AD's English Literature : FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations

FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY : PGT , TGT and Other Competitive Examinations


1. Using suitable words from the list --( horde, mob, crowd, gang, band, group, company, squad,crew, team

Ans- (a) During the riots the mob got out of control and police were forced to open fire.

(b) The sergeant major was drilling a company of soldier’s on the aquarium.

(c)Although they defended themselves bravely, they could not keep off the horde of Indians that attacked then in thousands.

(d) The crowd that watched the football match broke in to groups on leaving the field.

(e) The aeroplane crew could see the gang of robbers rushing away to hide in the forests.

(f) The hoarder/band of workmen soon had the new piece railway track lay.

2. Arrange the words in the two lists so as to make pairs.

A                    B

1. Pelican 1.orchaed

2. Crapes 2. Oil

3. Fruit trees 3. Case

4. Cricket 4.tannery

5. Barrel 5. Mint

6. Coal 6. Crossing

7. Leather 7. Rod

8. Spectacles 8. Vineyard

9. Angler 9. Pitch

10. Money 10. Scuttle

Ans- 1_______6 /2_______8/ 3_______1/4________9/ 5_______2/6_______10/

7________4/ 8_______3/ 9_______7/10_______5

3.Work out the examples (luring into comparative degree)

(a) Peter is the worst singer in the world.

(b) Our Indian culture is better than any other cutler in the world

(c) No Nightingale sings as sweetly as the reaper.

(d) Rest seemed the sweets thing under a roof.

Ans –(a) Peter is worse than most other singers in the world.

(b) Our Indian culture is better than any other culture in the world

(c)The reaper sings more sweetly than any nightingale.

(d) Rest under a roof seemed sweeter than anything else.

4. What is the called Gerund? Give an example.

Ans – Gerard is a combination of verb and noun. It formed by adding ‘ing’ to the verb. As a noun it can be the subject or object of a verb.

Exp- Reading is a good habit.



Subject (Gerund)

Rahit has learnt swimming



Object (Gerund)

5. Shortening/ joining the sentences by using Gerund.

Ans- Aliabad uttered “Open sesame”. The stone wall of the cave parted. He then entered in to the cave.

On uttering “Open sesame “the stone wall of the cave having parted, Aliabad a entered in to cave.

The Giant listened to the music of a limit. He thought the king musicians were passing by.

Listening to the music of a linnet the Giant thought that king’s musicians were passing by.

6. Joining by using a participle.

(Participles are verbs of incomplete predication ending in ‘ing’ ov’ed’ being, having, deign, burnt, painted etc.)

(a)We are late for the rain. We hired a taxi. We hoped to meet the friends.

(b) He is tired. He takes rest at an inn for the night.

Ans-(a) Being late for the rain we hired a taxi hoping to meet the friends.

(b)Being tired, he takes rest at an inn for the might.

7. Use one word for the underlined phrases.

a. Mark Antony offered the crown three times .

b. The servant brought letters of unknown authorship.

c. The prophetic sings did not favour casar’s going to the senate-House.

d. The man who auompanied Caesar as his protectors were his enemies.

Ans- a. thrice, b. anonymous, c. omens, d. escorted

8. Use one word for the following:

a. More than human- _ super human

b. study of religion _ theology

c. holding excessively strong- _ dogmatic

d. to sail around- _ circumnavigate

e. a roundabout expression- _ circumlocution

f. enclose or outline- _ circumscribe

g. to get around or avoid _ circumstances act of event

h. the surroundings of an- _ circumstances

i. the distance round a circle- _ circumference

j. One who eats human flesh- _ cambial?

k. One who walks in sleep _ somnambulist?

l. A person in charge of a museum- _ curator

m. A place where birds are kept- _ aviary

n. A place where rabbits are kept _ hutch

o. A house or shelter for a dog- _ kennel

9. What is called collective noun? Give an example.

Ans- A collected noun is a noun that denotes a group of things of the same kind. Exp- A fleet of ships.

In the phrase ‘a fleet of ships’, ‘fleet’ is a collective noun that denotes a group of things of the same kind ‘ship’.

