AD's English Literature : Knowledge of Second Language: Advantage of Bilingual Uses :Different Techniques of Communicative Range

Knowledge of Second Language: Advantage of Bilingual Uses :Different Techniques of Communicative Range

Time was when there was a fairly widespread belief that bilingualism was some kind of an aberration rather than a normal human condition. It was also believed that bilingualism was hindrance to learning development that bilingualism is not an obstacle or a burden; it is ‘rather, an enabling and enriching phenomenon. Knowing two or more languages rather than only one, not also makes the bilingual person more versatile in communicative and international terms, more open minded, more receptive to varied cultural conventions and customs and usages. Bilingualism also increases a person’s reach in terms of intimation and knowledge. All these have a far more important consequence, in that, by increasing a person’s receptivity, access and awareness, bilingualism also tends to make him / her more tolerant and open minded . As far as the question of bilingualism being a burden is concerned, studies have shown that bilingualism actually facilitates rather than hinders learning processes.

In cases when entire groups or communities are characterized by wide- spread bilingualism, i.e., the presence and use of two languages, there is a general tendency to allocate, different functional roles to the two languages. Thus the group may, by tacit consent, use one language for a set of function and the other language for a different set to be in some kind of a hierarchical order, one language may come to be regarded as ‘high’ and the other languages (used for day to day, ordinary activity) many come to be regarded as ‘low’. When such a situation obtains, the two languages are said to be in a ‘diagnostic’ relationship. In several cases, how ever, I and L2 operate in complementary roles and are (as in the case of Hindi and English) given equal value and respect. In cases of societal bilingualism, institutional support is given to the two languages and things are so structured and arranged as to provide equal opportunities for growth, spread and development of be in stable societal bilingualism.

Bilingualism simply is mastery of two languages. A person is bilingual if he or she knows two languages; a document or message is bilingual if it is presented in two languages. Bilingual education is teaching students in both their native language and the primary language of the culture. When two languages are learnt, spoken and used by individuals and whole groups of communities, they come to from a find of co-existent, system in the linguistic repertoire of bilinguals. The coexist me and habitual use of the two languages may have the following cons memes- 

Firstly, L1 and L2, due to mutual influence, may undergo structural change at the level of sound, syntax, vocabulary and Semitics.

Secondly, the two engages May, in due course of time and due to various sociohistorical  reasons, came to be viewed and evaluated differentially. One language may language of education, opportunity, prestige or status while the other may not be perceived to have these attributes.

Thirdly , due to herbicidal  use of L1 and L2 in different domains and situations, the bilingual uses of the two language  may begin it smith from L1 and L2 and vice verse or even to mix the two languages such switching and mixing may come of respectability and social acceptability and may, in fact, become a kind of new code/ language.

Fourthly, where institutional and educational support is given to L1 and L2 in a large measure, it may come to be viewed as an imposition an unwanted burden. It may also happen that the L2 is viewed as language of power, prestige and opportunity, leading to negative altitudes towards L1. In extreme case such a situation may lead to partial politics. The fact is L1 is epicenter Indian languages learning. However,   urban  L1 speakers of major Indian languages are also learning English( L2) as sociological perspectives demand. The increasing numbers of English Medium schools is the glaring example of it.

Let's Learn: 

1.What is lingua franca?
2.When does a pidgin language born?
3.How does a creole language step out? Give example.

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