Lateral Sound, Glottal Stop, Stress Timed Language,Stressed Syllable,Tone Group, Assimilation,Stress shift ETC.

  1. Which stricture is involved during the production of a lateral sound?
Ans: The stricture is one of the central closing at the alveador ridge with the air passing out laterally through the rides of the tongue.
            The stricture in a plosive is complete closure and sudden release of the air stream/ the stricture involved in the production of fricative sounds is close approximation /
The stricture involved in affricate sounds is complete closure and slow release / The stricture in lateral sound is central closure with lateral release of the air stream / The stricture involved in the production of nasal sounds is complete oral closure ./ The stricture involved in the English /r/ sound are either one of frictionless continuation or of one tap trill (flap).

  1. What is the position of the glottis during the production of a glottal stop?
Ans:  During the glottal stop the glottis is completely closed and then suddenly released. It occurs in English when a speaker pronounces the words. There are in such a way as to separate them distinctly with no linking [r]. In some languages such as Danish the glottal stop is phonemically distinctive.

  1. Why do we call English a stress timed language?
Ans:   A stress timed language is one in which the stressed syllables occur at regular interval of times irrespective of how many unstressed syllables occur between them. This feature, also called isochronisms is present in English. [A syllable - timed language is one in which each syllable takes up approximately the same amount of time in an utterance. This feature is found in the French language]

  1. What kind of chest pulse is required far the production of a stressed syllable?
Ans : While an ordinary unstressed syllable requires a simple chest pulse , a stressed syllable requires a reinforced chest pulse . E.g. in the word ' corruption ' (/Kr^psn/) the second syllable is produced with a reinforced chest pulse while the others are produced with ordinary chest pulses.

  1. A tone group is also known as a breath group why?
Ans:  Because often the articulation of all the sounds in a particular tone group , one pauses for breath before proceeding to the neat tone group .

  1. Assimilation - is the name of the process in which the succeeding phonemes influences or changes the preceding phoneme when two distinct morphemes are added to each other. e.g. when the two marphemes /in/ /and/ /poSibL/ are added to each other , /n/ becomes/m/ though the influence of /p/. (/imposibl/) in ' impossible '.

Addition of phoneme is the name of that process in which an extra phoneme is added when the morpheme solemn / solam / is united with -- ' lize ' / aiz /, a new phoneme / n / is added in solemnize / solemnaiz /.

ss of phoneme is the name of the process in which an existing phoneme is lost when two distinct morphemes are united . e.g. in the union of the phonemes ' in ' (linl) and ' logical ' /lodgikel/ , the /n/ sound is lost to give ' illogical ' /ilodgikal /.

  1. Stress shift:  is the name of that process in which the original stress shifts to a new position when two distinct morphemes are added . e.g. when the ward ' engine ' unitis with the suffix - ' eer ', the stress shifts from the ist to the 3rd sylable in ' engineer ' ?

  1. What is a stop? give an example
Ans: A stop is a consonant which is produced with the strictune of complete closure and sudden a slow release. There are eight stops in English - / p / , /b /, /t/ , /d/ , /k/ , /g/ , /d3/ , /tf/ , stops are also known as mutes or exclusives .

9. What is the position of glottis during the production of [v]?
Ans: The glottis is narrowed. [Note - far all voiced sounds and vowels, the glottis is narrow . For all voiceless consonant the glottis is wide open].

      10. Which stricture is involved for the production of a flap?
Ans: One - tap trill.

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