Realistic and Non - realistic Novels: Visionary, Apocalyptic and Allegorical

Fiction may be either faithful to truth or stranger than truth. When fiction or what is conventionally today known are novel began to be written in England, this vehicle of the middle classes sought to present the life and aspirations of the bourgeois, and was therefore realistic in essence. But with the passage of time the fictive art, like every other aspect of human life, began to undergo involution and diversification. One direction which the novel book was to proceed to wards extreme realism which is also known as naturalism. And the other direction was to turn the novel into a romance in which life is made more picturesque, more adventurous or more visionary and apocalyptic than ordinary life. On the course of the last two and half - centuries the novels written provide examples of each and every kind, ranging from the meticulously naturalistic to the egregiously fictive, the intensely actual to the excitingly fanciful.

Realism presents an accurate imitation of life. The realistic novelists feel that fiction should not be stranger than truth. They set out to write a fiction which will give the reason that novel reflects life or it seems to the ordinary reader. Consequently he is deliberately selective in his materials and prefers the average, the commonplace and the everyday over the rarer aspects of the contemporary scene. The characters are ordinary people who live through ordinary experiences of childhood, adolescence, love, marriage, parent - hood, infidelity and death. Daniel Defoe, the first realistic novelist dealt within the extraordinary adventures of a ship - wrecked mariner in Robinson Crusoe and with the extraordinary misadventure of a lady in loll Flanders . It is as if Defoe reports the events, whether trivial or extraordinary, in an unselective true - to - life manner. His successors such as Henry Fielding and Jane Austen too were realists in that they present commonplace so people so well as to convince us that such people really lived and talked in this manner. When realism reaches its extreme, it is known as naturalism.

The proponents of naturalism hold that man belongs entirely in the order of nature and that his characters and trusts are determined by two kinder of natural forces, humility and environment. The French novelist Emile Zola and later English novelists like Stephen crane and Theodore Dreiser tried to present their subjects with an objective scientific attitude and with elaborate documentation of such animal drives as greed and brutal sexual desire . It may be noted that even Hardy's Jude the Obscure foreshadowed such naturalism by his frank presentation of human brutality and cosmic indifference. Other examples are Zola’s Nana, Dreiser's An American Tragedy and Joyce’s Ulysses.

Another kind of realism lies in the recreation of an entire historical epoch as in the historical novels. The historicity of the historical novel depends either on the setting or the character or as is more usual with both together.

The setting consists of the time and place of action. The setting may include the entire milieu of a story --- the manners, customs, ways of life as well as the natural background or environment. Yet characterization is vitally related to the sociopolitical setting , and therefore the historical novel must combine the dramatic interest of plot and character with a more or less detailed picture of the varied lectures of the life of a particular age . If in the realm of French literature it was Alexander Dumas who brought the historical novel, or rather the historical romance in to vogue, in England it was Sir Walter Scott who popularized and endowed the historical fiction with an allowing interest. Many others continued in his mold the most eminent among them being George Eliot Hawthorne, Dickens, Robert Graves and Henry Terence. George Elide utilizes in Romola the rolling of the Italian Renaissance, and giver a laborious study not only of the outer life but also of the peculiar intellectual movement and spiritual struggles of the strange and brilliant 15th century Florentine life. Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities respects the spirit of the poignant. Terror during the French Revolution with amazing- authenticity. Walt Scott, on the other hand, merges realism with romance in such an adroit fashion in Ivanhoe  as to create a new kind of fiction and a new kind of art the romantic realism of the romantic history

In contrast to there realistic, historical and naturalistic novels are the other categorical of the novels which have been variously ascribed as ' visionary ‘, 'apocalyptic' 'allegorical' or' fateful ‘. Such books range from moral fables like Golding’s Lord of the Flies to Scientific fiction such as H.G. well’s The Time Machine. Golding’s book is one of its kinds and the fabular tale of a few school children being stranded in an unknown pacific Island is designed to illustrate the thesis that man produces evil as bee producer honey. Initially there is a democratic setup with Ralph being selected the leader. Yet the fragile structure of democracy soon falls apart under the instigation of Jack who personified the principle of male violence -- and corruptibility. Surprisingly, he is able to wean away a large section of the children, who take to sodality with an animal ferocity. George Orwell’s Animal Farm is a similarly allegorical tale in which the democratically animals of all kinds rebel against their human oppressors. They decide to form an equitable society on socialistic principles. But once such a society is formed, the principle of equality is the first condition. The pig which her assumed leadership declares that, ' all animals are equal, but some are more equal? Soon a hierarchy of special privileges replaces the original commune. The allegoric tale may hint at the possible disintegration of the communist states.

In contrast to these allegorical tales with a moral message, are the utopias and Dystopias which represent either the ideal or the infernal place under the fiction of a distant country reached by some venturesome traveler Francis Bacon's New Atlantis and Sir Thomas Moore’s Utopia were the original models of the land of heart's desire there everything is in a state of perfection with the moral and scientific nature of man realizing their fullest Potential. Since the modern man has become increasingly disinterested with man's governance of himself and the world, the modern form of Distopia ----- meaning ' bad place ' ----- has increasingly replaced the concept of a possible good place [the term is applied to these works of fistic which represent a very unpleasant imagery world in which the ominous tendencies of the present civilization reach their climax in the future. Two famous examples Huxley’s Brave New World and George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four in the latter, Britain has become one of the dominions of the super state Oceania which is at war with other super states such as Eurasia and Eustasia. It is rolled by the past under the aegis of the Big Brother whose image is always present the pasty's agents rewrite history and redesign language so as to control men's thought absolutely . Winston smith commits thought realms by keeping a diary and loving a girl . He is betrayed and led to the integration chamber where his spirit is utterly broken and learns to love Big Brother.

The other kind of visionary or man realistic novel consists of science -- fiction which has gained vogue in the 20th century. There comprise stones which are set in the future or in which the contemporary setting is disrupted by an imaginary device such as a new invention or the introduction of an alien being. The first science fiction was perhaps Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in which a creature made by the scientist destroys and is destroyed by creator. H. G. Well’s The war of the worlds and The Time Machine and The Invisible Man are other some celebrated examples. In the first novel, an entire species of intelligent beings invade earth. Although human weapons prove ineffectual against the Martians, and the human being sum destined to be wiped out, the Martians are not able to cope with the out - break of a dreaded disease. After the First World War British scientific romance was dominated by the idea that a new war could and probably would wipe away human civilization plunging mankind into a new Dark Age. A frequent allusion to this notion was that he might be replaced by a new species which had transcended his brutality such novels include Stapleton’s Last and First Men and Shill’s The Young Men Are coming. The boundaries of the genre are becoming more and more difficult to outline than ever before Even if the entire novel may not hinge over science - fiction theme many novels have elements of science - fiction. These include Thomas Pynchon's Granty's  Rainbow and Gore Vidal's Kalki