding School
Nicholas Nickleby Work houses
Hard Times New manufacturing system
Black House Court of Chancery
A Tale of two cities War
- What is the full name of Oscar Wilde? Give any name of his novel.
Ans. The full name of Oscar Wilde is Oscar Fingal O’ Flahertie Wills Wilde (1854-1900). This Irish born author wrote a celebrated novel The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891).