A few more example------

a. a quiver of arrows

b. a pride of lions

c. a muster of soldiers

d. a clutch of eggs

e. a gaggle of geese

f. a troupe of actors

10.Note the following definitions.

a) The study of animals—Zoology

b) The application of science—Technology

c) The study of working of the human body—philosophy

d) The study of birds—ornithology

e) The study of mankind—Anthropology

f. The study of the origin of words—Etymology

g) The study of weather—Meteorology

h) The study of mountain—Otology

i) The study of lakes—Limnology

11. What is the called modifiers? Answer with examples.

Ans- The words or phrases which are used to modify the nouns or noun groups in the sentences are called modifiers.

They may be placed before or after the nouns or noun groups. A modifier which is placed before a noun or noun group is called pre-modifier.

E4xp- A dancing flower. A crawling snake.

A post modifier is placed after a vb or N

Exp-We noticed a boy falling from the tree. I found a man standing at the door

12. How will you teach the students of nominal compound?

Ans – I will first define nominal compound to the student that spume times a noun and a noun phrase are joined in a compact manner in order to express clearly and precisely a person or thing which is called nominal compound.

Further, I will tell them that compounding can done by noun + noun (foot ball match), noun +vb (rain fall), vb+ noun (watchdog), adj+ noun (black board) etc.

13. Fill in the blanks with appropriate expressions chosen from thus given bellow. (Drop out, drop in, drop off, drop by)

(a) She ______ of college as the dewed to become a dancer rather than a graduate.

(b) I ______ and missed the end of the film.

(c) My friends usually _______ in the evening for a chat and tea.

(d) The sale of cold drinks starts to________ as winter approaches.

Ans- (a) drop out (b) drop off (c) drop in (d) drop by

14. Bring out the meaning of the following pain of words: fusillade, oscillate

Ans- Fusillade (rapid shooting from a number of rifles or other firearms simultaneously): English soldiers cannot survive the fusillade by the German Soldiers at A Hill.

Oscillate (to keep moving between extremes of feeling, behavior or opinion): Her moods have been oscillating wildly since came off the oblong.

15. A few voice changes:

(a) It can easily be pointed out that our education system has its faults.

(b) For tunately in God’s world, the tyranny of vices is not tolerated.

(c)She found not object worth her constancy

(d) Promises should be kept.

Ans- (a) One can easily point out that our education system has its faults.

(b) Fortunately, in Gods world, none tolerates the tyranny of vices.

(c)No object worth her constancy was found by her.

(d) One should keep one’s promises.

16. Rewrite the sentence correctly:

(a) No sooner had hockey match started when it began to rain.

(b) There is only one of his novels that are interesting.

(c) Knowledge of at least two languages are required to pass the examination.

(d) Ten miles are a long way to walk.

Ans- No sooner had the hockey match started, than it began to rain. (This can also be written as – No sooner did the hockey match start, than it began to rain.

You should always remember that the sentences with ‘no sooner’, the helping verb will be always before the ‘subject’)

(b) There is only one of his novels that is interesting.

(c)Knowledge of at least two languages is required to pass the examination.( In both these two sentences the subject is singular, thus will take singular verb)

(d) Than miles are long ways to walk. (It in a particular sentence ‘a numeral+ plural noun’ indicates a definite quantity, distance height, weighted singular verb in used e.g.

Ten thousand rupees is a handsome salary. Ten thousand_ numeral rupees-_ plural noun is-_ singular noun

But if ‘numeral adjective+ plural noun’ indicates different things, plural verb will be used e.g.

Three hundred bags have been sold.)

17. A few idioms and their usage

(a) She is a fair weather friend. (One who deserts you in difficulties?)

(b) Peter took his father’s did in harness job. (Die while still in service)

(c)After independence Indian agriculture rose like a phoenix due to the Green Revolution. (With a new life)

(d) His failure at the election has been a sore point with him for a long time. (Something which hurts)

(e) He was progressing by leaps and bombs because of his hard work. (Rapidly)

(f) The news of the accident came as a bolt from the blue. (Something expected and unpleasant)

18. What is the called reflexive pronouns? Give examples.

Ans Occasionally the action expressed by a transitive verb is directed upon the doer himself. The action

bends back or reflects upon the doer. Such verbs are said to be used reflexively and their object direct indirect, is a reflexive pronoun.

Exp- I made myself useful.

They were making themselves tea.

