In light of our experience, the common difficulties we face in teaching English to our pupils: the psychological principles applied to the teaching of English

The teacher of English generally faces certain difficulties in connection with the teaching of it. Primarily any of the teaching English class aims @
a) To develop receptive and productive language skills
b) To improve the students’ language skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing)
c) To expand vocabulary and to develop grammatical competence
d) To improve speech and oral competence
e) To develop paragraph, essay and letter writing skills
f) To use contemporary English forms in speech and writing

To achieve the aims above, English teachers have some overall objectives. Each unit class also has objectives. These will guide the students in your study. They are usually stated at the beginning of the each model class and when the students are through with studying the model classes go back and read the objectives. This would help the students assimilate the task the students have set out to achieve. On completion of the extensive creative style of teaching, the students should be able to:
 a) Extend students’ knowledge of English grammar in certain key areas. 
b) Make students aware of the underlying system of Modern English grammar in contemporary usage
 c) Equip students with strategies to deal with areas of contemporary English usage that may be encountered in real life situations not dealt with on the extensive creative style of teaching).
d) Enable students to reflect on and appreciate the forms of contemporary English usage as objects of intellectual development.
e) Enable students to understand and explain why certain forms are unacceptable in contemporary English usage.
f) Enable students to manipulate the basic written, grammatical and technical structures of contemporary English usage.
 g) Provide students with the grammatical concepts and meta-language forms that will prepare them for latter extensive creative style of teachings.

To complete the extensive creative style of teaching, the students are required to read the study model classes and other related materials. The students will also need to undertake practical exercises for which the students need a pen, a notebook, and other materials that will be listed in this guide. The exercises are to aid the students in understanding the concepts being presented. At the end of each model class, the students will be required to submit written assignments for assessment purposes. At the end of the extensive creative style of teaching, the students will write a final examination. The major materials the students will need for this extensive creative style of teaching are:
1. The Extensive creative style model
2. The Study model class set ups
3. The Relevant textbooks including the ones listed under each model class
4. The Assignment file
5. The Presentation schedule

While teaching these common selective principles should be kept in mind:

  1. English as a foreign language differs to a great extent from any of the Indian languages in various respects. So a special method is required for its teaching. But for a long time there was the want of the right kind of method for the teaching of English and this made the teacher’s task very difficult.
  2.  With the introduction of various subjects in the reorganize pattern, and change in the medium of instruction, the time available for the teaching of English has been very short. Moreover, since the other subjects in the curriculum are too bookish and theoretical, more time is required for their teaching. 
  3.  In most of the cases the teacher has no clear idea about the standard of achievement in the subject. He does not know what type of work should be done and what method should, be followed at a particular stage. The standard to be aimed at is generally pitched very high. As a result, there is an unnecessary wastage of time producing most disastrous result. 
  4.  The old speech habits in the mother tongue generally interfere with the formation of new speech habits. So it is very difficult to form the new speech habits in the children. In reading or speaking English, words are pronounced in the peculiar way in which the words in the mother tongue are pronounced. So it is very difficult for the pupils to practice pronunciation, phrasing, accentuation, intonation etc, peculiar to English. 
  5. The modes of expression in the mother tongue sometimes influence the modes of expressions in English and as a result the pupil has a tendency, to fall back into vernacularisms e.g. leg-fingers for toe. He says good English for he speaks good Hindi- which are very difficult to eradicate. 
  6.   Though we follow different modern process and method to read and write but the natural sequence and opportunity that the students avail in acquiring their mother tongue will not be observed in case of learning foreign language by innumerable students. That is why, in reality we see that at the first stage of learning English we cannot move a single step without the help of mother tongue. We are reminded of Tagore in this respect, —profound knowledge of Bengali would only be a great assistance in learning English [translated). He used to think that, if writing in mother tongue becomes easy, ‘and then if, other language is acquired in due course, it will not be difficult to pen that down confidently. It is not necessary to prepare a covering carefully with the general English usages. Tagore has expressed in various contexts that learning of mother tongue comes first and then foreign language would be taught together with the assistance of mother language. 
  7. Pupils should be given enough practice in acquiring a particular skill so that the repeated exercise of a learning bond may increase its strength; the lack of exercise will decrease it. 
  8.  Pupils should be given ample scope for application of the newly learnt skill which will lead them to perfection. 
  9.  Students should practice correct forms of the language. 
  10.  The principle of Transfer of Training has a definite place in teaching English in that the mother-tongue and English have may identical elements in them. 
  11.  There is still a great dearth of specially prepared text books containing suitable subject matters, vocabulary and sentence patterns with proper gradation and arrangement. 
  12. The defective system of examination encourages cramming in the children and forces the teacher to discard the modern techniques of teaching and fall back upon the stereotyped method. 
  13.  The strength in the class is generally so large that it is practically impossible for the teacher either to give individual drill or to correct the composition work of the children. 
  14.  The standard of achievement in English, specially is rural areas, is very low and in most of the cases the unqualified teachers in the hands of whom the task of teaching English is placed in the early stages, are greatly responsible for it.  


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