He buried himself in the garden.

19. How can you differentiate you, yours; her, hers, etc…….

Personal pronouns: [I, me, we, us You He, she, him, her, it, they, then]

Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

Adjective Pronouns

no _ no one, none, nobody, nothing

some _ someone, some body, something

any _ anyone, anybody, anything

every _ everyone, everybody, everything

20.What is called an absolute phrase? Give an example.

Ans- An absolute phrase is an adverb phrase grammatically, but not logically, independent of the rest of the sentence in which it is used. It usually consists of a noun (or pronoun) and a participle, and neither noun nor participle is grammatically related to any other word in the sentence. It is always demarcated by commas.

Exp- 1. The cost of flour having risen, bread will be darer tomorrow.

2.The car lay helpless, her nose buried deep I the ditch.

21. Join the following pair of sentences in a single sentence.

(a) He was a great statesman. He had worked well for his country. He was very popular. He was awarded the little of Bharat Rather.

(b)I require a car. My friend is ready to help me with it. A man tells me. He has just come.

Ans-(a) He, a great very popular statesman, who had worked well for his country, was awarded the littler of Bharat Rather.

(b) A man who has just come tells me that my friend is ready to help me with a car which I require.

21. What function does a preposition do in a sentence?

Ans A preposition in a sentence combines three on and another word or the sentence as a whole; it expresses some kind of relation; together with other words create phrase which defines enlarges the meaning of the word or the sentence to which it is added.

Exp- To our surprise, the wind suddenly changed.

22. Prepositional usage: A few examples

Of- the house of my uncle, a man of ability (posse son)- a house of brick (material or substance)- he died of heart failure (cause)

With- come with me accompaniment)- he behaved with dignity ( manner)- I hit him with my stick ( instrument)- ill with influenza, pale with excite mint ( cause).

For- for two months (duration)-he did it for me, he died for his country (8person or thing interested or benefited)- for nothing, for sixpence (price)-I could not speak for language ( cause)- he came to London for an interview (purpose).

23. How can you differentiate a phrase and clues?

Ans- A phrase and a clause are alike in one important respect neither serves any intelligible purpose until it is fitted into the structure of a sentence logically and grammatically. But they differ in that a phrase does not contain a subject or a finite verb, where as a clause loess. The difference is simply illustrated by a comparison of the phrase ‘at his departure’ with the clause ‘when he departed’ in the following two sentences- We lost a good accountant at his departure.

We lost a good accountant when he departed.

24. Differentiate the meaning of the following pair of words: inimical, protract, protect.

Inimical means harmful to something, not helping something.

Protract means to last longer than expected.

Protect means to save.

25. Change the mode of narration:

(a) “When will you able to join?” he asked.

(b) The girl enquired whether she could bring her brought with her.

Ans- (a) He asked when I would be able to join.

(b) The girl said,” can I bring my brother with me?”

26. Make four sentences with four phrases:
 pass away ;pass over ; pass by ; pass on

Ans-  Pass away (die)_ His father has passed away on Tuesday.

 Pass over (overlook)_ He passed over his uncle’s unkind remarks.

Pass by (to overlook)_ Most mothers pass by their children’s faults.

 Pass on (proceed)_ Het us now pass on to the next topic.

27. Define Principal clause and subordinate cause and give example.

Ans- When a clause or a part of sentence does not depend on other clauses and can make complete sense by them, it is called principal clause.

When a clause depends on principal clause and cannot make complete sense by them, it is called subordinate clause.

Exp- I might have given you a bow if I were not so poor myself.

(a)Principal clause (b) sulardinate clause

28. Change the voice:

(a) you should pay the bill within due date. (b) Who has done this?

Ans- (a) the bill should be paid within due data. (b) By whom has this been done?

29. Make two different sentences where the modals are defiantly used_ (a) could (b) will

Ans- (a) Could_ 1. For indicating ability_ His group father could walk on his hands.

2. For asking permission_ could I borrow two books from the library

(b) Will_ 1. For indicating certainty_ you have invited me and I will come.

2. for indicating possibility_ Do you thing he will get the job?

30. A list of common antonyms

Words Antonyms

Initial final

Boring exciting

Dry wet

Traditional innovative

Preservation extinction

Change retain

Famous anonymous


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